This study was to find out the relationships between whiteness, hardness, crack ratio, broken rice ratio, increased grain temperature, moisture content, electric energy consumption, and optimum conditioning of grain temperature for the milled rice efficiency and quality maintenance during the milling process of brown rice at low temperature. There was no significant difference between the whiteness variations of white rice after milling process when the conditioning grain temperatures ranging from 0 to 20oC was used. The crack and broken rice ratios of white rice and the hardness of brown rice decreased with an increased in the conditioning grain temperature. Conditioning grain temperatures of 12, 20oC are applicable to appropriated standard of temperature (15oC) after milling process. In the case of low temperature of grain, there was steadily increase the rate of changing moisture contents because of dew condensation. There was 2.62~14.28% decline of electricity energy for milling process when the temperature of grain was higher than 0oC. Therefore, it needs to control temperature over 10oC for appropriate milling in winter season.
The new colored noodles were produced by utilization of cuttlefish ink, beetroot juice and/or spinach juice in this study and the physico-chemical and sensory properties of the developed noodles were investigated before and after cooking. The weights of fresh noodles increased 2.36~2.22 times by moisture adsorption after cooking. Moisture adsorptions of the cooked noodles were higher in the cooked noodles with higher contents of additives and ranged 136 to 144%. The colors of the all fresh noodles and the cooked noodles containing cuttlefish ink or spinach juice were highly acceptable. The tensile strength was highest in the cooked noodle containing 2% cuttlefish ink, which was 9 folds higher than regular noodle. The % elongations were highest in the regular cooked noodle and the cooked noodle containing 4% cuttlefish ink. In the textural property assays of cooked noodles, the cooked noodle containing 10% beetroot juice had higher values in hardness, chewingness and gumminess than the regular noodle. The cohensiveness was highest in the cooked noodle containing 6% spinach juice. The adhesiveness of the regular cooked noodle was significantly high, compared to any developed noodle. The differences in springinesses of developed noodles were ignorable. The overall textural properties were influenced by the additives in noodles, however, the effects of concentrations of the additives were insignificant. The results of the sensory tests showed the highest values of all descriptions in the cooked noodles containing 4% cuttlefish ink or 10% spinach juice, indicating the highest acceptability.
Substances associated with the regulation of food intake rate leading overweight, obesity, were reviewed for their roles in the body weight control pathway. Feedback mechanisms in food intake were reviewed focusing on the driving force of eating motivation. Definition of hunger and fullness along with virtual food developed by Chun(2002) was discussed. Effective hunger was defined on the basis of virtual food. Relationship of consciousness elements with food emotion and evaluation were reviewed with food frequency curve of subjects experimentally obtained with cooked rice and potato flake. Clustering analysis of consciousness effect showed roles of the layers of consciousness,
SPR biosensors which belong to a family of thin film refractometry-based sensors measure refractive index changes produced by biomolecular interactions occurring at the surface of the sensors. The main advantage of SPR biosensors is to detect molecular interactions directly without the use of labels. This feature makes them possible to observe biomolecular interactions in real-time or near real-time. The non-specific binding between ligand and target analyte may, however, produce a false refractive index change resulting in false sensor response. The applications of SPR biosensors have involved biomolecular interaction kinetics analysis, affinity measurement, screening and concentration assay, and so on.