To analyze daily meal of royal meal, studied Soora Sang were on record Wonheng Ulmyo Jungri Euigwae(1795). Historic book 'Jungri Euigwae' described the king's visit to his father's royal tomb 'Hyun Neung Won', during the domain of Cheung Jo, the 22nd King of Choson Dynasty. The results obtained from this study are as follows. A dining table was round table with feet as black lacquer. Vessels were brazen vessel, silverware and earthenware. Kinds of dishes indicated as the number of vessels (sets). Food was arranged in two kinds of table, the first one called the main table, the second the side table. The number of sets to be arranged on the table were different according to the royal status of the eater. 15 sets for king's mother, 7 sets for the king and his elder sister, the latter sets being arranged on a single table. Soy and bean paste were ruled out from kind of sets. Kinds of dishes served with a meal generally were cooked rice (飯), soup (羹), heavy soup (助致), jerked meat (佐飯), meat fish and others broiled with seasoning (灸伊), salted fish shrimp and etc, cooked potherbs and potherbs (菜), pickled vegetables (沈菜, 淡沈菜) soy and bean paste (醬). The meat and fish and vegetable in the composition of a menu were well arranged.
Of 1,244 junior high school students of boys and girls and their families in Tokyo and Seoul, we investigated the present situations of the participation in cooking and table manners. In both countries, the average age of parents was 40's, and the ratio of the kinds of fathers' job was similar including 75% of full-time salaried workers, while that of mothers' in Japan was 63%, in Korea 23%. The male participation in cooking in both countries was found in younger generations and that of fathers and boys in Korea was significantly fewer than in Japan, which is regarded as the influence of Confucianism and employment of housekeepers. The figure of frequency of supper taken together daily was 27% in Japan and 54% in Korea where they didn't begin eating until all families gathered or the elders began. In Japan the civilities before and after meals were so often customarily expressed and they had the regular order of seats. The figure of frequency of taking meals with TV watching was about 45% in Japan of breakfast and supper and more than 30% in Korea of supper. As for the participation in cooking and table manners, national characteristics were clearly found out. In both countries, the newly modernized and democratized style of dietary behaviors was being made, rather sooner in Japan, out of the specific East-Asian traditional dining culture.
첨가 부재료를 달리한 김치를 18℃에서 24시간 예비 발효시킨 후, 4℃에서 35일간 저장하면서 질산염, 아질산염 및 vitamin C의 함량변화를 살펴보았다. 염도가 2.5% 수준인 김치 숙성도를 pH와 산도로 판정해 볼 때, 초기 숙성속도는 새우젓〉멸치, 갓, 마늘〉대조구, 무우〉ascorbic acid〉K-sorbate 순이었고 35일 후 pH 기준으로, 그 숙성도는 대조구〉갓〉무우〉ascorbic acid, 멸치젓〉새우젓〉K-sorbate〉마늘 첨가구 순이었다. 총 vitamin C 함량은 적숙기인 2주에 ascorbic acid 첨가구를 제외한 시료들에서 18.2-26.4 mg%로 담금직후와 같은 수준이었다. 그 중 환원형 ascorbic acid 보존율은 마늘, 갓, K-sorbate 첨가구에서 비교적 좋았다. 질산염, 아질산염의 함량은 숙성초기에 마늘, 무우첨가 김치에서 비교적 높았으며, 숙성기간 중 질산염의 함량범위는 260-490ppm이었고, 숙성 3주째에 최소량을 나타내었으며 이때 아질산염은 검출되지 않았다. 그리고, 총 vitamin C 함량도 이때 가장 낮았다.
김치의 숙성과정 중의 물리적 특성을 측정하기 위하여 원료배추의 엽두께, 절임시의 두께 및 pH, total acidity, 염도 등의 변화를 연구하였다. 원료배추의 엽두께는 최외엽보다 내엽의 두께가 50% 감소되었고 절임의 경우에서는 외엽이 내엽보다 감소율이 낮았다. 배추조직의 절단력 측정에서는 절임으로 인하여 상대적인 절단력이 높았고 김치숙성이 되면서 증가하며 7일을 기준으로 감소하였다. Stress에서도 상대적 절단력과 같은 경향이나 숙성 후의 감소되는 점이 잘 나타나지 않았다. pH의 변화에 대한 상관식은 Y=0.23X+6.13이었고 젖산함량의 관계식은 Y=0.09X-0.01로서 매우 완만한 기울기이었으며 김치로서의 적정수준은 pH4.2, 젖산함량은 0.63의 수준이었고 기간은 7일이었다.
