The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between children’s dietary self-efficacy, general characteristics and mother’s parenting self-efficacy among elementary school students. Mother’s parenting self-efficacy was significantly higher as parents’ educational levels increased (p<0.001), as family monthly income level increased (p<0.001), and when father’s job was professional or managing work (p<0.001). Children’s dietary self-efficacy was meaningfully higher when parents’ educational levels were higher (p<0.01), and family income level was higher (p<0.01). Mother’s parenting selfefficacy showed a correlation with children’s dietary self-efficacy (p<0.001). All factors comprising parenting self-efficacy, such as ‘general parenting self-efficacy’ (p<0.001), ‘healthy parenting self-efficacy’ (p<0.001), ‘communication parenting self-efficacy’ (p<0.001), ‘educational parenting self-efficacy’ (p<0.001), and ‘control parenting self-efficacy’ (p<0.001) showed correlation with children’s dietary self-efficacy. It is suggested that in order to improve children’s dietary self-efficacy and mothers’ parenting self-efficacy, families, schools, and communities must put forth a concerted effort. By complementing existing nutritional programs focusing on nutritional knowledge, one can develop a education program and social support to enhance children’s dietary self-efficacy and mothers’ parenting self-efficacy.
This research investigated changes in Joseon food culture mainly focusing on acceptance of Western food in the enlightenment period. Joseon intended to learn the advanced technology of the West. Through an exchange with various Western countries, the royal family and upper class of Joseon rapidly accepted foreign food and food culture. As hotels were built in Incheon and Seoul, foreign food became more widely provided, which spread to the public, accordingly, and Western style restaurants were built and spread to the Busan area besides Seoul. As Western food rapidly spread, concerns arose. Particularly, after an attempt to assassinate Gojong by inserting poison into his coffee in 1898, appeals were made concerning Western food “that should not be consumed, because it is not proper for Korean people's intestines and stomach”.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception and preferences relating to Korean fast food among students of the College of Hotel management in Germany and utilize the analyzed data as baseline data for globalization of Korean food. A total of 74 students with food-related majors were asked to complete a survey after cooking and tasting seven different kinds of Korean dishes themselves. Exactly 97.3% of students reported that even though they never tried Korean food before, that Korean food is uncomplicated and interesting to cook, very healthy with abundant vegetables and rice, and suits their palate. Regarding the seven dishes of Korean food, the students stated that Gimbab (김밥) is most suitable for fast food and sorted Japchebab (잡채밥), Gunmandu (군만두), Bulgogidubbab (불고기덮밥), Makjeok (맥적), Bibibguksu (비 빔국수), and Musaengche (무생채), in descending order, regarding globalization of Korean food. Gimbab (김밥) and Gunmandu (군만두) both received the highest scores for being the most preferred Korean food. As students indicated Korean food as a dish they would like to cook again, recommend to friends and familyies, and buy if sold in Germany, this survey suggests that Korean food can be a competitive fast food in Germany.
The present study addresses the tea utensils and tea drinking methods seen in tomb mural paintings of Song, Liao, Jin, and Yuan, which were Koryo’s foreign exchange countries. The paintings illustrate the pointing tea method, which was popular during dynasty times. Tea utensils observed in the paintings include a tea mill, mill stone, and tea pestle necessary for making cake tea into powder. The tea stove and boiling bottle are depicted as being required to boil water. Some mural works vividly depict how a tea drinker pours hot water from a boiling bottle into a cup with a stand, mixes it with a tea spoon, and whisks tea powder for foaming with a tea whisk. The tea drinking method of the Southern race Han is also similarly described in the tomb mural paintings of Liao, Jin, and Yuan from Northern nomads. The distribution of tea culture had an enormous influence on the development of tea utensil manufacturing methods. The significance of this study is that these findings can be used as basic data to provide food culture insights into Koryo celadon tea utensils.
