To automate cooking processes, quantitative descriptions are needed on how quality parameters, such as texture change during heating. Understanding mechanical property changes in foods during thermal treatment due to changes in chemical composition or physical structure is important in the context of engineering models and in precise control of quality in general. Texture degradation of food materials has been studied widely and softening kinetic parameters have been reported in many studies. For a better understanding of kinetic parameters, applied kinetic models were investigated, then rate constants at 100°C and activation energy from previous kinetic studies were compared. The food materials are hardly classified into similar softening kinetics. The range of parameters is wide regardless of food types due to the complexity of food material, different testing methods, sample size, and geometry. Kinetic parameters are essential for optimal process design. For broad and reliable applications, kinetic parameters should be generated by a more consistent manner so that those of foods could be compared or grouped.
Weight loss that influences quality and farmer incomes is affected by the storage environment of agricultural products. The interior of storage should be maintained at high humidity to prevent the weight loss of products which contain a lot of moisture. The research had constantly proceeded with change in the heat exchanger surface areas, humidity systems, and weight loss forecast to maintain high humidity within storage. Relative humidity that exerts an effect weight loss of crop is influenced by storage temperature, leak state, and volume of product. When weight loss is predicted, different conditions of these factors are derived. In case of CA storage, ways of forecasting the weight loss become easier compared to cold storage due to sealed storage with external environment during storage period. In this study, apples were stored in purge-type CA storage and weight loss has been predicted by using operating characteristics and environmental conditions. As a result, humidity variation in the storage fluctuates with the operation of the unit-cooler. Furthermore, unit-cooler operation factor is influenced by outside temperature and respiration heat. Prediction value of weight loss according to temperature and humidity has been most accurately predicted. Prediction value through defrosting water measured shows unit-cooler work quality. K-value needs verification to calculate the VPD method.
Alcoholic steatosis is a fundamental metabolic disorder and may precede the onset of more severe forms of alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we isolated enzymatichydrolysate from Semisulcospira libertine by alcalase hydrolysis and investigated the protective effect of Semisulcospira libertine hydrolysate on liver injury induced by alcohol in the mouse model of chronic and binge ethanol feeding (NIAAA). In an in vitro study, the hydrolysate protects HepG2 cells from ethanol toxicity. Liver damage was assessed by histopathological examination, as well as by quantitating activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). After the administration of S. libertina hydrolysate, fat accumulation and infiltration of inflammatory cells in liver tissues were significantly decreased in the NIAAA mouse model. The elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities, along with the lipid contents of a damaged liver, were recovered in experimental mice administrated with S. libertina hydrolysate, suggesting its role in blood enzyme activation and lipid content restoration within damaged liver tissues. Moreover, treatment with S. libertine hydrolysate reduced the expression rate of cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, which accelerate inflammation and induces tissue damage. All data showed that S. libertine hydrolysate has a preventive role against alcohol-induced liver damages by improving the activities of blood enzymes and modulating the expression of inflammation factor, suggesting S. libertine hydrolysate could be a commercially potential material for the restoration of hepatotoxicity.
A cultivar (Malus domestica cv. Fuji) of apple was selected to make apple peel (AP) powder by three different powdering methods. Frozen AP was thawed and subsequently was dried or ground without drying. After AP was dried by hot-air drying at 60°C or freeze-drying, the dried AP was ground using a conventional blender. Separately, the thawed AP was powered by using a cryogenic micro grinding technology (CMGT). The ground AP and three types of AP powder were extracted using deionized water, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100% methanol, followed by vacuum evaporation. The total phenolics contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC), DPPH, and ABTS radical scavenging capacities of each extract were compared to determine an efficient powdering method. Lyophilized AP powder extract using 60% methanol showed the highest TPC and DPPH radical scavenging capacity. In contrast, 60% methanol extract of the powder by CMGT, resulting in the smallest particle, exhibited the highest TFC and ABTS radical scavenging capacity. This study suggests that the extraction yield of bioactive compounds from AP may be varied according to different powdering methods and that a new powdering process such as CMGT may be applicable to develop functional foods efficiently.
This study investigated the changes in the physicochemical properties of soybean sprout, radish, and pork loin during frozen Bibimbab production. The qualities of soybean sprout were affected by the blanching, thawing, and cooking processes, with the blanching process particularly regarded as an important process to attribute the overall quality of the soybean sprouts in the final product. High weight loss of radish was found in the thawing and cooking processes, while the weight loss was relatively lower than that of soybean sprout. However, mixing with hot rice can be attributed for the steep decrease in shear force of the radish. For pork meat, normally thermal treatment such as mixing with hot rice and cooking manifested quality deterioration. Based on the results, mixing process appeared to be the most important process which affected the final quality of the materials. To improve the quality of final frozen Bibimbab, therefore, it was recommended to freeze the food ingredient separately from rice prior to packaging, which warranted the follow up exploration.
