Traditional cuisine reflects cooking traditions shaped by political, economic, social, cultural, and environmental conditions characterized by authenticity and uniqueness. Traditional food is not only a part of our cultural heritage but also a knowledge resource. Application of food science and technology in Korean traditional foods was reviewed from six points of view, including food preservation, fermentation, changes in food materials, utilization of food functionality, and packaging and development of cooking appliances. Books from disparate times were chosen in order to cover a wide range of materials from the past to the present. Food preservation and fermentation techniques were applied to various food materials. Combination of science and skills contributes to the accessibility of diverse food materials and better quality foods. Koreans use assorted and resilient plants, which have an abundance of functional substances such as food materials. Among cooking appliances, microwave oven and refrigerator are the most innovative products with huge influences on food eating patterns as well as lifestyle. Packaging effectively reduces post-harvest preservation losses, and better packaging has technical improvements for storage and distribution. Kimchi was chosen as an example in order to study technology from the past to the present. Availability of Kimchi cabbage, enrichment of functional ingredients, identification of useful microbial species, standardization of recipe for commercialization, prevention of texture softening, introduction of salted Kimchi cabbage and Kimchi refrigerators, and packaging were reviewed. The future of traditional foods in the market will be competitive. First, traditional foods market should be maintained to protect the diversity of food materials. Secondly, tailored foods for individuals should be considered using foods with functional properties. Information on health benefits would provide insights into health and traditional food products. Third, speedy transfer of new technology to the traditional food industry is needed to ensure food quality production and new opportunities in the market. Fourth, safety of traditional foods should be ensured without sacrificing the essential characteristics of culturally important foods. Improvement of logistics, distribution, and facility should be carried out. As demand for convenience foods increases, traditional foods should be developed into products.
This study compared the texture characteristics and consumer acceptance of cooked wheat noodles produced in four countries, which were Korea, Japan, China, and Italy. Noodle types were selected after FGI (focus group interview). Eleven noodles were studied, and they were categorized into four types: udon, fried udon, oriental noodles of various thickness, and pasta. Color was measured as L (lightness), a (redness), and b (yellowness) values using a colorimeter. Lightness decreased when noodles were cooked, whereas redness and yellowness of cooked noodles were unchanged. Texture properties of wheat noodles in terms of hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness were measured using the Rheometer. Italian spaghetti (spgt_IL), Korean fried udon (yk_udng_KR) had highest values for hardness. Korean udon had the highest value for springiness, whereas Chinese medium noodle (mid_CN) had the lowest value (p<0.05). Chinese thick noodle (thick_CN) and fettuccine (fettc_IL) showed lower hardness but higher springiness. Cohesiveness was significantly higher for Japanese udon (udng_JP), Chinese medium noodle (mid_CN), and Chinese thick noodle (thick_CN), whereas values for Korean thin noodle (thin_KR) and Korean fried noodle (yk_udng_KR) were significantly low (p<0.05). Spaghetti (spgt_IL) showed significantly high values for chewiness (p<0.05). For overall acceptability, thick Korean noodle showed the highest score with a level of 'slightly like'. Taste and texture attributes were highest among all noodles, and its high scores for chewiness and smoothness might contribute to its overall acceptance. Korean thick noodle, Korean udon, and Japanese udon were not significantly different from Korean or Japanese thin noodles. Japanese fried noodle (yk_udng_JP) showed the lowest acceptance among noodles in terms of color, flavor, taste, and texture. Chinese thick and medium noodles showed lower scores for overall acceptability, whereas chewiness was not significantly different from other noodles. Spaghetti and fettuccine showed lower scores in terms of overall acceptability, taste, texture, springiness, and chewiness.
