As the frequency of seismic disasters in Korea has increased rapidly since 2016, interest in systematic maintenance and crisis response technologies for structures has been increasing. A data-based leading management system of Lifeline facilities is important for rapid disaster response. In particular, the water supply network, one of the major Lifeline facilities, must be operated by a systematic maintenance and emergency response system for stable water supply. As one of the methods for this, the importance of the structural health monitoring(SHM) technology has emerged as the recent continuous development of sensor and signal processing technology. Among the various types of SHM, because all machines generate vibration, research and application on the efficiency of a vibration-based SHM are expanding. This paper reviews a vibration-based pipeline SHM system for seismic disaster response of water supply pipelines including types of vibration sensors, the current status of vibration signal processing technology and domestic major research on structural pipeline health monitoring, additionally with application plan for existing pipeline operation system.
In this study, chemical bath deposited (CBD) indium sulfide buffer layers were investigated as a possible substitution for the cadmium sulfide buffer layer in CIGS thin film solar cells. The performance of the In2S3/CIGS solar cell dramatically improved when the films were annealed at 300˚C in inert gas after the buffer layer was grown on the CIGS film. The thickness of the indium sulfide buffer layer was 80 nm, but decreased to 60 nm after annealing. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy it was found that the chemical composition of the layer changed to indium oxide and indium sulfide from the as-deposited indium hydroxide and sulfate states. Furthermore, the overall atomic concentration of the oxygen in the buffer layer decreased because deoxidation occurred during annealing. In addition, an In-thin layer was inserted between the indium sulfide buffer and CIGS in order to modify the In2S3/CIGS interface. The In2S3/CIGS solar cell with the In interlayer showed improved photovoltaic properties in the Jsc and FF values. Furthermore, the In2S3/CIGS solar cells showed higher quantum efficiency in the short wavelength region. However, the quantum efficiency in the long wavelength region was still poor due to the thick buffer layer.
In high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, Na is doped into a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 light-absorbing layer from sodalime-glass substrate through Mo back-contact layer, resulting in an increase of device performance. However, this supply of sodium is limited when the process temperature is too low or when a substrate does not supply Na. This limitation can be overcome by supplying Na through external doping. For Na doping, an NaF interlayer was deposited on Mo/glass substrate. A Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layer was deposited on the NaF interlayer by a three-stage co-evaporation process As the thickness of NaF interlayer increased, smaller grain sizes were obtained. The resistivity of the NaF-doped CIGS film was of the order of 103Ω·cm indicating that doping was not very effective. However, highest conversion efficiency of 14.2% was obtained when the NaF thickness was 25 nm, suggesting that Na doping using an NaF interlayer is one of the possible methods for external doping.