The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among snacking behaviors and depression in middle school students. A survey was conducted on 777 middle school students (491 boys and 286 girls). Using a self-reporting method, the participants took 20 minutes to complete the questionnaires. Our data revealed that the height and weight of boys were 172.66 cm and 63.48 kg, respectively, whereas those of girls were 159.86 cm and 51.62 kg, respectively. Sleep durations of boys and girls were 6.44 and 6.41 hours, respectively. Boys ate more rice cake than girls, whereas girls ate more biscuits than boys. The average B.D.I (Beck Depression inventory) scores for boys and girls were 9.73 and 11.49, respectively. Degree of depression was significantly higher in girls compared to boys. We also observed significant correlations between depression and snacking (rice cake, biscuits, chocolate, and fried potato). This study may provide basic information on snacking behaviors and depression in middle school students, and the findings suggest that proper control of emotions is required to maintain desirable eating behaviors in middle school students.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between intake experience of mother’s milk intake/baby food intake, present eating habits, and atopy symptoms in elementary school students in Chungnam province. More frequent intake of mother’s milk was associated with less atopy symptoms. Subjects who had good attitudes for baby food in the past had less unfavorite foods. In addition, subjects that ate fruits and vegetable-baby food had better eating attitudes for a balanced diet. Unbalanced diet was associated with worse behavior characteristics. Frequency of eating breakfast affected behavioral characteristics. As this study had regional and size limitations, it is necessary to further investigate the relationship between past intake experience of mother’s milk/attitude towards baby foods and present eating habits/physical growth. Based on these results, past intake experience of mother’s milk/attitude towards baby foods might affect present physical growth/development and eating habits of subjects.
The aim of this study was to investigate the actual conditions underlying frequency of eating breakfast and nutritional attitudes in elementary school students in Chungnam area. Students had the highest ratio for eating breakfast everyday and spent 10-20 minutes eating breakfast. Students went to bed at 10-11 PM and woke up at 7-7:30 AM in the morning on average. The biggest reason for skipping breakfast was insufficient time in the morning. Additionally, favorite breakfast menu of subjects was a Korean style meal. The number of elementary students that recognized necessity of nutritional education was highest among subjects. Favorite educational method of subjects was education by teachers. Additionally, number of female students that recognized effect of breakfast on health status was significantly higher than boy students. Ratio of eating breakfast everyday was dependent on BMI value. Most subjects preferred video learning materials as the main nutritional education method. Overweight subjects showed the highest ratio for eating with loss of willpower compared to other students when they skipped the breakfast. Female subjects ate a greater variety of foods compared to male students, and showed better nutritional attitudes towards a desirable dietary life than male subjects. To prevent undesirable food habits and improve intake of various nutrients, systematic nutrition education is required to regulate breakfast of elementary students.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among brand awareness, switching intentions, purchasing behavior, and revisiting intentions. Brand awareness consisted of three factors: brand image, physical environment, and affiliation of coffee brand. Good brand image was associated with reduced switching intentions, whereas negative images were associated with higher switching intentions. Consumer purchasing behavior was most affected by interior decoration, including furniture, decorations, etc. Switching intentions had a negative relationship with revisiting intentions. Finally, purchasing behavior and revisiting intentions showed a positive correlation. As limitations, the only participants were university students, who are not representative of all consumers at coffee shops. Moreover, this study did not divide coffee shops into franchises and individually owned.
This study was conducted to establish optimum conditions for coagulation of konjac jelly as well as antimicrobial activity by concentration of Ca(OH)2. Hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of konjac jelly increased according to concentration of konjac powder, the key material of konjac jelly. The highest sensory evaluation score was acquired with konjac jelly made with 3% konjac powder. A Ca(OH)2 concentration of 0.4-0.6% as a coagulation agent was optimum for coagulation of konjac jelly. Further, sensory score was highest at a Ca(OH)2 concentration of 0.6%. All populations of bacteria, yeast, and mold in konjac jelly were restrained by Ca(OH)2 in a concentration- dependent manner. Furthermore, all tested microorganisms were strictly restrained at 1.0×10−2 N of Ca(OH)2.
