The present study examined the import routes of distilled rice liquor soju and how soju developed among the royal family and the upper classes using celadon inscribed with poetry related to alcohol beverages in the 12th century, Maebyeong style vases inscribed with government office name in charge of alcohol beverages of the royal family in the 14th century during the Koryo Dynasty. Distilled rice liquor was imported from the southwestern region to Koryo by Arabian merchants through direct and indirect routes in the Yuen Dynasty during the age of King Chungsuk and King Chunghye in around the 14th century. As soju was added to existing takju and cheongju, the three major types of alcohol beverages were completed during the late Koryo Dynasty. Celadon pitcher inscribed with poetry shows the delicate sentimentalism, aristocratic prosperity, and poetic sentiment. In particular, it is valuable in that it reflects Koryo people's mind, view of nature, and attitude toward alcohol beverages, and their inner world was also described with celadon patterns. Maebyeong style vases Yangonseo, Saonseo, Deokcheongo, Euiseonggo and Saseonseo, which are real celadon antiques inscribed with government office name, were used for rice liquor preservation. In particular, Maebyeong style vase 〈Euljimyeong Saonseo, 1345〉 has the exact year of creation, so it is a historically important celadon in research not only on alcohol food culture but also on art history. This shows that alcohol beverages were important foods that there were controlled and stored in celadon by the government offices for the royal family's related alcohol ceremonies. Through celadon inscribed with poetry and government office name displaying Koryo people's unique imagination and cultural consciousness, we can read their mind and lifestyle based on historical and social alcohol food culture in the Koryo Dynasty.
The purpose of this study was to investigate Chinese customers' perceptions of Korean foods and their satisfaction toward Korean cuisine restaurants. The subjects of this study were 202 Chinese individuals who visited Korean cuisine restaurants in Shanghai, China. The subjects viewed Korean foods as favorite foods and perceived them as fresh and seasonal, and mostly composed of cereals and vegetables however they did not view Korean cuisine as good for health. As compared to customers visiting a Korean restaurant for the first time, those who had visited Korean restaurants previously agreed more strongly with the following items: 'Korean food has a beautiful color', 'Korean food is familiar', 'Korean food smells good', 'Korean food is healthy', 'Korean food is nutritious', and 'Korean food is salty and spicy'. In addition, as compared to occasional visitors, frequent visitors of Korean cuisine restaurants more strongly agreed with the followings: 'Korean food has a beautiful color', 'Korean food is expensive', 'Korean food is healthy', 'Korean food is nutritious', 'Korean food is salty and spicy', and 'Korean food includes many fermented foods'. The subjects considered 'appearance of menu', 'variety of menu', 'nutrition of menu', and 'Chinese characters for menu and ingredients' as the most important attributes when choosing Korean cuisine restaurants. The frequent customers of Korean cuisine restaurants considered 'kind service', 'employee knowledge of Korean foods', 'operation hours of restaurant', and 'cleanliness of restaurant' as the most important restaurant attributes. In addition, the frequent customers of Korean cuisine restaurants were more satisfied than the occasional customers with the followings: 'nutritional quality of menu', 'quick service', 'cleanliness of restaurant', 'appearance and signboard of restaurant', and 'image of restaurant'. The implications of the data are discussed.
The purpose of this study is to present the scheme that can enhance the value of native local foods by analyzing the case into which storytelling is incorporated in order to revitalize native local foods. Towards this end, the cases of native local foods throughout the country were recommended through professional survey and one region among them was finally selected through the field study. The survey on the native local foods was conducted through qualitative study. The four stages of storytelling: the findings of storytelling, the production of storytelling, the experience of storytelling, and sharing of storytelling were analyzed by stage and the contents of the survey by stage were developed. In the findings of story, the origins and background of the main family's foods and food-related stories were derived. The production of stories deals with how to convey the stories of surveyed native local foods to consumers and it presented the stories about the place and food menu. In the experience of storytelling, the physical environment and non-physical environment, in which people visit native local eating houses and experience native local foods were analyzed. Finally, in the sharing of story, how the tourists who have experienced the native local foods make stories and disseminate and share them was analyzed. The significance of this study is that through the storytelling technique it presented the findings, production, experience and sharing of native local foods in the level that can apply to practical business. Although the research is in the stage of inquiry, this study is meaningful in that it presented the basic methodology that can induce the revitalization of the native local food industry through examining the tradition and significance of native local foods that can be found in all the regions of the country.
