There have been great efforts to develop a rapid and sensitive detection method to monitor the presence of pathogenic bacteria in food. While a number of methods have been reported for bacterial detection with a detection limit to a single digit, most of them are suitable only for the bacteria in pure culture or buffered solution. On the other hand, foods are composed of highly complicated matrices containing carbohydrate, fat, protein, fibers, and many other components whose composition varies from one food to the other. Furthermore, many components in food interfere with the downstream detection process, which significantly affect the sensitivity and selectivity of the detection. Therefore, isolating and concentrating the target pathogenic bacteria from food matrices are of importance to enhance the detection power of the system. The present review provides an introduction to the representative sample preparation strategies to isolate target pathogenic bacteria from food sample. We further describe the nucleic acidbased detection methods, such as PCR, real-time PCR, NASBA, RCA, LCR, and LAMP. Nucleic acid-based methods are by far the most sensitive and effective for the detection of a low number of target pathogens whose performance is greatly improved by combining with the sample preparation methods.
It is well-known that cultivated wild Panax ginseng has anti-inflammatory effect. However, a comparative study on cultivation period vs biofunctionality is currently lacking. In this study, 70% ethanol extracts of 3-years (yrs)-, 5-yrs-, or 7-yrs-old cultivated wild ginseng were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Specifically, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α]), the expression of surface proteins (CD80, CD86, and MHC-II), and the phagocytic properties were investigated. RAW264.7 cells were induced by 500 ng/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and treated with 0.1, 1, and 10 ppm of samples. LPS-induced IL-6, TNF-α and surface proteins in all samples were downregulated in a dose-dependent manner. Both IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly reduced at 10 ppm of the 7-yrsold sample compared to 10 ppm of 3-yrs- and 5-yrs-old samples. CD80 and CD86 were also reduced at 10 ppm of all samples, and there was no difference among samples. The phagocytosis has no difference except in 10 ppm of 3 yr-old sample. The results suggest that cultivated wild ginseng extract has anti-inflammatory effect without decreasing phagocytosis.
Proximate analysis and antioxidant activity of cultivated wild Panax ginseng (CWPG) were investigated to provide fundamental information of CWPG with different ages and to increase its industrial application. Proximate analyses of CWPG with different ages were performed. Extraction of CWPG with different ages was carried out using heatreflux extraction, and their extraction yield, crude saponin content, ginsenoside content, and antioxidant activity were analyzed. Moisture content decreased, but crude fat and crude protein were increased with aging. Extraction yield and crude saponin contents did not show a specific pattern while 5-year-old CWPG revealed the highest extraction yield and crude saponin content. All CWPGs showed typical ginsenoside profiles containing C-K and Rh2 ginsenosides, which are not found in ginseng. The 3-year-old CWPG showed the highest antioxidant activity including total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. Moreover, 3-year-old CWPG also revealed the highest acidic polysaccharide content. Therefore, these results suggested that 3-year-old CWPG, which is the cheapest, can be used in industrial application due to its high antioxidant activity and acidic polysaccharide content with similar ginsenoside profile compared to 5- and 7-year-old CWPGs.
Resveratrol was incorporated into various combinations of single- and double-layer nanoemulsions, prepared by selfassembly emulsification and complex coacervation with chitosan, alginate, and β-cyclodextrin, respectively. Resveratrol nanoemulsions were composed of medium-chain trigacylglycerols (MCTs), Tween ® 80, water, chitosan, alginate, and β-cyclodextrin. The corresponding mixtures were formulated for the purpose of being used as a nutraceutical delivery system. Resveratrol nanoemulsions were obtained with particle sizes of 10-800 nm, with the size variation dependent on the emulsification parameters including the ratio of aqueous phase and surfactant ratio. Resveratrol nanoemulsions were characterized by evaluating particle size, zeta-potential value, stability, and release rate. There were no significant changes in particle size and zeta-potential value of resveratrol nanoemulsions during storage for 28 days at 25°C. The stability of resveratrol in the double-layer nanoemulsions complexed with chitosan or β-cyclodextrin was higher, compared with the single-layer nanoemulsions.