Changes in social, economical, and cultural environment affect the manner in which mourners greet those expressing condolence to the deceased. While the funeral process was done at home in the past, nowadays, most families prefer a funeral home. Funeral homes provide all necessary services for the funeral process, including food for visitors and rituals. This research was conducted using a questionnaire in the Kyonggido area. Overall food satisfaction level of visitors was moderate; satisfaction with cleanness was the highest, followed by taste, quality, freshness, and diversity. Satisfaction level of foodservice by the type of funeral homes showed home funeral was highest, followed by general funeral home, hospital funeral home. Regarding the acceptance of food items served at the funeral home, Yukgaejang was the most preferred, followed by Gaorichomuchim, Pyeonyuk, Kodarichim, and Injeolmi. There were differences in food acceptance according to age and gender of visitors. Male prefers Samgyeopsal-suyuk to Pyeonyuk. but female prefer Pyeonyuk to Samgyeopsal-suyuk. Elder individuals preferred Kodarichim, Gaoricho-muchim. Younger individuals preferred Jeon, Ojingeodorajimuchim, and Samgyeopsal-suyuk.
Student and dietitian reactions to a multicultural food service menu were studied. Food habits in a multicultural family could delay the acculturation of the children to traditional Korean food and could cause the isolation of children from the community. Also, Korean students need to be exposed to other cultures and foods because it can be a challenge to eat novel foods when students grow up. To help both multicultural and Korean children adjust to new foods, a multicultural menu was included in a school's food service. Students regarded the multicultural menu as access to another culture, but they felt that improvement of the food quality and menu diversity were required. The degree of satisfaction with the food quality, appearance, freshness, temperature, and menu diversity were all moderate. The multicultural menu was served as a single menu item or a combination menu item. The main dish single items - pasta, jajangmyeon, onigiri, hamburgers, rice and curry, kaupatmu, kaupatkung, and donburi - were liked, but nasi goreng was liked only moderately. The soup - based dish single item, tempura soba, was liked, while tomyum was disliked. The side dish single items - tangsuyook, Japanese donkatsu, baked sausage and potatoes, tandoori chicken, chicken britto, Vienna schnitzels, tender tortillas, and fried chicken wings - were liked. The desserts single items-sandwiches, pineapples, waffles, pizza, bread with strawberry jam, mangoes, and tacoyaki - were liked. The combination menus - Italian, Indian, and American - were liked, but the southeast Asian menu was the least favored. Acceptance of combination and single menu items were similar. Male students liked multicultural menu items more than female students in all categories. Approximately 60% of dietitians had experience serving the single menu items for multicultural food service. The appropriate serving times were twice per month. Dietitians guessed that 80% of the students liked the multicultural menu. The dietitians preferred serving American or Chinese foods to southeast Asian food. There were two difficulties in serving the multicultural menu, which were voiced as as lack of skill in cooking the items and improper cooking utensils and tableware for the items. Despite all the difficulties, the dietitians served the multicultural menu because it provided menu diversity, rather than for educational reasons.
In this study, chemical bath deposited (CBD) indium sulfide buffer layers were investigated as a possible substitution for the cadmium sulfide buffer layer in CIGS thin film solar cells. The performance of the In2S3/CIGS solar cell dramatically improved when the films were annealed at 300˚C in inert gas after the buffer layer was grown on the CIGS film. The thickness of the indium sulfide buffer layer was 80 nm, but decreased to 60 nm after annealing. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy it was found that the chemical composition of the layer changed to indium oxide and indium sulfide from the as-deposited indium hydroxide and sulfate states. Furthermore, the overall atomic concentration of the oxygen in the buffer layer decreased because deoxidation occurred during annealing. In addition, an In-thin layer was inserted between the indium sulfide buffer and CIGS in order to modify the In2S3/CIGS interface. The In2S3/CIGS solar cell with the In interlayer showed improved photovoltaic properties in the Jsc and FF values. Furthermore, the In2S3/CIGS solar cells showed higher quantum efficiency in the short wavelength region. However, the quantum efficiency in the long wavelength region was still poor due to the thick buffer layer.