This study was conducted to investigate the vegetable eating behaviors and preferences of elementary school students by stage of change for vegetable intake. The subjects consisted of 191 fourth and fifth grade elementary school students from Gyeonggi province. The stage of change for vegetable intake was categorized into three groups: precontemplation (PC, 18.4%), preparation (P, 43.5%), and action/maintenance (A&M, 48.2%). The trend to eat a variety of foods was more distinctive as the students went from the PC to the A&M stage. The stage of change for vegetable intake was closely related with the kimchi-eating pattern of the students. The A&M group ate more vegetables than the PC group because they liked vegetables and/or wanted to prevent disease. The PC group had a lower tendency to follow recommendations for vegetable eating than the P and A&M groups. The PC group also had an incorrect notion that low vegetable consumption over an extended time would not have a big impact on their health. The vegetables of high preference for the elementary school students were potato, sweet potato, lettuce, radish, perilla leaf, cucumber, and cabbage. The vegetables of low preference were spinach, onion, balloon flower, and green pepper. The PC group had lower preferences for most vegetables than the P and A&M groups. Therefore, careful nutrition education is necessary especially for students in the PC group in order to explain the positive effects of vegetable intake and negative effects of an unbalanced diet. It is also necessary to survey students' tastes consistently and to develop recipes that encourage them to consume more vegetables agreeably.
This study was conducted to examine the superior factors and the perception of Korean traditional foods by college students studying in food related industries. The subject group consisted of 65.0% of the students majoring in food service & culinary arts, 12.9% of the students majoring in food & nutrition, and 7.3% of the students majoring in baking & pastry. The nutritional value was evaluated as the top superior factor of Korean traditional foods by the study subjects. In addition, 92.4% of reported that they had eaten Korean traditional foods in the past, 76.8% of whom responded that the reason for having Korean traditional foods was its time-honored tradition. 'Cooking for oneself' was considered to be the most popular way (78.2%) of obtaining Korean traditional foods, while the traditional market (58.6%) was the most popular place to purchase the foods. 'Not having enough time' (47.2%) was the primary reason for not having Korean traditional foods, although 72.9% of the subjects reported that they wanted to learn about Korean foods. 'Standardization of taste, nutritional value, and recipes' was found to be the most important factor (41.3%) required to increase the consumption of Korean traditional foods. Additionally, 56.1% of the subjects responded that they feel there is a need for modernization of the cuisine to meet the taste of the general public. However, 61.4% of the subjects responded that the succession of traditional dietary culture was the primary reason for developing traditional cuisine, which indicates that there is a bright future for Korean traditional foods.
The objectives of this study were to determine the recognition of food waste, school lunch leftovers and satisfaction toward school lunch in middle school students in Seoul. Four hundred students were surveyed beginning April, 2007. The results are summarized as follows. The primary means in which students learned about environmental pollution were 'video media' (54.7% males, 39.2% females) and 'by teachers' (23.2% males, 33.0% females). The primary effects on food habits after participating in the school lunch program were 'having a balanced diet' (23.3%) in the females, and 'decreased intake of junk food' (24.9%) in the males. The serving sizes for cooked rice, soup, and meat were higher in the females (3.46, 3.46, and 2,91, respectively) than the males (3.18, 3.29, and 2.73, respectively). The primary school lunch leftovers for one week were cooked rice (4.55), meat (4.35), kimchi (3.84), fish (3.60), vegetables (3.38), and soup (3.08). Importance-performance analysis of the school lunch meal indicated that good taste had high importance, but low performance. Nutritional balance, food safety, cleanliness of tableware and supplies, clean uniforms of employees, and cleanliness of the dining area had both high importance and performance.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the consumer characteristics in foodservice according to university students' lifestyles. The data were collected by the questionnaire survey of 520 university students from Daegu Gyeongbuk Province. The SPSS/Win 12.0 program was used to analyse the samples. The results are as follows: 1) Lifestyle was divided into 10 factors and 3 clusters, namely "Convenience Intention" (cluster I), "Health Information Intention" (cluster II), and "Gender Equality Intention" (cluster III). 2) The differences in general characteristics between the three clusters were founded on gender, frequency of visits, companion, information type, and the type of restaurant. 3) The characteristics of cluster I (Convenience Intention) are explained by it consisting of the group with low averages in consumer dissatisfaction, complaints, compensation, and repurchase intention, where as cluster II was the high average group and cluster III the middle average group. Based on these results, consumer characteristics in foodservice are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate individuals' perceptions toward green tea and green tea cafes according to their usage of green tea cafes, gender, and marital status. The survey was conducted online and completed by 200 respondents who had been to green tea cafes and by 200 respondents who had not. The visitors of green tea cafes had more positive perceptions regarding the atmosphere, familiar taste, good quality of raw foods, freshness of foods, good service, excellent taste, and menu variety of green tea cafes. Males perceived green tea as 'good for health' more than the females. There was no difference in the perception of green tea cafes by marital status. Regarding a popularization plan for green tea cafes, the customers felt more need for a tea sommelier than the non-customers, and females versus males felt stronger about having a tea sommelier that would provide opportunities to taste various tea products and develop a green tea menu that considered nutrition and health. Unmarried respondents felt a greater necessity for having a place with a comfortable environment, tasting a variety of tea products, and having a chance to experience tea culture. When selecting a green tea cafe, the quality of the food and cleanliness of the cafe were considered to be most important. The implications of the data are discussed.