The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptional patterns of Korean traditional food for China-Korean housewives in Yanbian area and to compare the preference for traditional food of Korean national holidays between the perceptional patterns. Data were collected from 261 China-Korean housewives in the Yanbian area and cluster analysis was used. The results revealed two different patterns, i.e., tradition-oriented vs. modem-oriented. Descriptive statistics showed that perceptional patterns were likely to vary depending on socio-demographic background. Also, perceptional patterns were significantly related with the preference of traditional food of national holidays i.e., new years day, first full moon of January, thanksgiving day, han-shik (the 105th day after the winter solstice), and dong-gi (the coldest winter solstice). Similarities and differences in perceptional patterns as well as preference of traditional food of national holidays were discussed, and future implications for food nutritionists and Asia marketers were provided.
This study was performed by questionnaire to investigate the preference and intake frequency of Korean traditional commercial beverages. The subjects were consisted of 320 participants in Daegu and Kyungpook area. 'Chain market' scored 49.4% as purchasing place of traditional beverages. 'Tea bag' scored 31.6% as the favorite package of traditional beverages. On the reasons of drinking traditional beverage 'good for health' scored the highest with 31.3% respondents, followed by 'good smell' with 14.4%. Coffee and traditional tea were the choice of beverage after having a rich meal and on occasion of entertaining guests. The favorite foods in ordinary days were 'tea', 'alcohol', 'ice cream', 'nuts' and 'cookie'. More than thirty percent of the respondents, both male and female, raised the need of improvement in taste of traditional beverage. In the intake frequency, Korea traditional beverages obtained 1.80 points as a whole. 'Green tea' scored highest(3.40points) while 'mulberry-leaf tea' received the lowest score of 1.31 points. The preferred Korean traditional drinks were 'greed tea', 'shick hae', 'citron tea', 'misitgaru', 'maesil tea', 'rice tea' in the order. On the other hand, the preference for 'mulberry-leaf tea', 'boxthom tea', 'ginger tea', 'chrysanthemum tea' and 'omija tea' was very low. The people who are on twenties preferred 'shick hae', 'honey tea', 'citron tea', 'black tea' and 'misitgaru' more than the other generation.
This survey was conducted to find out the familiarity and preference of Chinese residing in Korea on Korean food. They were composed of Chinese students studying in Korea and Chinese staffs working at the Chinese Embassy in Seoul. About 65.60% of the respondents liked Korean food while 28.00% disliked it. The reason for liking Korean food was its taste. The frequency of having Korean food a week was 46.80%, which meant Chinese had Korean food quite often. Their interest in Korean food was derived from their own personal taste and food programs of mass communication media. The most familiar food was kimchi (90.40%), followed by bulgogi (89.60%), samketang, chicken stew with ginseng (75.60%) and bibimbap, rice with vegetables (74.80%). The the most favored dish was bulgogi (64.40%), which showed that bulgogi was the most representative dish to them among Korean dishes. The area where Korean food needed innovation, Chinese pointed out, was some changes in cooking. That is, traditional Korean food needs, although maintaining its original tastes, to change its preparation of spices catering to foreigners' taste.
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of different sorts of Korean traditional liquor among male and female adults in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, their awareness of them and their preference in an effort to discuss what problems Korean traditional liquors were faced with and how they could gain popularity among people in general. First, It is investigated of drinking frequency by gender, 51.3 percent of the male adults drunk once or twice a week, and 33.2 percent of the female adults drunk once or twice a month. Thus, the men drunk more often than the women. By age, the adults who were in their 20s and 30s were far different from those who were in their 50s above in drinking frequency. Second, regarding what kind of liquor they enjoyed, the men enjoyed Soju the most, followed by beer and traditional liquors. The women enjoyed beer the most, followed by Soju and wine. The favorite liquor of the men was Soju, followed by beer and traditional liquor, and the women most liked for beer, followed by wine and Soju. The female adults preferred low-proof liquor more than the male adults. Third, concerning their awareness of traditional liquor, Andong-soju was most widely viewed as traditional liquor, which were followed by Munbaeju, Gyeongju-gyodongbeopju, Gyeongju-beopju, Gukhwaju, Ssal- makgeolri, and Geumsan-insamju. Overall, they were rarely aware what traditional liquor was. Fourth, as to purchase experience, the men and the older people had more experience to buy traditional drinks than the women and the younger ones. Fifth, as for anju (dishes for traditional drinks), they believed that panfried food and Kimchi should be served with coarse liquor. Panfried and streamed dishes were considered to be good complements to Takju (rice wine) and Cheongju (clear strained rice wine), and pot stew and soup were looked upon as good complements to distilled liquor. The above-mentioned findings illustrated that in order to step up the development of the traditional liquor industry, perpetual research efforts should be put into adding new tastes to unique traditional liquor drinks. And it's required to commercialize those drinks, and multiple P.R. and marketing strategies should be prepared to promote their sales.