The relationship of in vitro starch digestibility and gel strength was investigated at various concentrations (10-30%) of rice cultivars with different amylose contents (27.9, 17.9, and 5.2%). As the rice flour concentration increased, predicted glycemic index decreased, but gel strength increased regardless of amylose contents. Gel strength correlated strongly with amylose content, whereas in vitro starch digestibility was more highly affected by rice flour concentration than by amylose contents. Moreover, the impact of degree of gelatinization on in vitro starch digestibility of high amylose rice was also examined in terms of structural features and rheological properties. The digestion rate of fully gelatinized flour was 1.7 times higher than that of native flour, while the disrupted structure with a different gelatinization degree during starch digestion was visually demonstrated through the X-ray diffraction and molecular distribution analysis. The rice flour changed from an A-type to a V-type pattern and showed difference in crystalline melting. The low molecular weight distribution increased with increasing degree of gelatinization during starch digestion. The apparent viscosity also increased with degree of gelatinization. These results demonstrated that the starch digestibility of rice was more affected by concentration than by amylose content, as well as by the degree of gelatinization due to structural difference.
This study investigates the quality characteristics of dough and bread added with 6% chestnut shell powder and extruded chestnut shell powder at various conditions. As extrusion process variables, melt temperature (110°C, 130°C, 150°C) and moisture (25% and 30%) were controlled. Total dietary fiber content was slightly increased in extruded chestnut shell powder group. In the farinogram, absorption was significantly increased in the group of 25% moisture content and 30% moisture content (p<0.05). After 2 hours and 3 hours, the leavening heights of dough for control showed a similar tendency to that of dough with extruded chestnut shell at a melt temperature 150°C and with moisture content of 25% and 30%. Specific volume was the highest at a control of 3.74±0.08 cc/g and extruded chestnut shell powder group was slightly higher than the chestnut shell powder group. Firmness after 1 day on control of 107.42±14.52 g was similar to that of the bread with extruded chestnut shell at a temperature of 150°C and moisture content of 25% for 113.33±6.17 g. In conclusion, the extrusion-cooking of chestnut shell powder improved the quality characteristics of dough and bread. The optimum combinations of conditions in tested range were melt temperature at 150°C and moisture content at 25%, and melt temperature at 130°C and moisture content at 30%.
Fish skin peptide-loaded liposomes were prepared in 100 mL and 1 L solution as lab scales, and 10 L solution as a prototype scale. The particle size and zeta potential were measured to determine the optimal conditions for the production of fish skin peptide-loaded liposome. The liposome was manufactured by the following conditions: (1) primary homogenization at 4,000 rpm, 8,000 rpm, and 12,000 rpm for 3 minutes; (2) secondary homogenization at 40 watt (W), 60 W, and 80 W for 3 minutes. From this experimental design, the optimal conditions of homogenization were selected as 4,000 rpm and 60 W. For the next step, fish peptides were prepared as the concentrations of 3, 6, and 12% at the optimum manufacturing conditions of liposome and stored at 4ºC. Particle size, polydispersion index (pdI), and zeta potential of peptide-loaded liposome were measured for its stability. Particle size increased significantly as manufacture scale and peptide concentration increased, and decreased over storage time. The zeta potential results increased as storage time increased at 10 L scale. In addition, 12% peptide showed the formation of a sediment layer after 3 weeks, and 6% peptide was considered to be the most suitable for industrial application.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics, antioxidant activities, and sensory properties of macaron with cabbage powder (CP). Physicochemical and sensory properties of macaron with different amounts (0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, and 7%) of CP were examined. The quality of macarons was evaluated based on spread factor, baking loss rate, color, texture, antioxidant activities, and sensory evaluation. As amount of CP addition increased, spread factor, baking loss rate, and L and a values decreased, whereas b value increased (p<0.05). For texture properties, hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness were increased by addition of CP (p<0.05). The gumminess and brittleness did not show significant changes up to 3% CP addition although significant changes in 5-7% CP addition (p<0.05) were evident. The total polyphenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activities, and reducing power were significantly increased by addition of CP at high concentrations (p<0.05). In the consumer acceptance of macarons, 3% CP showed the highest in color, flavor, texture, and overall acceptance and 5% CP showed the highest in taste. Meanwhile, macaron containing 7% CP showed the lowest scores in texture and overall acceptance (p<0.05). These data suggested that adding 3% of CP was the optimal concentration for making macaron.