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different amounts of pumpkin powder on the quality characteristics of hobakpyeon using physicochemical and sensory properties, as well as on its retrogradation rate during storage. As the amount of pumpkin powder increased, the following effects on the quality characteristics were observed: moisture and amylose contents decreased while protein content increased (p<0.05), and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) decreased (p<0.05). Levels of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch fractions increased, while the content of rapidly digestible starch decreased. The starch digestion index and rapidly available glucose content also decreased. Among the physical properties, the L-value decreased while the b-value increased (p<0.05). Texture profile analysis revealed that all textural properties except adhesiveness decreased, and presented significant differences in hardness and chewiness (p<0.05). Sensory properties such as color, flavor, and sweetness increased while others such as wetness and chewiness decreased (p<0.05). Effects on the physicochemical properties during refrigerated storage were also compared between the control and 9% hobakpyeon (9%HP). According to the results, moisture content gradually decreased in the 9%HP compared to the control. Amylose content significantly increased in 9%HP whereas no significant changes were observed in the control. In both types of hobakpyeon, IVSD decreased significantly, showing higher values in 9%HP, whereas mechanical hardness increased, showing lower values in 9%HP. The L-value decreased significantly in the 9%HP whereas no significant changes were observed in the control. In conclusion, the above results suggest that hobakpyeon with low IVSD may be obtained by the addition of 9% pumpkin powder, and also showed that pumpkin powder delayed the rate of retrogradation in 9%HP during storage.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of cookies prepared with shrimp powder (0, 3, 5, 7, 9%) substituted for flour as a snack food for Kindergarteners. The pH of the cookie dough decreased significantly in response to the addition of all levels of shrimp powder. However, there were no significant differences in the dough values among the test groups. Furthermore, when the spread factor values were compared among groups, they were found to be inversely proportional to the shrimp powder concentration. In addition, the Hunter's color L, a and b values decreased significantly as the level of shrimp powder increased. Moreover, the addition of 3~9% shrimp powder resulted in increased hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and brittleness when compared to the control. Finally, the results of acceptance test showed that the cookies containing 5% shrimp powder had the highest scores.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of shrimp flour on quality characteristics of dumpling shell. Dumpling shell samples were prepared with wheat flour along with the addition of different amount of shrimp flour, followed by functional measurements and sensory evaluations. According to amylograph data, the composite shrimp flour/wheat flour samples had increased gelatinization temperature with increasing shrimp flour content, while initial viscosity at 95℃, viscosity at 95℃ after 15 minutes, and maximum viscosity were reduced. In terms of color values, L value decreased, but a and b values increased with increasing shrimp flour content. Furthermore, the addition of shrimp flour increased hardness and decreased chewiness in all samples. Overall, sensory evaluations proved that dumpling shell with 10% added shrimp flour was preferred over the other samples.
This study was carried out to determine the quality characteristics of Jeju mandarin orange jellies containing sugar (control) and sugar derivative sweeteners (erythritol, isomaltooligosaccharide, sorbitol, and xylitol) to be consumed by the elderly. The gelling agents were carrageenan and gellan gum at the concentration of 0.27%, respectively. The average age of the subjects for the acceptance test was 78. The lightness (L), redness (a), and yellowness (b) values of the carrageenan gel were higher than those of the gellan gum gel using the same sugars. The L, a, and b values of the carrageenan gel made with sugar derivative sweeteners were higher than those of the respective gel made with sugar. Whereas there were almost no differences between the color values of the gellan gum gels made with sugar and sugar derivative sweeteners, respectively. The gelling and melting temperatures of the carrageenan gel with erythritol were highest and those of the respective gel with xylitol were lowest among the sugar derivative sweeteners. The gelling and melting temperatures of the gellan gum gels with erythritol and isomaltooligosaccharide, respectively, were lower, and those of the respective gel made with xylitol were higher compared to that with sugar. There was no break down in the gellan gum gel. The break down rate of the carrageenan gel made with isomaltooligosaccharide was highest and that of the respective gel with xylitol was lowest among the sugar derivative sweeteners. The hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, and chewiness of the gellan gum gel were greater compared to the carrageenan gel. The adhesiveness levels of the carrageenan gels made with sugar derivative sweeteners were lower, and their springiness was higher than the respective gel with sugar. All the TPA characteristics of the gellan gum gels made with erythritol and xylitol, respectively, were higher than the respective gel with sugar. The rupture properties of the gels were the same as their TPA characteristics. The sensory acceptance of the carrageenan and gellan gum gels made with sugar were highest among all the sweeteners. There were no significant differences in the sensory acceptance scores of the carrageenan gels made with xylitol, erythritol, and sugar, respectively, and there were also no significant differences in the sensory acceptance scores of the gellan gum gels made with xylitol, sorbitol, and sugar, respectively. Xylitol was preferred in both the carrageenan and gellan gum gels. Thus, xylitol appears to be an appropriate alternative sweetener to sugar in Jeju mandarin orange jelly for consumption by the elderly, with regard to the acceptability and stability of the gel.