This study was investigated cranberry powder substituted for flour in pound cake recipes with the amounts of 0, 4, 7, 10, and 13%. Cranberry powder have of 6.47% of moisture content, 3.38% of crude protein, 4.92% of crude fat and 0.43% of crude ash. No significant difference in weight was found from increased cranberry powder concentration. Volume and specific loaf volume have decreased as the cranberry powder content increased. No significant difference in moisture and brix was found from increased cranberry powder concentration. pH have decreased as the cranberry powder content increased. ‘L’ and ‘b’ decreased with an increase in the cranberry powder concentration, but ‘a’ increased. The texture measurement result showed that the hardness and chewiness of cake have decreased as the cranberry powder content increased. springiness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness showed no significant difference with the increasing amount of caked cranberry. Overall preference scores showed a high overall acceptability for the cake made with 7% cranberry powder
The objective of this study was to determine the quality characteristics of fermenting mash and pasteurized ginseng Makgeolli added with different concentrations of ginseng powder. Total aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria counts of mash added with 0, 1, 2, and 4% ginseng powder during 4 days of fermentation significantly increased, whereas yeast count decreased. Viable cell count remarkably decreased after pasteurization. Pasteurized 4% ginseng Makgeolli (4.30) showed a higher pH than 0, 1, and 2 % ginseng Makgeolli (4.09, 4.08, and 4.06, respectively) after 15 days of aging. After aging, amylase activity of pasteurized Makgeolli decreased, and 0% and 1% ginseng Makgeolli (22.35, 21.55oBrix) showed higher Brix content than 4% ginseng Makgeolli (20.15 °Brix). Before aging, alcohol contents of 0, 1, 2, and 4% pasteurized ginseng Makgeolli were 5.80, 5.50, 5.20, and 5.10%, respectively. After 15 days of aging, 0% ginseng Makgeolli (7.00) showed higher alcohol content than 1, 2, and 4% ginseng Makgeolli (5.90, 5.80, and 5.60%, respectively). The results of the sensory evaluation show that 2% ginseng Makgeolli after 3 days of aging at 4oC had the highest scores for taste (5.19), flavor (5.04), and overall acceptability (5.22) among the samples.
This research was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oil (EO) from Artemisia Princeps Pampanini on quality of tomato during storage. EO was extracted by steam distillation and diluted by 1 and 2%. Total phenolic contents and antioxidative activities of EO were analyzed. Tomato was packaged corrugated box covered with polypropylene (PP) film containing EO (1 and 2%) and then stored at room temperature for 10 days. During storage, appearance, weight loss rate, soluble solid contents, pH and a (redness) value were measured for tomato. Total phenolic contents of EO increased in a dose-dependence. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities also showed a concentration-dependent increase. The weight loss rate was lowest using the film packaged in 1% EO. During the storage period, soluble solid contents and pH increased in all treatments. The a value increased regardless of EO concentration in films. Especially, tomato packaged with EO film showed a lower a value than non EO-packaged ones. This result suggests that application of EO to film is effective for tomato quality preservation.
Increasing use of organically grown foods has renewed interest in the relationship between agricultural methods and food quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of organic strawberries. For this study, strawberries were measured in terms of quality characteristics, including weight, length, diameter, hunter color, soluble solid contents (SSC), moisture contents, and pH, as well as antioxidant activities, including DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and total phenol and flavonoid contents. Consequently, conventional strawberries showed higher weight, diameter, and L (lightness) and b (yellowness) values than organic strawberries (p<0.001). Length, moisture contents, pH, a (redness) value, and DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were similar (p<0.05). However, organic strawberries showed higher SSC and total flavonoid and phenol contents than conventional strawberries (p<0.001). These results indicate that there were significant differences between organic and conventional agriculture techniques.
Demand for organic agriculture has greatly increased in the past decade. The objective of this study was to evaluate quality the characteristics and antioxidant activities of organically and conventionally grown carrots. Organically and conventionally grown carrots were harvested in Jeju Island, Korea. Carrot extracts were investigated for their antioxidative components (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and their antioxidant activities (DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities). The quality characteristics of carrots were estimated in terms of hardness, length, weight, moisture contents, and soluble solid content (SSC). Conventionally grown carrots showed higher values than organic carrot in terms of hardness (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in moisture contents or SSC. In the case of antioxidant activity, organic carrots showed a higher value for DPPH radical scavenging activity (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in other antioxidants. Consequently, quality characteristics and antioxidant activities were different between organically and conventionally grown carrots.
In recent years, consumers have become more interested in convenient lifestyles, leading to increased use of salted cabbages for preparation of kimchi. This study aimed to investigate the safety of heavy metals, pesticide residues, and foodborne pathogens in commercial salted cabbages in Seoul from August to November, 2014. The survey, which was conducted to determine whether or not salted cabbages were prepared under the highest sanitary conditions, showed that Seoulites are interested in purchasing hygienic and safe salted cabbages. The average amounts (range) of Pb and Cd found in 30 salted cabbage samples were 0.007 (0.000~0.063) mg/kg and 0.004 (0.000~0.012) mg/kg, respectively. The cabbages were analyzed for residues from 285 types of pesticides using the multiresidue method. Residues for pesticides were not detected. Major foodborne pathogens, specifically Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and Norovirus, were also not detected.
