In this study, we identified the differences in food content watching habits and nutrition quotient in adolescent (NQ-A). A total number of 811 subjects were surveyed to establish their general characteristics, food content watching habits, and NQ-A using a self-administered questionnaire. In addition, the mediating effect of watching motivation between the type of food content watched and the NQ-A score was determined. The classification by the type of the food content mainly watched showed that 405 participants (49.9%) watched the Mukbang content, 244 (30.1%) the Cookbang content, and 162 (20.0%) another contents. Among the content watching motives in the Cookbang content group, information acquisition and enjoyment were predominant, whereas emotional satisfaction had the lowest frequency. Compared to the Mukbang content group, when the Cookbang content group mediated information acquisition motivation, the scores of the total, diversity, balance, and practice of NQ-A score areas increased. Compared to the Mukbang content group, the score in the moderation area decreased when the Cookbang content group mediated enjoyment motivation. If food content with accurate information and interesting content are produced and used for adolescent nutrition education, the education will be highly effective.
This study aims to determine the difference in preferred horticultural plants, horticultural activities, and stress-coping strategies based on Enneagram centers of intelligence in middle-aged women. Data from a convenience sample of 206 middle-aged women were analyzed using IBM SPSS (V. 25.0). The results indicated a statistically significant difference in preferred horticulture plants depending on the Enneagram centers of intelligence. The results also suggested that head- and heart-centered respondents preferred body-centered respondents preferred “foliage plants.” The second most preferred horticultural activities showed no statistically significant difference among the head, heart, and body. However, all three centers showed the strongest preference for “enjoying” among various horticultural activities, and the second most preferred activities differed as “harvesting” among head- and body-centered respondents, and “decorating” among heart-centered respondents. Moreover, a difference in stress-coping strategies was also observed. The head-centered respondents used the “problem-focused” strategy, heart-centered respondents used “hopeful thinking,” and the body-centered respondents used “pursuit of social support.” Thus, these results can be used as baseline data for developing therapeutic horticultural activities while considering the attributes of middle-aged women.
This study investigated the minimum salt concentration required for achieving the optimal quality characteristics of sauerkrauts made by adding 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% (w/w) of sea salt to cabbage according to the fermentation period. For evaluating the quality characteristics, we measured the microorganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and coliform group), pH, total acidity, salinity, chromaticity, and hardness every 24 hours. The lactic acid bacteria were identified and analyzed, and acceptance test was carried out on the 4th day of fermentation. The results showed that the salinity of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% sauerkrauts on the 4th day of fermentation was lower than the average salinity of Baechu-Kimchi. The 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% sauerkrauts had significantly higher lactic acid bacteria than the 2.5% sample, and the coliform group was not detected after the 5th day of fermentation. Among the microbes identified, Weissella cibaria JCM 12495 was found only in domestic sauerkraut, in addition to Lactococcus lactis NCDO 604, Leuconostoc citreum JCM 9698, and Lactobacillus sakei DSM 20017. The results of the acceptance test show that 1.0 and 1.5% sea salt sauerkraut had significantly higher overall acceptance compared to the other samples. In conclusion, sauerkraut with a salt concentration of 1.0 and 1.5% (w/w) had abundant lactic acid bacteria and excellent sensory properties, suggesting that the production of low-salted sauerkraut can be adopted to reduce consumer salt intake in the future.
최근 기후변화 및 국제교역량, 여행객, 외국 이주민 등의 증가로 국내 농작물에 큰 피해를 입힐 수 있는 고위험 식물 병의 국내 유입이 꾸준히 증가하고 있고 이에 따라, 검역기관 종사자들의 업무량도 늘어나고 있다. 특히 ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’가 원인병원균인 감자 제브라칩병의 경우, 발생하게 되면 감자를 초토화시켜 막대한 피해를 야기한다. ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’의 감자와 토마토 등의 가지과(Solanaceae) 작물과 당근을 포함하는 산형과(Umbelliferae) 작물이 기주가 될 수 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 아직까지 국내에 유입되지 않은 감자 제브라칩병과 매개충인 토마토 감자 나무이(tomato potato psyllid; TPP; Bactericera cockerelli Sulc.)에 대한 예찰 조사를 수행하였다. 예찰 조사를 위해 전국을 7개 권역(경기-강원, 충청, 전북, 전남, 경북, 경남 및 제주)으로 나누고, 각 권역에 속하는 3개 지역 중심으로 수행하였는데, 경기-강원 권역은 인천, 화성, 춘천 및 홍천, 충청 권역은 공주, 세종 및 청주, 전북 권역은 익산, 완주 및 정읍, 전남 권역은 보성, 고흥 및 순천, 경북 권역은 상주, 김천 및 안동, 경남 권역은 거창, 함양 및 진주, 제주 권역은 구좌 및 성산 지역이 해당되며, 지역당 3개 지점을 두고 조사하였다. 매개충 TPP 조사를 위해 끈끈이 트랩을 이용한 조사를 병행하였다. 예찰 조사는 2018년 9월부터 10월까지 2주 간격으로 실시하였다. 2018년 예찰 조사결과, 감자 제브라칩병과 매개충인 TPP는 국내에는 확인되지 않았다. 이 연구는 식물병을 조기에 탐지하기 위해 구축된 전국적인 모니터링 네트워크를 통해 수행할 수 있었고, 국외 외래유입병들의 예찰 조사를 위한 지역 거점을 확보하는데 기여하였다고 평가된다.