We investigated the effect of Takju lees extract on blood glucose levels in the db/db mice (a murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus). We fed 40 male db/db mice a control diet (G0, AIN93G) and experimental diets containing 1% (G1), 2% (G2), or 4% (G4) Takju lees extract for 4 weeks. We found no difference in food intake and body weight gain among the animal groups. In the G1 and G2 groups, plasma glucose levels decreased significantly between Days 10 and 21 compared with the G0 group. However, we found no difference in plasma glucose levels between groups G4 and G0. The change in insulin concentrations was not significant among these animal groups, and we found no significant difference in glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression in the soleus muscle. These results suggest that the Takju lees extract has a beneficial effect in animals with type 2 diabetes.
This study aimed to research meal quality and the dietary behaviors of college students for desirable dietary lives and provides basic data for nutritional education by examining polymorphism distribution of the UCP2 gene according to gender, by investigating attitudes in terms of their dietary habits and dietary lives, and by analyzing serum lipid levels and body composition. A survey was conducted with a total of 222 students - 93 male and 129 females. Based on a selfreporting method, the questionnaires were answered over 20 minutes, and UCP2 insertion/deletion gene polymorphism and blood samples were also analyzed. The results showed that the male students and female students had average BMI of 22.50 and 20.73 kg/m2, respectively. According to answers regarding their dietary lives, 51.4% of the students showed 'irregular eating' patterns, which is regarded as something to be corrected. In terms of eating regularity, 51.6% of the male students and 59.7% of the female students had irregular meal schedules. As the most important meal of a day, 64.0% of the students answered 'breakfast' but only 53.6% answered that they ate breakfast everyday. In addition, 39.8% of the male students and 50.4% of the female students ate between meals 'once a day'. When questioned if they were satisfied with their body shape, 17.8 and 45.2% of the male students answered they were 'satisfied' or needed to 'gain weight', respectively, whereas 17.8 and 77.5% of the female students answered they were 'satisfied' or needed to 'lose weight', respectively. The results of the UCP2 gene polymorphism analysis showed that 33.7% of the males belonged to the DI heterozygote group, 64.2% belonged to the DD homozygote group, and 2.1% belonged to the II homozygote group. For the female students, 63.4% belonged to the DI heterozygote group, 35.1% belonged to the DD homozygote group, and 1.5% belonged to the II homozygote group. According to the blood and serum lipid analyses, the male students showed average HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and hemoglobin levels of 57.20, 93.80, and 15.00 mg/dL, respectively, while the female students presented average levels of 56.69, 102.88, and 13.13 mg/dL, respectively. In conclusion, this study found no significant effects in terms of UCP2 gene polymorphisms, but it is suggested that practical plans must be designed that allow college students to use nutritional knowledge in their daily lives, and in particular, nutrition education needs to be develop that would enable female college students to recognize their bodies appropriately and to control their weight in desirable ways.
This study was performed to investigate the effects of aluminum sulfate administration on the brain tissues of old rats, when given at different concentrations. The experiment attempted to further ascertain whether aluminum exposure cause Alzheimer's disease. Seventy-five aged Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups; a control group, 2 ppm aluminum sulfate group, 20 ppm aluminum sulfate group, 40 ppm aluminum sulfate group, and 200 ppm aluminum sulfate group, and were kept on the respective diets for 12 weeks. In order to understand the influence of aluminum on the brain, serum aluminum concentrations, phospholipid composition, and catecholamine concentrations were compared between the aluminum-treated groups and the normal group. According to the results, serum aluminum was higher in the aluminum sulfate-treated groups than in the normal group. Within the cortex, catecholamine concentrationes were significantly increased but cerebellum and brainstem tissue were significantly decreased, in the aluminum sulfate-treated groups compared to the normal group. For phospholipid composition, phosphatidyl inositol was significantly increased wherase phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and phosphatidyl serine were significantly decreased in the aluminum sulfate-treated groups versus the normal group. Based on the data, increased aluminum consumption in experimental animals causes increased serum aluminum levels and catecholamine variation. These phenomena are very similar to conditions of Alzherimer's disease. Therfore, the results of this experiment further suggest that aluminum cause Alzherimer's disease, coinciding with reports that aluminum is a cause of neurofibrilly tangles in the brain.