Kimchi is the most well-known Korean traditional food, but it is also the main leftover of school lunch and dinner menus. This study aimed to familiarize teenagers with kimchi through school meals and to increase their daily kimchi intake, ultimately by appealing to the young generation's taste. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the Ansan area to examine student's acceptability of kimchi and their attitudes toward kimchi. Approximately 65% of males and 67% of female students liked the moderately fermented and pungent taste of kimchi. Kimchi served in school meals was regarded as nutritional but cheap. Approximately 72% of male and 82% of female students responded that they liked menu items using kimchi. Approximately 48% of students responded that menu items using kimchi in schools are not diverse. Students preferred meat as an ingredient in kimchi. The preferred cooking methods were stir-frying and frying, whereas boiling was the least favorite. Based on the survey results, ten kimchi menu items had been developed. The suitability of the menu was evaluated by students and cooks. Six kimchi items, including Kimchi mixed with rice, chicken, soybean sprouts, Kimchi cheese rice, stewed beef ribs with kimchi, rice topped with kimchi curry, kimchi cheese meat roast, and kimchi udong were considered appropriate for school meals, whereas kimchi kangchong, kimchi topokki, kimchi stew with surimi, and frozen Pollack kimchi soup were not suitable as menu items. Kimchi topokki was not accepted by students, while kimchi kangchong was not accepted by cooks. Cooks judged the suitability of a menu item by the cooking process and cooking times, whereas students judged an item by its sensory preference. Approximately 63% of students responded that kimchi intake has increased by participating in the development of kimchi dishes.
Changes in social, economical, and cultural environments affect the meal practices of children. The transmission of traditional Korean food culture is very important because it presents not only a well-balanced diet but also contributes to shaping identity. The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary school students' present meal practices and views, as well as demands on traditional food culture education to reflect future educational plans. Half of the students ate breakfast everyday and 72% ate a traditional Korean style breakfast. About 38% of the students participated 2-4 times per week in meal preparation and 34% participated in clean-up after the meal once a day. Although 6th graders had greater skills in basic cooking, they tended to be more passive upon applying their skills in daily meal practice. For traditional food culture education, 89% of the experienced and 86.2% of the inexperienced groups agreed on the necessity of traditional food culture education. Students attained traditional food culture knowledge through Silgwa, practical coursework within the curriculum, and by teachers leading classes. They were also educated by parents, mass media, and books outside of school. The preferred methods of class teaching were lecture and experiential learning. The preferred subjects to learn were 'cooking classes based on taste development', 'learning food ingredients through vegetable growing', 'traditional Korean food manners', and 'traditional Korean food culture and seasonal foods' as well as nutritional education. Fifth graders had more positive attitudes towards meal practices and traditional food culture education. Traditional Korean food culture and nutrition education should be integrated and developed into regular subject curricula to improve children's meal practice and inheritance of traditional food culture.
Frying is the most popular cooking style used in food service institutions in Korea because fried dishes are well accepted by students. However, trans fat contents reduction have recently been required in many foods for health reasons Therefore, alternatives to frying such as oven baking or roasting are being used in many institutions. Steam convection ovens provide dry heat as well as steam so that they can be used to make a wide variety of Korean dishes. In this study, a menu acceptance test was conducted over 2 weeks. Pork, chicken, fish and potato dishes cooked by conventional cooking methods were served for 4 successive days, after which the same dishes were prepared using the oven. Overall, 322 junior high school students evaluated the traditionally cooked foods, while 316 evaluated the oven cooked foods. Comparison of the foods prepared using both methods only revealed a significant difference in the acceptability of foods on the fish menu (p<0.05). Specifically, the acceptance of fried fish was higher than that of the oven baked fish. Additionally, overall acceptance of the menu by males was higher than the acceptance by girls. Furthermore, students who had the preference for special ingredients showed a higher menu acceptance for the menu cooked with those ingredients. On average, approximately 25% of the meal was not consumed and left as plate waste. The portion of the fried fish not consumed was smaller than that of the oven cooked fish, but the portion not consumed did not vary based on cooking method for any other foods evaluated. Overall, it is expected that the oven cooking method will be a good substitute for frying or other cooking method for traditional Korean dishes.