This study investigated the factors affecting restrained and emotional eating according to the BMI of college women in Seoul. Based on their weight, 514 college women were divided into 3 groups. General demographics, nutrient consumption, eating habits and DEBQ were subsequently evaluated. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the factors responsible for restrained and emotional eating in each group. Percentage of the overweight or obese group having negative emotions, such as frequency of overeating (p<0.05), habitual eating, regret, and guilt after overeating, was higher as compared to the other groups (p<0.001). Considering factors that affect restrained eating, negative emotion after overeating had a positive correlation in the underweight group (β=0.481, p<0.001). In the normalweight group, the BMI (β=0.201, p<0.001), total food intake (β=0.241, p=0.002), and negative emotion after overeating (β=0.284, p<0.001) positively affected restrained eating. In the underweight group, habitual eating (β=0.292, p=0.002) and negative emotions after overeating (β=0.233, p=0.012) were determined to affect emotional eating. Moreover, habitual eating (β=0.290, p<0.001) and negative emotions after overeating (β=0.172, p=0.004) were observed to influence emotional eating in the normal weight group. In the overweight and obese groups, habitual eating was determined to affect emotional eating (β=0.410, p<0.001). Taken together, these results provide a basis for creating a weight control program for young women having undesirable eating behaviors, such as restrained and emotional eating.
최근 기후변화와 더불어 국제 교역량, 여행객 및 외국 이주민 등의 증가로 인해 국내 농작물에 큰 피해를 입힐 수 있는 고위험 식물 병의 유입 사례가 꾸준히 증가하고 있는 추세다. 특히, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’가 원인병원균인 감귤황룡병의 경우, 발생하게 되면 감귤과원에 큰 피해를 야기한다. 이에 본 연구에서는 아직까지 국내 유입되지 않은 감귤황룡병과 매개충인 아시아감귤나무이(Asian citrus psyllid; ACP; Diaphotima citri)에 대한 예찰 조사를 남부지역에 집중된 유자 재배지 중심으로 수행하였다. 유자는 감귤황룡병의 기주가 될 수 있는 운향과(Rutaceae)에 속하는 작물로 기후 특성상 우리 나라 전라남도와 경상남도 해안지역을 중심으로 주로 재배되고 있다. 예찰 조사는 전남과 경남에 속하는 각 3개 지역 중심으로 수행하였는데, 전남 권역은 고흥, 보성 및 광양 중심으로 그리고 경남 권역은 거제, 통영 및 남해 지역이며, 지역당 3개 지점을 두고 조사하였다. ACP 포획을 위해 끈끈이 트랩을 이용한 조사를 병행하였다. 예찰 조사는 2018년부터 2020년까지 3년에 걸쳐 수행하였고 2018년은 6월부터 10월까지, 2019년과 2020년은 4월부터 10월까지 2주 간격으로 실시하였다. 예찰 조사 결과 감귤황룡병과 매개충 ACP는 국내에서는 아직 확인되지 않았다. 이 연구는 식물병을 조기에 탐지하기 위해 구축된 전국적인 모니터링 네트워크를 통해 수행할 수 있었고, 국외 고위험 식물 병들의 예찰 조사를 위한 지역 거점을 확보하는데 기여하였다고 평가된다.