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different types of frying oil on the quality of yakgwa such as expansion rate, color, moisture content and rheological properties. Yakgwa fried with corn oil showed the highest expansion in width and length, and rice bran oil in height. With regard to the overall expansion rate, yakgwa fried with rice bran had the highest value. As for lightness and yellowness, yakgwa fried with soybean oil had the highest lightness (34.74), while yakgwa fried with grape seed oil had the lowest lightness (29.82). As for redness, however, no significant difference was found. Regarding fat content, yakgwa fried with rice bran oil showed the highest value with 18.91%, while yakgwa fried with corn oil and canola oil showed the lowest value. No difference was found in moisture content according to the type of frying oil. In relation to the acid value, yagkwa with soybean oil showed the lowest value of 0.24±0.66; as for peroxide value, yagkwa fried with rice bran oil showed the lowest value of 3.59±1.74 meq/kg. No difference was found in hardness, cohesiveness and resilience according to the type of frying oil. Yagkwa fried with corn oil and canola oil showed the lowest value in terms of adhesiveness and chewiness, respectively. The results of the sensory evaluation showed not significance difference in overall preference, but yakgwa fried with rice bran oil had the highest value of 5.93±1.87.
Glucansucrase is an enzyme classified as a glycoside hydrolase (GH) 70 family, which catalyzes the synthesis of glucooligosaccharides with a low molecular weight using sucrose as a donor of D-glucopyranose and maltose as a carbohydrate acceptor. In this study, glucansucrase-producing lactic acid bacteria strain was isolated from the fermented foods collected in traditional markets, and the optimum conditions for the oligosaccharide production were investigated. The strain CCK940 isolated from Chinese cabbage kimchi was selected as an oligosaccharide-producing strain due to its high glucansucrase activity, with 918.2 mU/mL, and identified as Leuconostoc lactis. The optimum conditions for the production of oligosaccharides using Leu. lactis CCK940 were to adjust the initial pH to 6.0, add 5% (w/v) sucrose and 10% (w/v) maltose as a donor and acceptor molecules, respectively, and feed 5% (w/v) sucrose at 4 and 8 h of cultivation. When Leu. lactis CCK940 was cultured for 12 h at optimum conditions, at least four oligosaccharides with a polymerization degree of 2-4 were produced.
The purpose of this study was to improve the nutrition and the permeability of functional plants by using cryogenic grinding technology. Barley sprouts, Curcuma longa L., Dendropanax morbifera LEV., Phellinus linteus were dried, ground and extracted in different temperature conditions. Powder size of barley sprouts and Curcuma longa L. were about 50 μm and Dendropanax morbifera LEV. and Phellinus linteus were about 20 μm. Cryogenic ground of Barley sprouts preserved 18.27-124.65% of nutrients such as protein, ash, carbohydrate, beta carotene, minerals, vitamins. Cryogenic grinding powder of Curcuma longa L. show high nutrients retention rate of lipid and carbohydrate. Permeability was measured by Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) to predict passive gastrointestinal absorption. Permeability of saponarin, which is marker compound of Barley sprouts, is 9.88 times higher in cryogenic grinding powder than ambient grinding powder. Curcumin permability is 3.1 times higher than ambient grinded powder. As a result, particle size, nutrition, protein digestion degree and permeability demonstrated a positive relationship with the decreasing grinding temperature for the powders. These results confirm that the cryogenic grinding method had good suitability to increase functionality of plants, since it could minimize the heat generated while processing and effectively reduce the particle size.
Acetic acid bacteria strains were isolated from a variety of fermented foods and fallen fruits. Among them, the strain MAK88, whose acetic acid fermentation ability, acid-tolerance, and alcohol-tolerance were high, was selected and identified as Acetobacter orientalis. A seed culture of A. orientalis MAK88 was inoculated into onion juice, and the optimum conditions of acetic acid fermentation was investigated. The optimum initial concentration of ethanol in onion juice was 5% (v/v) and in that condition, acidity was 4.31% at 144 h of fermentation. The optimum initial concentration of acetic acid was 1% and the final acidity was 5.32%. The optimum fermentation temperature was determined to be 28oC. The most appropriate preparation method of onion juice was to heat the onion at 121oC for 15 min and produce juice with pressure followed by filtering, and then sterilization at 121oC for 15 min. Prepared onion juice was used for fermentation without dilution.