The study examined the moderating effects of the relationship among purchase motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty in a farmer-to-consumer direct market. Data were collected from 426 consumers of direct sale agricultural products who visited nine rural villages across the country. The SPSS 15.0 and LISREL 8.80 statistical package were used for frequency, reliability, exploratory factor, confirmatory factor, and path analysis. Results showed that 'product factor', 'experience factor' and 'economic factor' among purchase motivation had positive effects on satisfaction and satisfaction had positive effects on loyalty. The analysis also indicated that gender moderated the relationship among purchase motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty. Whereas product and economic factors among purchase motivations had positive effects on satisfaction in the male group, product and experience motivation were important factors for female group. These results could enable direct sales marketers to develop marketing techniques to expand farm sales.
This article examines the types and cooking methods of Soondae (Korean Traditional Sausage) as recorded in 12 books of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1909). The ingredients used in Soondae during the Joseon dynasty were dog meat, beef, pork, lamb, and fish. There were no recorded mentions of Soondae in the early Joseon dynasty, but by the middle period there were three different dishes recorded. By the late era of the Joseon dynasty that number had increased to twelve. During the middle era of the Joseon dynasty, one kind of Soondae was prepared using dog meat, one using beef, and one using pork. By the late Joseon dynasty, there were six types of Soondae prepared using beef. They also had three kinds of Soondae prepared using lamb and two using fish, one using pork by that time. The frequency of the Soondae ingredients during the Joseon dynasty in order were beef (46.7%), lamb (20%), pork (13.3%), fish (13.3%), and dog meat (6.7%). Further study will be conducted on recipes and ingredients recorded in these old books to develop a standardized recipe in order to make Soondae appealing to a global palate.
This study was designed to investigate foreigner preferences for the sensory characteristics of kimchi with different fermentation periods. After fermentation in a 5 freezer for 1, 7, and 15 days, Red Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, White Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, Kkakdugi, Chonggak Kimchi, Cucumber Kimchi, Green Onion Kimchi, and Mustard Kimchi were served to the respondents. The respondents had resided in Seoul and Kyunggi province for 3 years or less, and were from Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. Most respondents (62.9%) consumed a Korean meal daily, and 45% of all respondents reported eating kimchi 3 or 4 times a week. As a result, it can be said that foreigners residing in Korea preferred to eat kimchi as a side dish. Based on the respondents answers, we were able to determine the relative popularity of the different types of kimchi. They were, from most popular to least popular, Red Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, Kkakdugi Kimchi, Cucumber Kimchi, White Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, Chonggak Kimchi, Green Onion Kimchi, and Mustard Kimchi. Among those fermented for 1 day, Cucumber Kimchi was most preferred for its. When evaluating the overall preference of Kimchi, the best was in the order of Chinese cabbage (red)>Kkakdugi>Cucumber>Chinese cabbage (white)>Chonggak>Green onion>Mustard Kimchi. For 1 day in a fermented period, Cucumber Kimchi had the most preferred taste (5.76), appearance (5.66), odor (5.89), and texture (5.70). However, Cucumber Kimchi was least popular after 15 days of fermentation (p<0.01). The most preferred Kimchi after 15 days of fermentation was Red Chinese Cabbage Kimchi. Among the kimchi fermented for 7 days, White Chinese Cabbage Kimchi was most preferred. While foreigners indicated that they were satisfied with all the types of kimchi fermented for 1 day and 15 days, they were not satisfied with any of the kimchi fermented for 7 days, save for the White Chinese Cabbage Kimchi. Kkakdugi Kimchi had very high satisfaction scores for appearance, but low scores in taste. On the other hand, Chinese Cabbage Kimchi had low scores in odor (5.02-5.29), but high in texture (5.37-5.62) and taste (4.80-5.30), which are not factors sensitive to a change in acidity. These results showed that foreigners were generally satisfied with Kimchi, but became less satisfied as the Kimchi ripened. Most foreigners were not satisfied with the types of Kimchi that had a strong flavor. Chinese Cabbage Kimchi became the least sour after fermentation, and Cucumber Kimchi became most sour after fermentation.
The objective of this study was analyze the relationship among emotional intelligence, job attitude (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention), and organizational performance in kitchen staff. A survey collected data from foodservice employees (N=611). Statistical analyses were completed using SPSS Win (17.0) for descriptive analysis, reliability analysis, factor analysis, t-test, correlation analysis, and AMOS (7.0) for confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The main results of this study were as follows. The four EI (Emotional Intelligence) dimensions significantly correlated with age. The mean of the job satisfaction score was 3.24. The organizational commitment score was 3.54. The organizational commitment score was higher for 'loyalty' factor than for 'sense of belongs' factor. The mean of organizational performance score was 3.61. The four EI(Emotional Intelligence) factors were significantly correlated with job satisfaction (organizational commitment, organizational performance, and turnover intension). Structural equation modeling found that emotional intelligence had positive effects on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational performance, whereas job satisfaction and organizational performance had positive effects on organizational performance. Therefore, this study found that emotional intelligence had direct and indirect effects on organizational performance.