Most of the red ginseng (RG) products contain active substances derived from hot water or alcohol extraction. Since active substances of RG are divided into two two types: water-soluble and liposoluble, water or alcohol is needed as an extraction solvent and this leads the different extraction yields and components of the active substances. To overcome the limit, whole red ginseng powder can be used and consumed by consumers. In this study, the physicochemical properties and extractable active substance contents of variable-sized RG powder (158.00 μm, 8.45 μm, and 6.33 μm) were analyzed, and dispersion stability was measured to investigate the suitable size of RG powder for industrial processing. In the results, no significant difference was found from the changes in color intensity and thiobarbutric acid tests at 4°C, 25°C, and 40°C for 4 weeks. There was no significant difference on the production of antioxidants and ginsenoside among the samples (p>0.05). In dispersion stability, RG-158.00 μm was precipitated immediately, and the dispersion stabilities between RG-8.45 μm and RG-6.33 μm showed no significant difference. It implies that fine RG is suitable for the production process. With further study, it seemed that the physicochemical effects of RG particle sizes can be clearly revealed.
Scaffolds of cell substrates are biophysical platforms for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. They ultimately play a leading-edge role in the regeneration of tissues. Recent studies have shown the potential of bioactive scaffolds (i.e., osteo-inductive) through 3D printing. In this study, rice bran-derived biocomposite was fabricated for fused deposition modeling (FDM)-based 3D printing as a potential bone-graft analogue. Rice bran by-product was blended with poly caprolactone (PCL), a synthetic commercial biodegradable polymer. An extruder with extrusion process molding was adopted to manufacture the newly blended “green material.” Processing conditions affected the performance of these blends. Bio-filament composite was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Mechanical characterization of bio-filament composite was carried out to determine stress-strain and compressive strength. Biological behaviors of bio-filament composites were also investigated by assessing cell cytotoxicity and water contact angle. EDX results of bio-filament composites indicated the presence of organic compounds. These bio-filament composites were found to have higher tensile strength than conventional PCL filament. They exhibited positive response in cytotoxicity. Biological analysis revealed better compatibility of r-PCL with rice bran. Such rice bran blended bio-filament composite was found to have higher elongation and strength compared to control PCL.
The acidity of soy curd fermented by lactic acid bacteria is a major factor degrading the sensory properties of soy curd. For preparation of soy curd with low sour taste, lactic acid bacteria were separated from kimchi. The lactic acid bacteria which showed yellow-clear zone around the colonies on BCP plate and formed soy curd with low level of acidity were selected. The selected strain was analyzed by 16S rDNA sequence and named as Pediococcus inopinatus Y2. The maximum viable cell number of the soy curd fermented by P. inopinatus Y2 was obtained at 10.73 log CFU/mL at 25°C for 24 h of fermentation. By the results of panel test, the overall sensory quality of the soy curd produced by P. inopinatus Y2 was higher than that of Leuconostoc mesenteroides No. 4395 and Lactobacillus sakei strain No. 383.
Caesalpinia sappan L. is an oriental medicinal plant distributed in the Asia Pacific region including India, Malaysia, and China. The dried heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan has been traditionally used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug. In this study, the effects of extract methods of C. sappan on contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxic activity were evaluated. As a result, hot water extract from C. sappan (CSWE) significantly exhibited contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids (22.6 mg GAE/g and 14.5 mg QE/g) higher than 70% ethanol extract (CSEE) (17.6 mg GAE/g and 13.2 mg QE/g). However, CSEE showed greater antioxidant activity than CSWE in both DPPH and ABTS. Also, the cytotoxicity of C. sappan against three kinds of cancer cell lines was higher in CSEE than in CSWE. These results show that ethanol extract is a better extract method than hot water method to maintain antioxidant and anti-cancer activities.
This study was designed to optimize ethanol extraction process of unfertilized corn silk (UCS) to maximize phytochemical contents and bioactivities. The response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD) was employed to obtain the optimal extraction conditions. The influence of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time on total polyphenol contents, total flavonoid contents, maysin contents, 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging activities and tyrosinase inhibition were analyzed. For all dependable variables, the most significant factor was ethanol concentration followed by extraction temperature and extraction time. The following optimum conditions were determined by simultaneous optimization of several responses with the Derringer’s desirability function using the numerical optimization function of the Design-Expert program: ethanol concentration 80.45%, extraction temperature 53.49°C, and extraction time 4.95 h. Under these conditions, the predicted values of total polyphenol contents, total flavonoid contents, maysin contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity and tyrosinase inhibition were 2758.74 μg GAE/g dried sample, 1520.81 μg QUE/g dried sample, 810.26 mg/100g dried sample, 56.86% and 43.49%, respectively, and the overall desirability (D) was 0.74.