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine whether food intake is effective in preventing diseases related to cognitive impairment. We searched English databases namely MEDLINE, PubMed and ScienceDirect from 2000 to May 2020, and Korean databases namely RISS, KISS, and DBPIA from 1990 to May 2020. We divided the data into 15 groups using the food group classification of the Korean Nutrition Society (KNS). The effect size (Cohen’s d) was estimated using a random-effect model, and a 95% confidence interval was calculated for each study. We included 17 cross-sectional studies and 7 cohort studies which involved 45,115 participants. As a result of analyzing the subgroups in the Asian population of both sexes, it was observed that grain intake has a protective effect against cognitive impairment. For females, pulses and fish also have a protective role against cognitive impairment. In the case of seaweed, a negative relationship was found with a moderate protective effect against cognitive impairment (Cohen’s d:-0.533, 95% CI: -0.939, -0.126; p=0.010) in Korean studies. Dairy products are associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment in the American and European population but drinking alcohol is associated with a lower impairment risk. These results provide a basis for formulating the dietary guidelines for preventing dementia for each country.
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between bullying, nursing work environment, reality shock and factors of influence on turnover intension. Data were collected from 381 nurses who were under the charge nurse at a hospital with more than 600 beds in Seoul. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS24.0 program. The mean score for turnover intension was 3.61 ± 0.89. The intension of turnover was correlated with bullying in the workplace (r=0.197, ρ=.001), the nursing work environment (r=-.409, p=.001), and reality shock (r=.572, p=.001). Variables affecting turnover intension were the work department(β=-0.018, ρ=.049), working environment(β=-0.424, ρ<.000), and reality shock(β=0.654, ρ<.000). The total amount of explanation for turnover intension was 37.3%. The degree of turnover intension of nurses was affected by work in general wards, the experience of workplace bullying and the nursing work environment. To reduce turnover intension, nursing work needs to be analyzed and efforts are needed to establish an effective communication system.
This study assessed the color, polyphenol content, and sensory characteristics of dressing containing varying concentrations (0, 3, 6 and 9%) of freeze-dried Natto. We determined that the absence of freeze-dried Natto (0%) imparted the highest additive value for both L and a, b. The polyphenol contents obtained were 0.63, 0.69, 0.74, and 0.82 mg/g for 0, 3, 6 and 9% of dressing containing freeze-dried Natto, respectively. The appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall preference of dressings with freeze-dried Natto showed significant differences between the samples. The overall preference was highest at 5.92 points, with dressing containing 9% Natto. The quality characteristics of the 9% added samples exhibited significantly higher values as compared to those of the controls, raising the possibility of development as a health-functional dressing.
This study evaluated the color, DPPH radical activity, and sensory characteristics of nutritional bars supplemented with varying concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5%) of freeze-dried Natto. An inconsistent pattern was observed for the L value, whereas both a and b values increased significantly up to 5% addition of freeze-dried Natto. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of nutritional bars supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% freeze-dried Natto were determined to be 59.54, 59.70, 44.85, and 55.07%, respectively. The appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall preference of nutritional bars supplemented with freeze-dried Natto showed significant differences between the samples. The overall preference of the nutrient bar was highest at 6.08 points, determined for the 2.5% Natto supplemented bar. The quality characteristics of the 2.5% added samples exhibited significantly higher values as compared to the controls, thereby indicating the potential of development in health-functional cereal bars.
최근 기후변화 및 국제교역량, 여행객, 외국 이주민 증가 등으로 국내 농작물에 큰 피해를 입힐 수 있는 고위험 식물병의 유입이 꾸준히 증가하고 있다. 검역 대상인 병원체의 수가 증가함에 따라 검역기관 및 연구원의 업무량이 증가하고 있다. 본 연구에서는 지역별 주요 수출대상 과수인 포도, 단감, 감귤의 국내 미기록 병과 원인병원체에 대한 예찰조사를 수행하였다. 이를 위해 전국을 경기-강원, 충청, 전북, 전남, 경북, 경남 그리고 제주 등 7개 권역으로 나누고 각 권역 소재 대학에서 예찰조사를 수행하여 예찰네트워크를 구축하고자 하였다. 포도 대상 병은 모두 4종으로, Pierce’s disease (Xylella fastidiosa), brown rot (Monilinia fructigena), anthracnose (Greeneria uvicola), 그리고 esca (Phaeomoniella chlamydospora)을 조사하였고 경기-강원, 충청도, 전라북도, 그리고 경상북도 권역을 중심으로 각 권역당 3개 지역 그리고 지역당 3개 지점을 두고 조사하였다. 단감은 모두 3종으로, brown spot (Fusicladium levieri), black leaf spot (Adisciso kaki), 그리고 black spot (Phoma kakivora)을 조사하였고 국내 단감 주생산지인 경상남도와 전라남도 권역을 중심으로 각 권역당 3개 지역 그리고 지역당 3개 지점을 두고 조사하였다. 감귤 대상 병은 모두 2종으로, citrus scab (Elsinoë australis), Septoria spot (Septoria citri)을 조사하였고 감귤 주생산지인 제주권역을 중심으로 조사하였다. 모두 9종에 대한 예찰조사는 2019년 4월부터 10월까지 2주간격으로 실시하였다. 예찰조사결과 주요 수출대상 과수인 포도, 단감, 감귤의 국내미기록병 9종에 대한 원인병원체는 발견되지 않았다. 이 연구를 통해 식물병을 조기에 탐지할 수 있는 전국적인 모니터링 시스템을 구축하였고, 국외 외래유입병들의 예찰조사를 위한 지역 거점을 확보하였다고 평가된다.
