Reflection properties, such as specular reflection and diffuse reflection, are very important optical properties for the reflector, which has high reflectance in the display and architecture industry. Calcite is lowcost, nontoxic, and stable over a wide temperature range. Therefore, it is one of the most widely using fillers in many industries and has some advantages over titania as a filler to improve reflectance. However, optical properties, especially those of ceramic-filled composites, have not been analyzed. We studied the reflectance of calcite composites with their surface roughness. The reflectance of the composites was determined using a UV-visible spectrometer. The surface morphology and the micro-structure of the composites were investigated by atomic force microscope. The reflectance of the composites was improved by increasing the content of calcite in the calcite-frit composite. The reflectance is related with the surface roughness in the composites. However, the reflectance depends on the calcite contents in materials with similar surface roughness.
In this study, 3 mol% yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) nanoparticles were synthesized by the glycothermal method under various reaction temperatures and times. The co-precipitated precursor of 3Y-TZP was prepared by adding NH4OH to starting solutions, and then the mixtures were placed in an autoclave reactor. Tetragonal yttria-doped zirconia nanoparticles were afforded through a glycothermal reaction at a temperature as low as 220˚C, using co-precipitated gels of ZrCl4 and YCl3·6H2O as precursors and 1,4-butanediol as the solvent. The synthesized 3Y-TZP particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The 3Y-TZP particles have a stable tetragonal phase only at glycothermal temperatures above 200˚C. To investigate phase transition, the 3Y-TZP particles were heat treated from 400 to 1400˚C for 2 h. Raman analysis indicated that, after heat treatment, the tetragonal phase of the 3Y-TZP particles remained stable. The results of this study, therefore, suggest that 3Y-TZP powders can be prepared by the glycothermal method.
This study develops a highly transparent ohmic contact using phosphorus doped ZnO with current spreading for p-GaN to increase the optical output power of nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The phosphorus doped ZnO transparentohmic contact layer was prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering with post-deposition annealing. The transmittance ofthe phosphorus doped ZnO exceeds 90% in the region of 440nm to 500nm. The specific contact resistance of the phosphorusdoped ZnO on p-GaN was determined to be 7.82×10-3Ω·cm2 after annealing at 700oC. GaN LED chips with dimensions of300×300µm fabricated with the phosphorus doped ZnO transparent ohmic contact were developed and produced a 2.7Vincrease in forward voltage under a nominal forward current of 20mA compared to GaN LED with Ni/Au Ohmic contact.However, the output power increased by 25% at the injection current of 20mA compared to GaN LED with the Ni/Au contactscheme.
We report on the capacitively coupled O2 plasma etching of PMMA and polycarbonate (PC) with a diffusion pump. Plasma process variables were process pressure and CCP power at 5 sccm O2 gas flow rate. Characterization was done in order to analyze etch rate, etch selectivity, surface roughness, and morphology using stylus surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. Self bias decreased with increase of process pressure in the range of 25~180 mTorr. We found an important result for optimum pressure for the highest etch rate of PMMA and PC, which was 60 mTorr. PMMA and PC had etch rates of 0.46 and 0.28 μm/min under pressure conditions, respectively. More specifically, etch rates of the materials increased when the pressure changed from 25 mTorr to 60 mTorr. However, they reduced when the pressure increased further after 60 mTorr. RMS roughnesses of the etched surfaces were in the range of 2.2~2.9 nm. Etch selectivity of PMMA to a photoresist was ~1.5:1 and that of PC was ~0.9:1. Etch rate constant was about 0.04 μm/minW and 0.02 μm/minW for PMMA and PC, respectively, with the CCP power change at 5 sccm O2 and 40 mTorr process pressure. PC had more erosion on the etched sidewall than PMMA did. The OES data showed that the intensity of the oxygen atomic peak (777.196 nm) proportionally increased with the CCP power.
ZnO wire-like thin films were synthesized through thermal oxidation of sputtered Zn metal films in dry air. Their nanostructure was confirmed by SEM, revealing a wire-like structure with a width of less than 100 nm and a length of several microns. The gas sensors using ZnO wire-like films were found to exhibit excellent H2 gas sensing properties. In particular, the observed high sensitivity and fast response to H2 gas at a comparatively low temperature of 200˚C would lead to a reduction in the optimal operating temperature of ZnO-based H2 gas sensors. These features, together with the simple synthesis process, demonstrate that ZnO wire-like films are promising for fabrication of low-cost and high-performance H2 gas sensors operable at low temperatures. The relationship between the sensor sensitivity and H2 gas concentration suggests that the adsorbed oxygen species at the surface is O-.
