This study investigates the quality characteristics of dough and bread added with 6% chestnut shell powder and extruded chestnut shell powder at various conditions. As extrusion process variables, melt temperature (110°C, 130°C, 150°C) and moisture (25% and 30%) were controlled. Total dietary fiber content was slightly increased in extruded chestnut shell powder group. In the farinogram, absorption was significantly increased in the group of 25% moisture content and 30% moisture content (p<0.05). After 2 hours and 3 hours, the leavening heights of dough for control showed a similar tendency to that of dough with extruded chestnut shell at a melt temperature 150°C and with moisture content of 25% and 30%. Specific volume was the highest at a control of 3.74±0.08 cc/g and extruded chestnut shell powder group was slightly higher than the chestnut shell powder group. Firmness after 1 day on control of 107.42±14.52 g was similar to that of the bread with extruded chestnut shell at a temperature of 150°C and moisture content of 25% for 113.33±6.17 g. In conclusion, the extrusion-cooking of chestnut shell powder improved the quality characteristics of dough and bread. The optimum combinations of conditions in tested range were melt temperature at 150°C and moisture content at 25%, and melt temperature at 130°C and moisture content at 30%.
In recent years, consumers have become more interested in convenient lifestyles, leading to increased use of salted cabbages for preparation of kimchi. This study aimed to investigate the safety of heavy metals, pesticide residues, and foodborne pathogens in commercial salted cabbages in Seoul from August to November, 2014. The survey, which was conducted to determine whether or not salted cabbages were prepared under the highest sanitary conditions, showed that Seoulites are interested in purchasing hygienic and safe salted cabbages. The average amounts (range) of Pb and Cd found in 30 salted cabbage samples were 0.007 (0.000~0.063) mg/kg and 0.004 (0.000~0.012) mg/kg, respectively. The cabbages were analyzed for residues from 285 types of pesticides using the multiresidue method. Residues for pesticides were not detected. Major foodborne pathogens, specifically Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and Norovirus, were also not detected.
본 연구는 코칭이 청소년의 자아존중감 향상과 학교생활 적응에 미치는 효과를 검증하기 위해 1:1 코칭으로 진행되었으며, 학습은 물론 무기력과 지각, 결석 등의 잦은 부적의 현상을 나타내고 있는 학교 현장 청소년을 대상으로 연구대상은 경기도 Y시에 소재하는 H인문계 고등학교 1,2학년 33명을 대상으로 학교의 추천과 대상학생의 신청을 통해 선발하였다. 대상학생들은 학교와 학부모의 동의를 얻어 주 1회 50분씩 4회기 동안 코칭 전의 자기 진단을 통해 1:1코칭을 실시하였으며, 코칭 후의 자가진단으로 대상학생의 코칭 전과 후의 가치변화를 확인하여 코칭 실시 전 후의 자아존중감의 차이를 알아보고자 하였다. 또한 학교생활 적용에 있어 1:1코칭을 통한 이들의 변화 가능성에 대한 유의미한 결과에 대해 알아보고 그에 따른 코칭의 효과를 학교생활 적응을 향상시킬 수 있는 가치 있는 도구로서의 정보를 제공하고자하였다.나아가 검사도구인 d-test를 실시한 결과, 프로그램 실시 후 유의미한 향상의 효과는 1: 1 코칭이 부적응 청소년들에게 자아존중감 향상에 유의미한 효과가 있음을 검증할 수 있었다. 따라서 이러한 연구 결과를 바탕으로 학교나 평생교육원, 사회복지실천현장에서 부적응 청소년들을 대상으로 코칭 보급화에 대한 가능성과 본 연구의 한계와 후속 연구를 위한 제언을 제시하고자하였다.
The purpose of this study was to identify middle-school boys' purchase behavior according to their shoes shopping orientation. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect from 314 subjects. Factor analysis, Chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA were done using SPSS PC (Ver. 18.0). Most middle-school boys selected shoes that were 255~270mm, possessed on to two pairs of school shoes, searched for information for about five days before purchase, had spent 50,000~150,000 won on one to two pairs of shoes during the previous six months, saw design, comfort, and brand as their selection criteria, chose their shoes by themselves, shoes specialty stores, had favorite brands, preferred athletic shoes made of achromatic canvas, and bought new shoes when their old ones wore out. Factors of shoe shopping orientation were fashion and brand, economy, conformity, and comfort, and students were grouped into an active shopping group, an underdeveloped shopping orientation group, and a value pursuit group. The active shopping group bought more shoes, spent more on shoes, selected their shoes themselves, patronized discount shoe stores or specialty stores, and preferred national brand shoes. The underdeveloped shopping orientation group accepted their friends' opinions when selecting shoes and bought cheaper shoes. The value pursuit group accepted their parents' opinions when selecting shoes, patronized internet shopping malls or traditional markets, and selected cheaper shoes. The shoe shopping orientation of middle-school boys was immature, but they showed strong consumption needs.