School dietitians are divided into two groups according to their status of employment, school nutrition teachers and dietitians, with the latter being irregularly employed by the institution. In this study, the job satisfaction, communication ability, work performance and importance in feeding services and dietetic counseling of both groups were compared. To accomplish this, 100 regularly employed school nutrition teachers (regularly employed) and 101 dietitians (irregularly employed) were surveyed by questionnaire. The results were as follows: (1) The irregularly employed dietitians showed a lower level of job satisfaction than the school nutrition teachers. This was likely because the school nutrition teachers belonged to the strong inner circle of school teachers and cafeteria workers, and had enough time to prepare for class lectures and consultancy. Conversely, the irregularly employed dietitians generally handle extra office work in addition to their primary duties. Despite these differences, both parties agreed that it was necessary to change the work system. Additionally, school dietitians reported that they had little opportunity for further training for career development. (2) Both parties had good communication skills; however, the irregularly employed dietitians had more conflicts with other staff members than the regular employees. (3) Job performance and job importance level was compared among employees involved in school feeding services and nutrition counseling. No significant differences were observed between dietitians and nutrition teachers in either group (p<0.05). However, the school nutrition teachers showed better skills than school dietitian with respect to public relations, running independent counseling offices, and using effective tools and materials. Job performance level was lower when compared to job importance level for all items, which meant the job was not well performed when compared to the work importance awareness.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cooking activities on the unbalanced dietary food habits of elementary school students and develop the effective cooking activity program for the improvement of unbalanced dietary behaviors as well as the food intake and menu acceptance. The subjects of this study were 256 elementary school students. The cooking activity group and control group were consisted of 128 students of 3rd & 5th grader each. Both cooking activity and the control group took the same 1-hour nutritional theory based class for 10 sessions. Only Cooking activity (CA) group took additional 10 sessions of 1-hour cooking class. Programs for cooking activity were developed and 10 cooking activity sessions were taken place for 4 months. The questionnairs were used to evaluate the effect of the cooking activities over the intake of food group, unbalanced dietary behavior, eating attitudes, menu acceptance before and after the completion of all the cooking activities. Cooking activities affect the unbalanced dietary behaviors and the intake of food groups. Fish, cereals, milk products, fruits, potatoes, vegetables were more eaten by CA group than control group. Eating attitudes and unbalanced dietary behaviors of CA group are also improved significantly than control group. From these results, it was concluded that cooking activities had the positive effect on the improvement of unbalanced dietary food habits over vegetables, cereals, fish, milk product and fruits as well as the unbalanced dietary behaviors of the elementary school children.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality characteristics and consumer acceptance of the Kimchi affected by the storage method and the duration. The characteristics of Kimchi fermented and stored in the traditional method, such as cave facility or pit storage on the shore were compared to the Kimchi which was stored in the Kimchi refrigerator using the physicochemical and sensory evaluation. The quality of Kimchi stored by the Kimchi refrigerator was most acceptable with 3 month storage, while that of Kimchi stored by the storage facility under the ground on the shore was 1 month storage. Shelf life of Kimchi was extended up to 5 month stored by Kimchi refrigerator, and 3 month for the Kimchi stored under the ground on the shore.