본 연구는 옥수수 재배 시 환경에 영향을 미치는 노균병 저항성과 관련된 유전자 후보군을 탐색해서 노균병으로 인한 토양오염과 옥수수 생산량 감소를 해결하기 위하여 노균병 저항성 품종을 효율적으로 발굴하기 위한 연구이다. 옥수수의 6번 염색체의 152,892,333과 154,335,437 사이에 있는 노균병 저항성 유전자를 탐색하였으며 이 부분에 존재할 것으로 예상되는 전사체에서 38개의 프라이머 세트를 디자인하여 이 중 16개의 예측 전사체를 가려 내었다. 또한 RT-PCR을 수행하여 감염된 Ki11의 발현이 높은 7개의 전사체로 5개의 품종에 대하여 건강한 샘플과 감염된 샘플을 검정하였고 최종 5개의 후보 유전자군[알려지지 않은 미확인 유전자 2개, OFP transcription factor, bZIP transcription factor, pentatricopeptide repeat (Ppr)]이 발견 되었다. 본 연구의 결과로 추가적인 실험 설계를 통해 5개의 후보 유전자군에 대한 재검정을 통하여 확실한 노균병 저항성 유전자를 발굴하고 이를 노균병 저항성 품종 개발 및 방재에 이용할 수 있을 것으로 사료된다.
배경/목적: 바터팽대부에서 발생하는 선암종은 드문 질환으로 항암화학요법에 대한 연구가 부족하다. 본 연구에서 진 행성 바터팽대부 선암종 환자에서 XELOX 병합요법의 효능 및 안전성을 분석하고자 한다. 방법: 2006년 10월부터 2014년 1월까지 국립암센터에서 XELOX 병합요법으로 치료한 바터팽대부 선암종 환자 28명 을 대상으로 후향적으로 분석하였다. 모든 환자는 진단 당시 전이성 또는 재발한 바터팽대부 선암종 환자이었다. XELOX 병합요법은 외래에서 3주마다 다음과 같은 프로토콜에 따라 투여되었다. 치료 시작 1-14일에 하루 2회 카페시타빈 750 mg/m2를 경구 투여하고, 1일에 옥살리플라틴 130 mg/m2을 정맥 주사하였다. 결과: 24.6개월(범위 4.8-78개월)의 중앙 추적관찰 기간에서 중앙 무진행 생존 기간은 4.8개월(범위 0.7-18.0개월)이었고, 중앙 생존 기간은 11.9개월(범위 2.0–26.1개월)이었다. 1명의 환자(4%)가 완전 관해를 얻었고, 5명의 환자(18%)는 부분 관 해를 보였다. 무진행 생존 기간와 전체 생존 기간에서 항암화 학요법 반응 여부에 따른 차이는 없었다. 환자에서 가장 흔한 3등급의 이상 반응은 메스꺼움과 구토였다(10.7%). 치료와 관 련된 사망은 관찰되지 않았다. 결론: XELOX 요법은 전이 혹은 재발 바터팽대부 선암종에서 비교적 낮은 독성의 발현과 중등도 효과를 보이는 치료법이다.