A Cu-Fe-P copper alloy was processed by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) for ultra grain refinement and high strengthening. Two 1mm thick copper sheets, 30 mm wide and 300 mm long, were first degreased and wire-brushed for sound bonding. The sheets were then stacked on top of each other and roll-bonded by about 50% reduction rolling without lubrication at ambient temperature. The bonded sheet was then cut into two pieces of the same dimensions and the same procedure was repeated for the sheets up to eight cycles. Microstructural evolution of the copper alloy with the number of the ARB cycles was investigated by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and electron back scatter diffraction(EBSD). The grain size decreased gradually with the number of ARB cycles, and was reduced to 290 nm after eight cycles. The boundaries above 60% of ultrafine grains formed exhibited high angle boundaries above 15 degrees. In addition, the average misorientation angle of ultrafine grains was 30 degrees.
This paper describes an improved strategy for controlling the adhesion force using both the antiadhesion and adhesion layers for a successful large-area transfer process. An MPTMS (3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane) monolayer as an adhesion layer for Au/Pd thin films was deposited on Si substrates by vapor self assembly monolayer (VSAM) method. Contact angle, surface energy, film thickness, friction force, and roughness were considered for finding the optimized conditions. The sputtered Au/Pd (~17 nm) layer on the PDMS stamp without the anti-adhesion layer showed poor transfer results due to the high adhesion between sputtered Au/Pd and PDMS. In order to reduce the adhesion between Au/Pd and PDMS, an anti-adhesion monolayer was coated on the PDMS stamp using FOTS (perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane) after O2 plasma treatment. The transfer process with the anti-adhesion layer gave good transfer results over a large area (20 mm × 20 mm) without pattern loss or distortion. To investigate the applied pressure effect, the PDMS stamp was sandwiched after 90˚ rotation on the MPTMS-coated patterned Si substrate with 1-μm depth. The sputtered Au/Pd was transferred onto the contact area, making square metal patterns on the top of the patterned Si structures. Applying low pressure helped to remove voids and to make conformal contact; however, high pressure yielded irregular transfer results due to PDMS stamp deformation. One of key parameters to success of this transfer process is the controllability of the adhesion force between the stamp and the target substrate. This technique offers high reliability during the transfer process, which suggests a potential building method for future functional structures.
This study develops a highly transparent ohmic contact scheme using indium oxide doped ZnO (IZO)as a current spreading layer for p-GaN in order to increase the optical output power of nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). IZO based contact layers of IZO, Ni/IZO, and NiO/IZO were prepared by e-beamevaporation, followed by a post-deposition annealing. The transmittances of the IZO based contact layers werein excess of 80% throughout the visible region of the spectrum. Specific contact resistances of 3.4×10−4,1.2×10−4, 9.2×0−5, and 3.6×10−5Ω·cm2 for IZO, Ni/Au, Ni/IZO, and NiO/IZO, respectively were obtained. Theforward voltage and the optical output power of GaN LED with a NiO/IZO ohmic contact was 0.15V lower andwas increased by 38.9%, respectively, at a forward current of 20mA compared to that of a standard GaN LEDwith an Ni/Au ohmic contact due to its high transparency, low contact resistance, and uniform current spreading.
The long-period stacking order (LPSO) structures and stacking faults (SFs) in rapidly solidified powder metallurgy (RS P/M) Mg97Zn1Y2 alloy were investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations. The 18R-type LPSO structure with a stacking sequence of ACBCBCBACACACBABAB and a period of 4.86 nm was observed in the as-extruded RS P/M Mg97Zn1Y2 alloy. After annealing at 773 K for 5 hr, the 18R-type LPSO structure was transformed to the 14H-type LPSO structure with a stacking sequence of ABABABACBCBCBC and a period of 3.64 nm. The 24R-type LPSO structure containing 24 atomic layers of ABABABABCACACACABCBCBCBC with period of 6.18 nm coexists with the 14H-type LPSO structure in the same grains. The LPSO structures contain intrinsic Type II SFs such as BCB/CABA and ABA/CBCB stacking sequences of a closely packed plane.
In high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, Na is doped into a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 light-absorbing layer from sodalime-glass substrate through Mo back-contact layer, resulting in an increase of device performance. However, this supply of sodium is limited when the process temperature is too low or when a substrate does not supply Na. This limitation can be overcome by supplying Na through external doping. For Na doping, an NaF interlayer was deposited on Mo/glass substrate. A Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layer was deposited on the NaF interlayer by a three-stage co-evaporation process As the thickness of NaF interlayer increased, smaller grain sizes were obtained. The resistivity of the NaF-doped CIGS film was of the order of 103Ω·cm indicating that doping was not very effective. However, highest conversion efficiency of 14.2% was obtained when the NaF thickness was 25 nm, suggesting that Na doping using an NaF interlayer is one of the possible methods for external doping.