유산균은 포자를 형성하지 않으며, 카탈라아제 음성이고, 산에 대해 내성을 가지며, 당 발효의 산물로 유산을 만드는 그람양성 간균이나 구균인 통성혐기성 세균으로 젖산균이라고 한다. 현재까지 Carnobacterium, Dolosigranulum, Enterococcus, Globicatella, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Lactosphaera, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella 등 20여개의 속이 유산균에 속하는 것으로 알려져 있다. 유산균은 MRS라는 동일한 선택 배지에서 생육하고 생리생화학적 특성에 따른 명확한 구분이 어려워서 전통적인 형태적 생리학적 분류방법으로는 정확한 분류 동정이 어렵다. 그래서 유산균의 분류는 16S rRNA sequence 분석을 기반으로한 분자계통분류학적 결과를 기반으로 다양한 생리생화학적 분석, 형태학적 분석, 화학분류학적 분석 및 분자분류학적 분석 결과가 포함되는 다상분류를 통하여 이루어진다. 이와 같은 연구 결과를 통하여 유산균의 몇몇 속에서는 분류학적 혼재성이 관찰되었고, 그 결과 새로운 속의 탄생 또는 전이 양상이 계속적으로 보고되고 있다. 이와 같은 특징 때문에 유산균의 분류동정은 간단하지 않으며, 새로운 분류기준(key marker) 발굴 등 후속 연구의 확대가 필요하다. 유산균은 계대배양이나 장기보존 시 생존율이 높지 않아 장기보존 관리가 까다로운 균주그룹으로 알려져 있다. 유산균의 보존에는 동결건조법과 동결보존법이 널리 이용되는데 주로 탈지분유를 보존제로 사용한다.
Ischemia that causes stroke induces inflammation of brain cells and apoptosis and as a result, it influences much on the functional part of a man. The needle electrode electrical stimulation (NEES) that combines acupuncture of oriental medicine with electric therapy of western medicine relieves inflammation of cells and has effect on regrowth of nerve tissues. This study was conducted to verify the influence of NEES on the occurrence of c-Fos of cerebrum after applying NEES to the meridian point, Zusanli (ST 36) of a rats with induced ischemia. Global ischemia was induced by using ligation method on common carotid artery of male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The ligation was maintained for 5 minutes and then suture was removed for blood reperfusion. After inducing global ischemia, NEES was done to the left and right meridian points of Joksamri of a rat for 30 minutes after 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours. The findings were as follows. 1. In the result of immunohistochemical method, the number of c-Fos immune response cells significantly decreased (P<.05) in NEES group than the control group (GI) that did not get NEES. 2. In the result of western blotting, the occurrence of c-Fos after 24 hours from the inducement of ischemia significantly decreased (P<.05) in NEES group than the control group (GI) that did not get NEES. Therefore, as the effect of NEES was shown highest after 24 hours from the ischemia, it is suspected that NEES would take important role in early treatment after cerebral stroke.
This study was conducted to identify the factors associated with weight control and nutritional knowledge of juvenile delinquents. The average heights of the subjects in this study were 172.20 cm (male) and 160.89 cm (female), and the average weights were 66.73 kg (male) and 58.42 kg (female), and the BMIs (Body Mass Index; kg/m2) were 22.46 (male) and 22.54 (female). The results of this study revealed that 41.4% of the subjects were over weight or obese. In addition, there were significant differences in the BMI, satisfaction with body image and perception of body image observed between male and female subjects. Furthermore, female subjects were more experienced at weight control than male students (p〈0.001). Additionally, overweight and obese individuals had more experience with weight control than subjects that were not overweight. Moreover, there were significant differences in the reason that subjects took weight control measured between male and female students. Specifically, female subjects practiced weight control due to their appearance (p〈0.001). The order of methods by which male subjects attempted to control their weight was exercise〉diet control〉starvation and for girl student were diet control〉starvation〉excercise. The nutritional knowledge scores were higher for female subjects than for mele subjects. In addition, the nutritional knowledge scores increased as the BMI value increased and the father˚Øs educational level increased. These results of this study could be useful data to plan and develop nutritional education programs for juvenile delinquents.
In this paper, we address a mining association rules with weighted items and multiple minimum support. We generalize this to the case where items are given weights to reflect their importance to the user. And to find rules that involve both frequent and rare items, we specify multiple minimum supports to reflect the frequency of the items. In rule mining, different rules may need to satisfy different minimum supports depending on what items are in the rules.
User satisfaction is the most critical criteria in measuring information systems success or failure. In this study. Contract Foodservice Information Systems were evaluated with user satisfaction instrument based on previous work. A total of 70 Contract Foodservice Information Systems users was surveyed. The status of building area of Contract Foodservice Information Systems was more in foodservice management (M=3.74), but less in producing (M=2.53) and purchasing (M=3.02) management. The users recognized accuracy of information (M=4.27), lasting educational services on systems (M=4.34) and increasing work productivity (M=4.42) as the most important factors and they also recognized it was important factors to build systems such area database management, menu management, purchasing and producing management and foodservice management (p<0.1).
We have studies fatty acid composition of water extracts of parts of omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) and antioxidant activities of fractionated omija parts (fruits, endocarps, seeds) were determined by DPPH methods and by in vitro hepatic microsomal lipid peroxidation system. Fatty acid composition was not different by parts of omija and major fatty acids are linoleic, oleic, and palimitic acids, among fatty acids is water extracts of parts of omija, linoleic acid was highest in content. Methanol and buthanol fractions of seeds and ethyl acetate fraction of endocarps showed stronger antioxidant activities by DPPH methods. Methanol and buthanol fractions of seeds also showed on inhibitory effect on in vitro liver microsomal lipid peroxidation.