The purposes of this study were to measure the job satisfaction levels of F&B(Food & Beverage) personnel in hotel by using JDI(Job Descriptive Index), to investigate relationships between demographic variables or job type and job satisfaction, to determine the relative importance of the five facets and to identify the effects of job satisfaction on turnover intention by hotel. Questionnaire was developed and distributed to 660 employees who are currently working in food & beverage department of hotel A (Domestic independent deluxe hotel) and hotel B(international chain deluxe hotel). A total of 498 questionnaires were usable; resulting in 75.5% response rate. The survey was conducted between March 16 to 27, 2000. As a result of analysis on job satisfaction, total JDI score was 136.57 out of full mark 210. Personnel of Hotel A was more satisfied significantly with work itself (p<.01), supervision (p<.001), co-worker (p<.01), total JDI (p<.001) than those of hotel B. Total JDI and work itself score were higher on employees of front of the house than those of back of the house in both of hotels. Payroll was the most important facet on job satisfaction. Finally, work itself (p<.001) and payroll (p<.05) had a significant effect on turnover intention in hotel A and work itself (p<.001), supervision (p<.05) and promotion (p<.05) did in hotel B. The findings indicated the necessity of human resource management apt to the vision of enterprise and the organizational culture.
This research suggests critical and specific decisive variables that affect general service quality of the products in family restaurants, considering features of services in which consumption and production happens simultaneous by collecting the raw data through point of sales. It also analyses the factors and helps to offer them practical strategies by providing managers of the restaurants and marketers with empirical viewpoints based on the research. Generally, family restaurants need their own physical environment and are required to encourage customers to revisit themselves by maintaining pleasant environment as well as, considering space for customers and for employees' working routes and effective maintenance of the facilities. The result of the study also tells that even if the unimportant factors did not affect much on the restaurants, management over these factors can be a differentiated strategy for competitive advantage over the other businesses.
The purpose of this study was to measure the pizza purchasing behavioral characteristics of respondents and importances of factors affecting pizza purchase, to estimate the effects of attributes on pizza restaurant choice, and to predict probability of selecting a particular pizza restaurant. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: The paired experimental profiles, purchasing behavior and importances of factors affecting pizza purchase. This study generated profiles of 16 hypothetical pizza restaurant based on the seven attributes. The profiles comprised 16 discrete sets of variables, each of which had two levels. For this study, researcher randomly selected 150 students of university as respondents. Twenty students did not complete the survey instrument, resulting in a final sample size of 129. All estimations were carried out using frequencies, 2, independent samples t-test, phreg procedure of SAS package. The results are as follows. Some purchasing behavioral characteristics and importances of factors affecting pizza purchase were significantly different by gender. Based on the estimated models developed for male student group and female student group, the Chi-square statistics were significant at p〈0.001. The parameter estimate for late delivery time with male student group was highest, and the parameter estimate for price with female student group was highest. The pizza restaurant that charged \20,000, offered 100% discount on eleventh pizza, promised to deliver pizza in 40 mins, usually delivered the pizza as promised time, offered only 1 type of pizza crust, delivered warm pizza, offered the money-back guarantee was favored by each of male student group and female student group. The results from this study suggested that there was an opportunity to increase market share and profit by improving operations so that customers receive discount and money-back guarantee simultaneously, and by reducing price, delivery time.
The purpose of this study were to measure brand personalities of deluxe hotels in Seoul, and to identify the difference of brand personality between local and international hotels. The questionnaires developed for this study were distributed to 460 employees in kitchen and F&B departments of 11 deluxe hotels in Seoul. A total of 398 questionnaires were used for anaylsis(86.5%) and the statistical analyses were completed using SPSS Win(12.0) for descriptive analysis, reliability analysis and t-test, and AMOS(5.0) for confirmatory factor analysis. The results of this study showed that deluxe hotels have brand personalities relatively strong at 'affection', 'sophistication', 'competence' dimensions, and there was a significant difference by hotel nationality. The brand personality scores of international brand hotels perceived by employees were high at the 'excitement'(p<0.001), 'sophistication'(p<0.001), and 'competence'(p<0.01) dimensions, whereas local hotels were considered more obedient(p<0.01). Overall, it could be a key factor for successful brand management that establish a distinctive brand personality, and a localized brand personality measure will lead to more desirable decision making.