This study was carried out to comparison of the contents of general and mineral components between the original sample and water extract in each part of omija. The content of Carbohydrate was highest in endocarps, and that the crude protein and crude lipid in seeds. The contents of K and Mn in the fruits, endocarps, and seeds were all higher than those of the other cations. The content of K and Zn in endocarps were three to four times as much as those of seeds. and the content of Na, Ca, and Cu in endocarps were 1.5 to 1.75 times of seeds. Mineral contents by water extract in each part were ordered as K, Mg, Ca, and Fe. As the percentage of each ion in water extract on the basis of original sample, Fe was the highest ratio of behavior, and Mn was lowest.
This study was carried out to investigate the compositions of free sugars, lipids, and nonvolatile organic acids in parts of omija. The major components of free sugars in each part of omija were fructose and glucose. The contents of those were similar in fruits and endocarps, however, the content of glucose was 1.5 times as much as that of fructose in seeds. The content of lipids in endocarps was 2.4 times as much as that in seeds, and major composition of lipids was neutral lipid. In the contents of nonvolatile organic acids, the content of citric acid that content was 61 to 68% depend on each part of sample was highest among other components, and that of malic acid being 25 to 30% was followed. The contents of nonvolatile organic acids of water extract were 74.5, 55.9, and 69.2% as high as those of original sample in fruits, endocarps, and seeds, respectively. The content of oxalic acid in seeds was lower than that of it in original sample.
The compositions of total and free amino acids in parts of Omija were investigated. The most abundant amino acids in fruits, endocarps, and seeds were arginine (50.80%), lysine (14.37%), glutamic acid (14.22%), respectively. Since the amino acid scores of fruits, endocarps, and seeds were 9.4, 11.9, and 16.7, respectively, the limiting amino acid of each part were S-compound amino acids. In the composition of free amino acids, contents of lysine were highest one such as 51.78, 57.00 and 32.88% in fruits, endocarps and seeds, respectively. The contents of histidine from free amino acids were 23.62% in fruits, 22.37% in endocarps, and 26.41% in seeds.
Effect of perilla oil on the fatty acid composition, ACAT and HMG-CoA reductase in the liver microsomes, or cholesterol and protein in serum of rabbit were examined. 1. The content of total protein in serum was almost same amount of both groups, but α1-globulin and r-globuline were incresed or β-globulin was decresed compared with control. 2. The content of high density lipoprotein incresed, and the content of low density lipoprotein decresed in lipoprotein. 3. Total cholesterol and triglyceride were decresed, and the content of phospholipid was incresed. 4. Perilla oil did not effect for changing blood glucose and Na+, K+ electrolytes. 5. Perilla oil did not effect for changing serum GOT and GPT in rabbit. 6. The activity of ACAT decresed and the activity of HMG-CoA reductase incresed. The activity of ACAT and HMG-CoA reductase in liver microsomes were reciprocal. 7. There were arachidonic acid 20:4, eicosapentaenoic acid 20:5, and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6 in the liver microsomes of rabbits. These highly polyunsaturated fatty acids were convented from linolenic acid 18:3 n-3.
Before Jin (秦) period, Oriental (Eastern) culture was established in Korea different from China. Bulgogi (babecued beef, 貊炙) and legume fermented soy were transmitted into China. Afterward, alcohol drink, rice cake and cookie, shic-hae (lactic acid fermented fish products), Kimchi (fermented vegetable) were introduced and modified for Korea. Buddhism was transmitted to Korea through China, but selective animal was used as food. Later period of Koryo Dynasty, meat-eating become common due to mongorian influence and distilled spirits was introduced by mongorian. During Chosun Dynasty, table setting of spoon and chopstick was established, due to Confucian influence, dog eating, raw fish and raw meat eating became popular and nutrition for elderly was developed, whereas tea culture declined. In recent period (under the Japanese rule) Chinese introduced chinese noodle, chinese cuisine, chinese pancake and sun-dried salt. many chinese cultivated chinese vegetables.