The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of seven (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) commercial ketchups marketed in Korea. The 70% ethanol extracts were prepared and evaluated for total phenolic content, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and metal chelating effect. pH ranged from 3.64 to 3.94, and soluble solid and reducing sugar contents of samples were 2.21~3.51oBrix and 4.78~13.45%, respectively. Salinity of samples was in the range of 1.79 to 3.21%, and sample G showed the lowest salinity. The lightness, redness, and yellowness of the Hunter color system of samples were 15.42~19.94, 18.55~23.98, and 20.87~24.34, respectively. The phenolic contents ranged from 1.37 to 2.60 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g, with samples F and G exhibiting the highest contents. Antioxidant activity determined based on DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and metal chelating effects were 45.10~90.87, 55.35~92.53, and 71.10~92.20%, respectively, at a concentration of 200 mg/mL. Samples A and G showed higher antioxidant activity than other samples. There were positive correlations between phenolic contents and antioxidant activity, suggesting that phenolic compounds are the major contributors to antioxidant activity.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is usually caused by foods such as wheat, egg, milk, and peanuts, leading to common health problems in early childhood with complications like urtication. The aim of this study was to evaluate ethanol extracts of rice and rice snacks concentrated until the ethanol was completely eliminated and hot-air dried. In vitro analyses were carried out using murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. We measured cytotoxicity, nitric oxide (NO) production, and inflammatory cytokine level. The NO level of the cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was significantly reduced by rice and rice snack extracts. TNF-α level decreased in contrast to the LPS group, although a significant difference was not observed. On the other hand, IL-6 significantly decreased in both rice and rice snack extracts in a dose-dependent manner. The results of the present study suggest that rice and rice snack decreased NO and inflammatory cytokine levels. Therefore, rice could be useful as a raw material for relieving child atopic dermatitis caused by snacks made from wheat.
A Study of Instant rice selected attributes of instant rice, the decrease in rice consumption is in fact been hailed as a stock and based on dietary lifestyle through prior research, attempting to validate whether the behavior between the related implications. The instant rice revitalization plan of conducting were developed further, consumers want instant rice and at the same time. Confirmed based on the selected attributes of instant rice according to consumer dietary lifestyle through this research to know could have instant rice selection attributes affect the degree of the action. Compare the differences of regional instant rice selected attributes gradually increasing area for future research, instant rice consumers surveyed Seoul, Gyeonggi-do area only residing in the limitations of this study, which, because you are studying in different regions.
Consumers have recently shown great interest in organic foods since they are considered to have higher antioxidant activity compared to conventionally farmed foods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the general characteristics of organic and conventional spinach, such as length, weight, color, moisture contents, and antioxidant capacity based on ABTS radical scavenging activity, total phenol, and flavonoid contents. Spinach that was used in this study was grown conventionally and organically in Po-Hang, Korea. As the results, conventional spinach showed higher values for length, weight (p<0.001), and moisture content (p<0.05). For antioxidant capacity, organically grown spinach showed higher antioxidant activity than the conventional group based on total phenol and flavonoid contents, but only total flavonoid content was significantly different (p<0.05). For ABTS radical scavenging activity, the conventional group showed a slightly higher capacity, but the difference was not significant. Thus, the organic farming system in spinach showed similar or slightly higher antioxidant activities.
Makgeolli is a health beneficial food for diabetes compared to other alcoholic beverages. We examined the effect of Makgeolli on blood glucose level and survival rate in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse model. We force fed 30 male STZ-induced diabetic ICR mice Makgeolli consisting of 6% alcohol (DM-MAK), 6% ethanol (DM-EtOH), or distilled water (DM-DW) for 4 weeks. In the DM-MAK group, food intake and water intake were higher than those of other groups after 4 weeks. Body weight, however, was not different among the experimental groups. We also found no significant difference in blood glucose level among the experimental groups. In normal ICR mice fed Makgeolli for 1 week, the area of the blood glucose curve was higher than those of other groups fed 6% ethanol, 2% glucose, or distilled water. Survival rates of STZ-induced diabetic mice fed Makgeolli, 6% ethanol, or DW for 4 weeks were 100%, 25%, and 62.5%, respectively. In conclusion, Makgeolli had no beneficial effect on blood glucose in a STZ-induced diabetic mouse model, although their survival rate was high. These results show that Makgeolli has an effect on type 1 diabetes through other mechanisms than blood glucose control.
This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a nutrition and exercise education program on weight control and nutrition knowledge. The nutrition-exercise educational period was 12 weeks. The subjects were 160 adult women with an average age of 48.1 years. We investigated general characteristics, diet history, eating habits, and intake frequencies of six food groups by survey. A total of 94 women among the subjects participated in the pre and post nutrition knowledge evaluations and anthropometric data assessment. After the program, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference significantly decreased. Further, % of body fat decreased, but not significantly. BMI significantly decreased (p<0.001) from 25.14 to 24.80 kg/m2, and waist circumference significantly decreased (p<0.001) from 79.72 to 77.63 cm. The nutrition knowledge scores of subjects significantly increased (p<0.001) from 8.01 to 9.03. However, there was little change in employment. These results suggest that the nutrition-exercise education program may improve obesity index and nutrition knowledge. However, it is necessary to develop a specialized weight control program for workers.