숙취해소용 음료로 개발된 건강음료를 각각 알코올(5 g/kg B.W, 40%) 투여 30분 전과 후에 경구적으로 섭취시키고(10 mL/kg) 시간(1, 3 및 5)에 따라 미동맥으로 채혈하여 혈액 중 알코올 농도와 아세트알데히드 농도, 간 조직 중 알코올 대사효소 alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 및 aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH)의 활성과 간기능 지표 효소(ALT, AST)의 활성 변동을 측정 비교하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 알코올 투여 30분 전에 건강음료를 공급하였을 때 혈액 중 알코올 농도는 알코올 투여 1시간 후부터 모든 군에서 급격하게 감소하였으며 알코올 투여 5시간째에 알코올 대조군(EC)에 비해 건강음료 투여군(BE)은 48.4%정도 감소하는 경향을 나타내었다. 또한 아세트알데히드 농도는 알코올 대조군(EC)에 비해 건강음료 투여군(BE)은 15.6%, 타사제품 투여군(P)은 20.3% 낮았다. 알코올 투여 30분 후 숙취해소 음료를 공급하고 5시간 경과 후 건강음료 투여군(AE)의 알코올 농도는 알코올 대조군(EC)에 비해 65.2% 낮은 수치를 나타내었다. 아세트알데히드 농도는 알코올 대조군에 비해 건강음료 투여군(AE)은 36.4% 낮은 0.21 mg/dL 타사제품투여군(P)은 24.2% 낮은 0.25 mg/dL를 나타내었다. 간 조직 중 ADH 활성은 정상군과 알코올을 섭취 한 모든 실험군 사이에 별다른 변동을 관찰할 수 없었다. 숙취해소 음료의 1회 섭취와 체중 1 kg당 5 g의 알코올 1회 투여가 알코올 대사 효소의 활성에 영향을 미치지 못함을 시사하고 있다. 혈청 ALT, AST 활성은 정상군과 알코올 투여 실험군간에 유의적인 차이를 보이지 않았으며 또 건강음료의 음용이 정상적인 간 기능에 영향을 미치지 않는 결과를 볼 때 안전성이 인정된다고 생각된다.
This study investigated the quality characteristics of demi-glace sauce that is used widely in western cuisine depending on adding volume of basil which has a specific aroma, taste and some functional ability. Analysis of color differences of demi-glace sauce was showed that a-value of demi-glace sauce decreased with adding basil, whereas viscosity of the demi-glace sauce was decreased. There were no significant differences in color, aroma, taste, appearance, viscosity, feel in mouse and general acceptability with sex and age of subjects. Demi-glace sauce with 2% basil showed best score in sensory evaluation. From theabove results, our data suggest that addition of 2% basil to demi-glace sauce is recommend for commercial use.
Seasoning oil(SO-1) was manufactured from soybean oil, with β-carotene, oleoresin paprika and 3 kinds of flavors. Color of it's SO-1 was red. Total content of trans fatty acid of SO-1 was low level 0.84%, compare to the butter's and margarine's 1.35%, 28.31%, respectively. Total volatile components of SO-1 was 201,313.11ppm, was higher than soybean oil's, butter's, margarine's and SO-2's(removed 3 kinds of flavors from SO-1), it's value of 63.54ppm, 481.24ppm, 168.95ppm and 205.73ppm, respectively. And smoke point(SP) of SO-1 was higher than others. SP of SO-1, after 6 months later at room temperature, was 240, in contrast with soybean oil's 228. This SO-1, added β-carotene and flavor components, had a masking effect of burnt flavor. From these results, SO-1 can be replaced of butter or margarine as a substituted oil.