Basic dyes such as malachite green and methylene blue have been used as disinfectants to control water fungal infections since the 1930s. However, after succeeding reports of carcinogenicity and bioaccumulation of the dye, their use was forbidden in lieu of public health. This study undertook to evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfur solution processed by effective microorganisms (EM-PSS) against Saprolegnia parasitica infection, and its safety in fish. In vitro antifungal evaluation of EM-PSS inhibited the growth of S. parasitica mycelia at concentrations of 50 ppm or higher. The acute toxicity test of EM-PSS to the mud fish (Misgurnus mizolepis) measured a no effect concentration (NOEC) at 100 ppm, the lowest effect concentration (LOEC) at 125 ppm, and the half-lethal concentration (LC50) at 125 ppm in juvenile and 250 ppm in the immature stage. In addition, the ecotoxicity test of EM-PSS using Daphnia magna inhibited swimming of D. magna at concentrations of 100 ppm or less. Lastly, the EM-PSS prevented infection of S. parasitica to mud fish, at concentrations of 50 ppm. Furthermore, at 100 ppm concentration, the EM-PSS showed no acute toxicity on mud fish, nor any eco-toxic effects on D. magnano. Therefore, we conclude that carcinogenic disinfectants such as malachite green and methylene blue could be replaced by EM-PSS to remove S. parasitica in mud fish farming, and might be a potential eco-friendly disinfectant in aquaculture.
Drought is one of important environmental stress for plant. Drought has deleterious effect to plant growth including maize (Zea mays L.) such as vegetative and/or reproductive growth, root extension, photosynthesis efficiency, flowering, anthesis-silking interval (ASI), fertilization, and grain filling. In this study, we screened drought tolerant maize in 21 cultivars from different sources, sixteen NAM parent lines (B73, CML103, CML228, CML247, CML277, CML322, CML333, CML69, Ki11, Ki3, Ky21, M37W, Mo18w, NC350, Oh43 and Tx303), four Korean hybrids (Cheongdaok, Gangdaok, Kwangpyeongok and Pyeonganok) and one Southeast Asian genotype (DK9955). Drought stress (DS) index was evaluated with leaf rolling score at seedling stage and ASI at silking date. The leaf rolling scoring of CML228, DK9955 and Ki11 were determined 1.28, 1.85, 1.86, respectively. However, M37W, Kwangpyeongok, B73 and NC350 were determined over the 3. ASI analysis revealed that CML228, CML103, Cheongdaok, NC350, B73, CML322, Kwangpyeongok and Ki11 are represented less than 5 days under DS and less than 3 days of difference between DS and well-watered (WW), but CML69, Ki3, Pyeonganok, M37W, Mo18w and Gangdaok were represented more than 10 days under DS and more than 8 days of difference between DS and WW. Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis determined CML228, Ki11, and CML322 were regarded as drought tolerance cultivars. Eventually, Ki11 showed genetic similarity with Korean cultivars by QTL analysis and MDS analysis. Ki11 has a potential for development of drought tolerance maize with Korean cultivars.
The present study was conducted on 200 food handlers employed at restaurants with open-kitchens in Seoul to evaluate their food sanitation knowledge levels and practices. A majority of participants (88%) replied that open-kitchens are more hygienic than common kitchens due to the sanitary cooking process. The correct answer rate was 94.3% for sanitation of instruments and utensils and environmental sanitation, whereas food handling sanitation (66.8%) was ranked at the bottom among food sanitation knowledge. Total scores of food sanitation knowledge were significantly influenced by education level and ages of food handlers (p<0.001). Personal hygiene knowledge level of food handlers regarding institutional food service was higher than that of food handlers at restaurants and bakeries (p<0.001). Food sanitation practices scores showed significant differences in personal hygiene (p<0.001) and environmental sanitation (p<0.05) according to certificate possession. As the result of correlation analysis between food sanitation knowledge and practices, there was no significantly positive correlation, whereas a significant positive correlation was observed between knowledge of food handling and personal hygiene practices (p<0.05). The results show need for improvement in both knowledge and practice levels of open-kitchen food handlers. Consistent and customized food sanitation education program should be developed to protect against food poisoning at open-kitchen restaurants.
The objective of this study is to explore the preference differences of experience programs in rural areas according to socio-demographic characteristics. For this purpose, data were collected from a total of 481 adults visited in rural social enterprises in 2015, using self-administered questionnaire survey. Twenty-six items for evaluating the preference of experience program were measured using 5 score Likert scale and were extracted to 6 factors such as physical, ecological, historical culture, recreational and healing, watching show, and rural life experience. The results were as follows: first, visitors preferred the ecological experience the most and in order of recreational and healing, rural life, physical activity, historical culture, and watching show. Secondly, physical activity were preferred by young people, the unmarried, and student. Ecological, historical culture, recreational and healing, rural life experience were preferred by higher income earner or highly educated. Based on these results, implications for developing customized consumer’s experience program for rural social enterprises will be suggested.