This study was conducted to promote the utilization of fish paste added with green laver powder as a food product. The tested concentrations of green laver powder were 0, 3, 5, and 7%. The pH of the samples ranged from 6.71 to 6.90, and moisture content ranged from 70.03 to 70.57%. The L and a values of the samples decreased as the concentration of green laver powder increased and b value increased. Folding test in all test samples showed AA that mean good flexibility. In the texture meter test, hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness increased according to increasing concentration of green laver powder. However, gumminess and brittleness of the fish paste decreased upon addition of green laver powder. In the sensory evaluation, fish paste prepared with 5% green laver powder was preferred over other fish pastes. These results suggest that green laver powder can be applied to fish paste for the purpose of high quality and functionality.
This study was conducted to investigate the use of sugar alcohols (sorbitol, erythritol, and xylitol) as alternative sweeteners for replacing sucrose in Yukwa (traditional Korean oil-puffed rice snack). The moisture contents of Bandegi (dried Yukwa dough) and Yukwa containing sugar alcohols were higher than that of control (containing only sucrose). The microstructures of control and Bandegi containing sugar alcohols showed uniformly and finely distributed air holes. Expansion ratio and oil absorption of Yukwa containing sorbitol and 30% erythritol were higher than those of control. Appearance and cross section of control and Yukwa containing sorbitol, 30% erythritol, and 30% xylitol showed a good shape. The lightness (L) of control was significantly lower than Yukwa containing sugar alcohols, whereas redness (a) and yellowness (b) were higher than those in Yukwa containing sugar alcohols. Hardness of Yukwa containing sugar alcohols was significantly lower than that of control, and that of Yukwa containing sorbitol was the lowest. Peak number of Yukwa containing sugar alcohols was significantly lower than that of control, and that of Yukwa containing 60% erythritol and 60% xylitol was the lowest among all samples. In the sensory evaluation, color of control was deepest, whereas that of Yukwa containing 60% xylitol was lightest. Volume and air hole uniformity of Yukwa containing 60% erythritol and 60% xylitol were inferior than those of other samples. Sweetness of Yukwa containing sugar alcohols was lower than that of control, whereas oily flavor was stronger. Hardness of Yukwa containing sugar alcohols was lower than that of control, and Yukwa containing xylitol showed the lowest hardness among the samples. Crispness of Yukwa containing sugar alcohols was lower than that of control. There were no significant differences in overall acceptability between control and Yukwa containing 30% sorbitol and 30% erythritol. Overall, sorbitol and erythritol were appropriate as a 30% replacement for sucrose when preparing Yukwa.
The quality characteristics of noodles made from domestic Korean wheat flour added with 0, 1, 3, 5% cactus Chounnyuncho (Opuntia humifusa) powder were investigated. The water absorption and peak time of dough, as determined by farinography, increased with higher cactus powder content. Stability and elasticity of dough decreased as fermentation proceeded. Cooking characteristics of noodles made from dough such as weight, water absorption, and volume decreased with higher cactus powder content. The turbidity of cooked water increased significantly with 5% cactus powder content. For color test, L-value decreased while a-value and b-value increased with higher cactus powder content. In texture analyses, hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, and gumminess increased with higher cactus powder content. In the sensory test, noodles containing 3% cactus powder were the most preferred.
This study investigated the antioxidative activities and quality characteristics of Aster scaber Bibimbap as a home meal replacement with blanching (BASB) or without blanching (ASB) pretreatment. BASB samples at 5.0 g showed higher moisture, crude protein, and ash contents than the control (p<0.05). Color L, a, b-values of samples significantly decreased with increased content of Aster scaber powder (p<0.05). BASB samples showed lower hardness than ASB samples. BASB samples showed higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than ASB samples. BASB samples showed higher sensory values for color, savory aroma, savory flavor, and aftertaste than ASB samples. Except for glossiness, BASB samples showed higher sensory acceptance scores than ASB samples. Sensory acceptance tests of all samples showed high scores for ‘usually like’, representing the possibility of successful development of Bibimbap as a home meal replacement, especially that containing blanching pre-treated Aster scaber powder.