호도죽의 기호도 조사와 모델로 선정한 호도죽의 농도, 호도 첨가량에 따른 호도죽의 특성을 Viskograph에 의한 호화도 측정과 관능평가를 통해 연구한 결과 다음과 같이 요약된다. 1. 기호도 조사 결과, 호도죽은 현재 인지도와 섭취율이 낮으나 별미식, 치료식, 이유식등의 즉석식품으로 개발된다면 섭취율이 높아질 것으로 사료된다. 2. 죽의 재료로 쌀을 갈아 즉석에서 죽을 쑤는 경우와 찰가루로 죽을 쑤는 경우가 있는데, 쌀을 갈아쓴 경우는 죽의 점성이 낮고 노화도가 컸으며, 쌀가루를 사용할 경우는 점성이 높고 노화가 늦게 일어났다. 쌀가루를 수화한 후 사용하면 점성이 보다 높았다. 쌀가루의 입자 크기가 작을수록 호화 개시 온도가 낮았으며 점성이 약간 높았다. 3. 호도죽은 흰죽보다 호화 개시 온도가 낮고 호화개시 시간도 앞서서 나타남을 알 수 있었다. 또한 최고 점도도 낮아지는 양상을 볼 수 있었으며 노화정도도 낮았다. 호도죽에서 물의 첨가량을 달리했을 때 물의 첨가량이 적을수록 점도가 높게 나타났으며, 일정한 물의 수준에서 호도 첨가량을 달리한 죽의 호화도 양상에는 큰 차이가 없었다. 4. 호도죽의 농도와 호도량에 따른 호도죽의 관능적 특성을 조사하였다. 관능적 특성으로는 고소한 향, 느끼한 향. 색, 점도, 고소한 맛, 느끼한 맛, 전체 기호도를 보아 쌀가루와 호도첨가량의 부피비가 1:1이었을때가 가장 좋은 기호도를 보였다. 물의 첨가량을 달리한 경우 호도죽의 특성에는 유의적 차이가 없었고(p<0.05), 쌀가루와 물의 비율은 1:6이 적합하였다. 이 결과, 호도죽을 만들때 쌀가루를 사용하면 조리 시간이 단축되고, 호도죽의 관능적 특성에는 물의 첨가량 변화보다 호도 첨가량이 보다 큰 영향을 미쳤음을 알 수 있었으며 특히, 호도에 함유되어 있는 식물성 기름의 느끼한 풍미와 고소한 풍미는 호도죽의 관능 특성에 많은 영향을 미치는 것을 알 수 있었다. 이 연구를 통해 한국 전통 견과류죽인 호도죽에 대한 일반인의 인지도 및 관심을 확인하였으며 이 결과를 토대로 여러종류의 죽의 특성을 연구하여 전통죽의 다양한 제품개발을 위한 연구가 많이 시도되어져야겠다.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception and preference of 'Jook' among people to find the effective way of promoting consumption of Korean traditional 'Jook'. This survey was conducted in Seoul, Suwon, Pyongtaek area. Among 450 questionnaires, 363 responses were collected and were analyzed by SAS program. The results were as follows: 47% was male,33.1% were 20 to 29 years old and 45% were students. Age and sex were main factors influencing the perception and preference of 'Jook' Older generation and women liked 'Jook' the most. 'Potjook', 'Hobakjook', 'Dakjook', 'Hinjook' were mostly preferred in order. 'Jook' was eaten because of 'easy to digest', 'special treat', 'convenience food', and 'therapeutic purpose'. But taste was the most preferred characteristics selecting 'Jook' except 'Hinjook'. In developing 'Jook' to be consumed, diversity and convenience should be placed in the first priority.
Television food advertisement is the most effective way to reach to consumers with food and nutritional informations and affect their eating behavior. Therefore, 218 food commercials were reviewed using video tapes and copies to know the present food product trends, food messages they transmit and define misleading food commercials. Messages were focused on the benefit of health promoting substances they contain, especially for functional food components, fortified nutrients, food safety focused on food additives, convenience and differentiation with other products. Overnutrition on specific nutrients could be expected due to nutrient fortified products and misleading of food commercials were also noted. Regarding trends, guidelines provided by television broadcasting company shoud be fortified in the connection of Food Hygine Law and supervision committe should reinforce the food company to summit data for the approval of their advertisement claims. Nutrition educational spot program shoud be produced and broadcasted for the public to protect the consumer from food faddism in near future.
Jung, In-Gyo, Kim, Hui-Seop & Kim Eun-Il. 1996. Stress on the English Loan Words Spoken by Speakers of Kyungsang Dialect. Studies in Modern Grammatical 8: 1-24. This study discusses the misaccentuation on the English loan words spoken by the speakers of Kyungsan8 Dialect. Most speakers of Kyungsang dialect tend to pronounce the English loan words in the same kind of pitch contour when they speak Korean or Sino-Korean words rather than by the English stress rules. To find the types of pitch contour of English loan words, 10 native speakers of Kyungsang dialect were asked to pronounce 120 words, which were analyzed by CSL(Model 4300B). This study shows that the types of pitch contour are generally determined bY the CV structure of the syllables and presents a guide to help students pronounce the correctly stressed English loan words.