In this study, physio-chemical, mechanical, and sensory characteristics of Tofu containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% Adenophora remotiflora powder were examined. In addition, we examined the potential of utilizing Adenophora remotiflora powder as a functional food material by estimating total phenol contents, electron-donating abilities, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the hot water and ethanol extracts of Adenophora remotiflora powder in the range from 0~2.0%. The total phenol content of the ethanol extracts of Adenophora remotiflora powder was 487.93μg/mL while the that of the water extract of Adenophora remotiflora powder was 403.70μ/mL. The electron-donating abilities of the ethanol and water extracts of Adenophora remotiflora powder were 75.37 and 86.10%, respectively. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the ethanol and water extracts of Adenophora remotiflora powder were 65.50 and 66.22%, respectively. We also evaluated the quality characteristics of Tofu containing Adenophora remotiflora powder. In the case of color values, as the level of Adenophora remotiflora powder increased, the values of L (lightness) and a (redness) decreased, whereas that of b (yellowness) increased. In the case of mechanical properties, as the level of Adenophora remotiflora powder increased, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness values increased (p〈0.05), whereas springiness and cohesiveness values decreased (p〈0.05). In the case of sensory evaluation, MPT1.0 scored significantly higher in color, flavor, tenderness, texture, and overall quality. To sum up, Tofu containing 1% Adenophora remotiflora powder showed the highest overall preference.
We investigated the quality characteristics and volatile flavor components in yenipsambab prepared with various concentrations of lotus leaf powder. Hunter's color L and a values of yenipsambab decreased with increasing content of lotus leaf powder, whereas b value increased. Moreover, addition of lotus leaf powder resulted in increased hardness, adhesiveness, chewiness, and brittleness compared to control. Major volatile compounds of yenipsambab were ethyl benzene, 1,3-dimethylbenzene, 1,2-dimethylbenzene, and 5-hydroxymethyldihydrofuran-2-one.
This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical and sensory changes of 6 kinds of commercial Makgeolli (A, B, C, D, E, and F) during storage at 4±1℃ for 30 days. The initial pH was 3.50~4.23, but it increased to 3.65~4.37 by the end of the storage period (p〈0.05) There were no significant differences in titratable acidity between the beginning and end of the storage period. The reducing sugar content of A and B increased, whereas C, D, E, and F decreased with increasing storage time. A decrease in lightness (L values) was observed in all samples with increasing storage time (p〈0.05). The alcohol content increased from beginning values of 5.90~6.10% to ending values of 6.30~7.35% at the end of storage, of which sample B exhibited the highest value. A sensory evaluation test revealed that the overall acceptability of samples A, B, D, and E were still within acceptable limits, but samples C and F showed undesirable changes during 30 days of storage at 4℃.
In this study, the sensory and mechanical characteristics of white bread containing different levels of Korean and Chinese sansa powder were evaluated. Korean sansa was smaller and more reddish than that of Chinese sansa. Sansa powder contained ursolic acid, citric acids, and flavonoids, which have antioxidative effects. Contents of total flavonoids in Korean and Chinese sansa powder were 217.67±7.64 mg/100 g and 127.67±7.85 mg/100 g, respectively. The mechanical and sensory characteristics of bread added with different levels (0, 2, 4, and 6%) of Korean and Chinese sansa powder were evaluated. Lightness of crust and crumb of bread containing Korean sansa powder decreased as the level of Korean sansa powder increased, whereas they increased as the level of Chinese sansa powder increased. Mechanical texture parameters such as hardness and gumminess increased as the level of Korean and Chinese of sansa powder increased. In a sensory evaluation, control, bread containing 2 or 4% Korean sansa powder, and bread containing 2% Chinese sansa powder showed higher overall acceptability than the others. In conclusion, these results indicate that the recommended substitution level for sansa powder in bread is 2 or 4% Korean sansa powder and 2% Chinese sansa powder.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the quality characteristics of Gondregaedduck containing 0, 10, 20, and 30% Cirsium setidens. By increasing the level of Cirsium setidens, Hunter color L and a values of Gondregaedduck decreased, whereas b value increased. Hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness of Gondregaedduck decreased upon addition of Cirsium setidens. Over 3 days of storage, Gondregaedduck showed a slightly high total bacterial count compared to control. Sensory evaluation showed that Gondregaedduck containing 10% Cirsium setidens had higher color, taste preference, and overall acceptability.
In previous studies, we performed joint animal studies and clinical trials between Yonsei University and Oryza Oil & Fat Chemical Co. Ltd. We have shown that coffee bean extract has potent anti-obesity and hypotriglyceridemic activities as well as beneficial effects on body fat reduction.In this study, the effects of coffee bean extract (100 mg/capsule) on body fat reduction were evaluated in overweight/obese women (body mass index of 25~30 kg/m2 or body fat 〉 30%) not diagnosed with any type of disease. Subjects were randomly assigned to a coffee bean extract group (n=10) or placebo group (n=10). We measured anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat distribution by computed tomography and blood components before and after the 8week intervention period. After supplementation, the coffee bean extract group showed body weight (p=0.08), body mass index (p=0.06), hip circumference (p〈0.05), and upper waist circumference (p〈 0.01). In addition, after 8 weeks, the coffee bean extract group showed a significant decrease in abdominal internal fat area compared to 0 weeks (0 weeks : 155.8cm2; 8 weeks : 145.9cm2, δ change : -9.9cm2, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in lipid profiles or serological measurements between the coffee bean extract group and placebo group. The results of our human study demonstrated that coffee bean extract supplementation for 8 weeks has beneficial effects on reducing abdominal internal fat area as well as hip and waist circumferences.