This study compared the texture characteristics and consumer acceptance of cooked wheat noodles produced in four countries, which were Korea, Japan, China, and Italy. Noodle types were selected after FGI (focus group interview). Eleven noodles were studied, and they were categorized into four types: udon, fried udon, oriental noodles of various thickness, and pasta. Color was measured as L (lightness), a (redness), and b (yellowness) values using a colorimeter. Lightness decreased when noodles were cooked, whereas redness and yellowness of cooked noodles were unchanged. Texture properties of wheat noodles in terms of hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness were measured using the Rheometer. Italian spaghetti (spgt_IL), Korean fried udon (yk_udng_KR) had highest values for hardness. Korean udon had the highest value for springiness, whereas Chinese medium noodle (mid_CN) had the lowest value (p<0.05). Chinese thick noodle (thick_CN) and fettuccine (fettc_IL) showed lower hardness but higher springiness. Cohesiveness was significantly higher for Japanese udon (udng_JP), Chinese medium noodle (mid_CN), and Chinese thick noodle (thick_CN), whereas values for Korean thin noodle (thin_KR) and Korean fried noodle (yk_udng_KR) were significantly low (p<0.05). Spaghetti (spgt_IL) showed significantly high values for chewiness (p<0.05). For overall acceptability, thick Korean noodle showed the highest score with a level of 'slightly like'. Taste and texture attributes were highest among all noodles, and its high scores for chewiness and smoothness might contribute to its overall acceptance. Korean thick noodle, Korean udon, and Japanese udon were not significantly different from Korean or Japanese thin noodles. Japanese fried noodle (yk_udng_JP) showed the lowest acceptance among noodles in terms of color, flavor, taste, and texture. Chinese thick and medium noodles showed lower scores for overall acceptability, whereas chewiness was not significantly different from other noodles. Spaghetti and fettuccine showed lower scores in terms of overall acceptability, taste, texture, springiness, and chewiness.
Eating breakfast provides crucial nutrition for brain function and helps promote overall health. It is especially critical in growing adolescents, as it is known to form good eating habits and better study habits. This study investigated the effects of skipping breakfast on nutritional state, fatigue level, and attention level. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 on total of 828 adolescents composed of 414 boys and 414 girls. Students who ate breakfast never to twice per week were placed in the breakfast-skipper group while students who ate breakfast more than five times per week were included in the breakfast-eater group. Students performed a self-reported questionnaire on food behaviors, amount of food consumption, fatigue level, attention deficient hyperactivity disease (ADHD) level by Conners-Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scales, depression scale, and self-esteem level. Statistical analysis was conducted using the SAS program (version 9.1). A total of 135 boys (32.6%) and 138 girls (33.3%) were included in the breakfast-skipper group, whereas 241 boys (58.2%) and 223 girls (53.9%) were included in the breakfast-eater group. The breakfast-skipper group showed irregular food behaviors and lacked nutrients. Specifically, energy (p< .001), protein (p< .001), dietary fiber (p< .001), calcium (p< .01), vitamin A (p< .01), thiamin (p< .05), niacin (p< .001) levels in boy breakfast-skippers were statistically lower compared to boy breakfast-eaters. Intakes of all nutrients except fat in girl breakfast-skippers were statistically lower than in girl breakfast-eaters. Girl breakfast-skippers (41.3%) showed significantly higher fatigue risks compared to girl breakfast-eaters (21.5%). Low attention level was also observed only in girls in the breakfast-skipping group. Moreover, students in the breakfast-skipper group showed higher scores for depression and low self-esteem (p< .001). In conclusion, skipping breakfast has effects on young adolescents’ nutrition, manifesting as high fatigue level and low attention level, especially in girls.