본 연구에서는 채식, 비채식 남녀대학생을 대상으로 골밀도를 측정하고 신체계측, 식습관, 운동 등의 요인이 골밀도에 미치는 영향을 조사하였으며 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 채식남학생은 33명(44.0%), 여학생은 34명(25.2%), 비채식군남학생 42명(56.0%), 여학생 101명(74.8%)이었으며 평균신장과 체중은 채식남학생 172.61cm, 62.42kg, 비채식남학생은175.38cm, 72.52kg, 채식여학생은 160.47cm, 55.76kg, 비채식여학생은 161.77cm, 56.34kg이었다. 2. 평균 BQI은 남학생군에서 채식군과 비채식군 각각 101.73, 107.43이었고, 여학생군에서는 각각 84.15, 89.64이었다. Z-score는 채식남학생 -0.16, 비채식남학생 0.15, 채식여학생은 -1.07, 비채식여학생은 -0.73이었고, T-score는 채식남학생 -0.28, 비채식남학생 0.03, 채식여학생 -1.07, 비채식여학생은 -0.77이었다. 3. 조사대상자의 골밀도 상태를 정상, 골감소증, 골다공증 3군으로 분류하였을 때 골밀도가 정상인 경우는 채식남학생 75.8%, 비채식남학생 83.3%, 채식여학생은 44.1%, 비채식여학생은 60.4%이었다. 골감소증은 채식남학생 24.2%, 비채식남학생 16.7%이었고, 여학생의 경우 각각 55.9, 37.6%로 채식군의 골감소증 비율이 높았다. 조사대상자에서 골다공증은 비채식여학생군에서 2명(2.0%)이었다. 4. 식습관을 조사한 결과 영양보충제를 섭취하지 않는 비율은 채식남학생 66.7%, 비채식남학생 54.8%, 채식여학생 58.8%, 비채식여학생 44.6%이었고, 규칙적으로 식사를 하는 경우는 채식남학생 75.8%, 비채식남학생 50.0%이었고, 채식여학생은 44.1%, 비채식여학생 34.7%으로 채식군의 비율이 높았다. 육식과 채식을 혼합하여 섭취하는 비율은 비채식남학생 83.3%, 비채식여학생 87.1%이었으며, 아침을 매일 먹는 채식남학생은 78.8%, 비채식남학생은 33.3%, 채식여학생 47.1%, 비채식여학생 39.6%이었다. 또한 식사의 양은 과식한다는 응답이 채식남학생 24.2%, 비채식남학생 38.1%, 채식여학생은 29.4%, 비채식여학생 40.6%으로 비책식군의 과식율이 높았다. 5. 식품 섭취빈도는 두부 및 콩제품을 매일 섭취하는 경우는 채식남학생 54.6%, 비채식남학생 16.7%, 채식여학생은 38.2%, 비채식여학생이 16.8%이었다. 우유 및 유제품을 매일 섭취하는 경우는 채식남학생 6.1%, 비채식남학생 33.3%, 채식여학생 14.7%, 비채식여학생은 21.8%이었으며, 녹차, 커피 등 차를 마시지 않는다는 비율은 채식남학생 69.7%, 비채식남학생 28.6%, 채식여학생 29.4%, 비채식여학생 25.7%이었다. 인스턴트 식품을 매일 섭취한다는 응답율이 채식남학생 9.1%, 비채식남학생 21.4%, 채식여학생은 17.7%, 비채식여학생은 14.9%이었다. 6. 운동, 체중 조절 등에 대한 조사 결과 항상 운동을 하는 경우는 채식남학생 30.3%, 비채식남학생 28.6%, 채식여학생 14.7%, 비채식여학생 18.8%이었으며 운동시간은 1~2시간 하는 경우는 채식남학생 30.3%, 비채식남학생 38.1%, 채식여학생은 8.8%, 비채식여학생은 17.8%이었다. 체중에 만족하는 정도를 보면 채식남학생 57.6%, 비채식남학생 23.8%, 채식여학생은 23.5%, 비채식여학생은 15.8%가 만족한다고 하였다. 체중 조절 경험에서 경험이 있는 경우가 채식남학생 3.0%, 비채식남학생 31.0%, 채식여학생은 23.5%, 비채식여학생 31.7%이었다. 7. 골밀도 BQI값과와 몇가지 요인의 상관관계를 살펴보았을때, 채식남학생은 영양보충제의 섭취와 유의적인 양의 상관관계를, 해조류의 섭취정도와 유의적인 음의 상관관계를 나타내었다. 비채식대학생의 경우 골밀도와 여러 요인과는 유의적 상관관계를 보이지 않았다. 채식여학생은 식사규칙성에서 유의적 음의 상관관계를, 식사량과 양의 상관관계를 보였다. 비채식여학생군에서도 비채식남학생군과 같이 전반적으로 유의적 상관관계를 보이지 않았다.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary dae-chu(Rhamnace ziziphus, A), onion(Allium cepa L., O), mixture extracts (mulberry leaf, licorice root, pine needle, angelica gigas, jujube, onion, M) on serum glucose, lipid, enzyme, phosphorus levels in rats (Sprague-Dawley male rats, 357.03±7.08g). Serum calcium of onion group was significantly decreased (p〈0.05), but mixture extracts group of Cl (p〈0.05) and TBIL (total bilirubin, p〈0.05) were significantly increased. Serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride were increased experimental rats than those of the normal rats. Mixture extracts was better than other groups for lipid metabolism. Also, GPT(glutamic pyruvic transaminase) and GOT(glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase) of onion extracts were protected to liver. So mixture and onion extracts were good drink for health.