To improve dispersibility of cereal powder without additives, granulation of cereal powder was conducted using fluidized- bed granulator. Operation condition was sample 300 g, internal temperature 40°C, ventilation speed 30-90 m3/ h, inlet temperature 90°C and spray pressure 2.5 bar. The amount of distilled water (20-45%) as binder, granulation time (10-15 min) and drying time (3-10 min) were controlled. Mean diameter over volume (Brouckere mean, D4,3) was increased from 123 μm to 263 μm and dispersibility was improved from 73% to 92.25% at experiment conditions. Wettability (wetting time) was drastically decreased from 5,000 second to 7 second. Granulation of cereal powder did not affect sinkability and mean diameter over volume as wet analysis was about the same between raw and granulated cereals. Such phenomenon means that granulation with only water as binder enables cereal powder to disperse in water or milk without rapid sedimentation.
Curcumin have various health-beneficial properties in numerous studies. However, its bioavailability is low due to its limited intestinal uptake and rapid metabolism. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of newly developed sub-micron particle curcumin with increased water dispersibility (Theracurmin® CR-033P). Plasma curcumin levels were measured at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 h after Theracurmin® CR-033P intake using high-performance liquid chromatography. For analyzing pharmacokinetics of Theracurmin® CR-033P, eighteen healthy subjects were recruited and received Theracurmin® CR-033P at a single oral dose containing curcumin 30 mg. Cmax was 28.14 ng/ml, and the area under the curve for 8 h was estimated to be 104.36 ng/ml. Based on the area under the plasma concentration (AUC), the bioavailability of sub-micron particle curcumin was higher 22-, 35-, 28-fold than native curcumin in men, women, and all subjects, respectively. For comparing by formulation, seven healthy subjects were recruited and received two type of treatment: (1) existing dosage form 300 mg (contained curcumin 30 mg) × 3 capsule, (2) high dosage form 300 mg (contained curcumin 90 mg) × 1 capsule + placebo 300 mg × 2 capsule. In the cross-over study, there was no significant differences in Cmax and AUC of plasma curcumin. In conclusion, submicron particle curcumin with increased water dispersibility significantly improved its oral bioavailability and women absorbed curcumin more effectively than men. Different formulation of Theracurmin® CR-033P has shown equivalent to the reference in terms of pharmacokinetics.
The objective of this study was to increase the efficiency of starch extraction from potato sludge by different concentration of food-grade hemicellulase. The potato sludge, which is a by-product of potato processing industry, was treated with food-grade hemicellulase. Starch extraction efficiency displayed no significant difference in hemicellulase concentration. The purities of potato starch increased from 83.40 to 95.91, 97.44, 95.58, and 97.79%, with treated 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.5% hemicellulase, respectively. The physicochemical properties of the starches, such as granule structure, particle size, pasting, and thermal transition, were not affected by the concentration of hemicellulase. These results indicate that food-grade hemicellulase treatment is an efficient method for starch extraction from potato sludge.
This study was conducted to certify the effect of aqueous extracts from fifty medicinal plants on the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in vitro. Each aqueous extract was prepared by combining one-part medicinal plants with twenty-parts distilled water at 80°C for 8 h. Among the fifty medicinal plants, Allium sativum L. and Cinnamomum cassia Presl were regarded as an effective anti-hangover substance. Allium sativum L. extract increased ALDH activity more than 2 times compared with ADH activity, enhancing the acetaldehyde degradation. Cinnamomum cassia Presl extract dramatically inhibited ADH activity compared with ALDH activity, thus potently decreasing the acetaldehyde formation. ADH and ALDH activities were proportionally inhibited according to the increased concentration of Cinnamomum cassia Presl extract. The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum cassia Presl at a concentration of 45.33 μg/mL inhibited ADH activity by 52.8% and ALDH activity by 11.0%.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of microencapsulation on the water absorption, DPPH radical scavenging activity (DRSA), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HRSA) and tyrosinase inhibition activity (TIA) in corn silk extracts. The lowest value (0.20) of water absorption index (WAI) and the highest value (95.23%) of water solubility index (WSI) were maltodextrin+cyclodextrin microencapulated corn silk extracts (MD+CD) and cyclodextrin encapulated corn silk extracts (CD), respectively. The 18.60% for DRSA value of control was increased to 89.25% for that of CD. The 16.89% for HRSA value of control was increased to 47.46%, and 7.16% for TIA value of control was increased to 39.35% for that of MD+CD, respectively. The MD+CD would be used for functional food and cosmetics materials as antioxidant and skin whitening agents. All investigated responses between control and treatment were statistically significant (p<0.05).