This study summarized findings from an investigation into the awareness and evaluation of traditional foods among 197 male and female university students in the Chungnam area. The results were as follows. Regarding awareness of cooktable setting of traditional foods, 44.67% (88 students) of subjects answered that they had little knowledge. Female students showed a significantly high level of awareness of cooktable setting (p<0.05). Regarding the taste of traditional foods, 64.97% (128 students) of subjects responded appropriately. Regarding the necessity for partial development of traditional foods into a modern style, 61.90% (52 students) of male subjects and 84.96% (96 students) of female subjects were in agreement (p<0.01). Regarding the necessity for traditional food education, 77.16% (152 students) were in agreement, especially female students (86.73%, 98 students) showed considerably higher consent (p<0.05). For the assessment of traditional foods, nutrition (4.57 scores), taste (4.31 scores), and appearance (4.26 scores) were very highly assessed, whereas cookery (3.30 scores) and economic aspects (3.04 scores) scored relatively lower. Traditional desserts were recognized as routine and modern by male students. On the other hand, girls recognized desserts as traditional (p<0.05). Accordingly, we must preserve and pass down Korean traditional foods by increasing awareness through education or experience as well as through planning better cookery and economical aspects by applying certain standards for traditional foods.
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in Korean meat consumption as well as meat consumption trends. During the Japanese occupation period, the supply of meat was considerably insufficient. However, meat consumption mainly in large cities has gradually increased. Especially, 'Pyeongyang cow', a specialty of Pyeongyang, started being raised as edible beef cattle in 1933. During the chaotic period following liberation from Japan, the price of meat sharply increased. However, as the meat supply stabilized, the 'beef grade system' was introduced in 1967. Since then, beef has sold according to region. During the early economic growth period of the mid-1970s, meat consumption rapidly increased, and foreign beef was first imported in 1976. The preference for beef was somewhat attenuated due to the outbreak of mad cow disease and economic slowdown of the 1990s, resulting in an increase in the consumption of pork, a replacement meat. During the recent period of economic development, meat consumption has somewhat fallen and remained low. In late 2003, with the occurrence of mad cow disease in the US, the demand for pork, and especially pork fatback, has sharply increased.
The purpose of this study was to develop children-friendly education materials based on food replicas for the dietary education of lower grade elementary students. Through a literature review on current dietary problems and dietary education for children, five education themes were chosen: balanced diet, seasonal food, traditional food, noodle culture, and making instant noodles. A total of 304 key food items for food replicas were selected based on the themes: six basic food groups (113 items), balanced meals (37 items), dietary habits (74 items), spring foods (13 items), summer foods (17 items), autumn foods (16 items), winter foods (11 items), Korean traditional foods (52 items), Korean native noodles (18 items), noodles from foreign countries (19 items), and making instant noodles (46 items). Next, a food replica database was developed consisting of name of the food, picture, size, ingredient, recipe, reference, and attached code. Powerpoint slides and teaching plans for all education themes were developed utilizing the food replicas in order to raise interest and understanding of serving size and intake amount. This research provides a basis for the development of food replicas as effective dietary education materials for elementary students and their use in extra-curricular activities, after school programs, community health centers, or food companies.
This study was conducted to approach the Korean new food words for the years 1994-2005 from the stance of food ethics. The new food words were categorized into food industry, foodstuffs, cooking, various foods, processed foods, distribution, and consumer health. The principles of food ethics applied to new food words include a respect for life, justice, environmental preservation, priority of safety, and dynamic equilibrium. Seventy percent of new food words were ethically neutral, while 30% had significant ethical meaning. There were more words with a negative ethical meaning than with a positive one. All of the principles, except respect for life, could be successfully applied to new food words. Dynamic equilibrium was the most appropriate principle for the new food words, followed by a priority for safety, justice, and environmental preservation. The results of this study implied that moderation and balance is required in our modern dietary life.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of eating habits and food preferences on the adoptive behavior of children with intellectual disabilities. Survey questionnaires were distributed to six special education schools located in the Daegu-Kyungbuk area, and data were collected from 552 families and teachers with intellectually disabled students. Identification of eating habits began with a factor analysis, and the results were a five-factor solution. Among the five patterns, factors 1 and 2 were significantly related with behavior problems of intellectually disabled children. Further, food preferences of the children were significantly related with adoptive behavior problems. The findings of this study clearly indicate that eating habits as well as food preferences are important factors in identifying adoptive behavior problems in intellectually disabled children. Based on the findings of this study, similarities and differences in eating habits are discussed, and implications for children are provided.
Since its introduction in"Jeungbosallimgyeongje" in the mid-1700s, Chogyetang has continuously changed as a cooked food while still reflecting the era as in the following four phases. In the first phase from 1766 to 1920, Chogyetang was served as a hot pot dish consisting of boiled chicken with spring onions, vinegar, soy sauce, oil, and egg. The second phase from 1930 to 1950 involved the removal of vinegar, an important seasoning. Instead, a wider variety of materials such as beef, sea cucumber, abalone, cucumber, and mushroom were added. Third, from the late-1950s to 1980s, there were significant changes both in the materials and recipe. Chogyetang was changed into a cold food for consumption in the summer in which sesame, a new material, was added to make soup. The prepared soup was then poured over the chicken and vegetables. Fourth, from the late-1980s to the present, sesame, the main ingredient added in the third phase, was removed. Instead, vinegar, mustard, and sugar were added in order to increase taste. Therefore, Chogyetang has been changed into an a la carte menu item in which vegetables and noodles are added to boiled chicken, and it has become a popular summer food consumed when eating-out.
This study examines the effects of restaurant attributes on customers' perceptions of price and brand reputation. Four restaurant attributes were used to represent restaurant quality. Multiple regression was conducted to measure the relationships between the four restaurant attributes and price and brand reputation. Further, an independent T-test was used to compare differences between perceptions of locals and tourists with regard to restaurant quality under two categories (price and brand reputation) after they selected a restaurant. Results of this study revealed that residency did not have a significant impact on customers' perceptions of price or brand reputation, whereas restaurant attributes did have an impact. Taste was a predictor of perceived price, whereas service and atmosphere were predictors of brand reputation. In addition, comparison of restaurant attributes between locals and tourists showed that sanitation and service were significantly different in accordance with price and atmosphere, whereas taste and service were significantly different in accordance with brand reputation. Locals showed higher means for each restaurant attribute compared to tourists.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of quality factors on value, satisfaction and loyalty in a wine training program. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: Structural verification of the wine training program loyalty model showed that the quality of the wine training program positively affected both value (p<0.001) and satisfaction (p<0.001). Further, the value of the wine training program positively affected satisfaction (p<0.01), which in turn positively influenced loyalty (p<0.001). The quality of the wine training program was presented as solicitude for students, textbook and curriculum, qualification and confidence of lecturer and staff, and training quality, whereas the value of the program was composed of sense of belonging, promotion of self-esteem, good impression on others, and improvement of social status. Therefore, the wine training institute's intensive management of the quality and value of the program could induce students' loyalty by enhancing satisfaction for the wine training program.
The objective of this study was to investigate the phasic characteristics of the adjustment process to Korean food with an analysis of Japanese independent tourist culture social resistance factors. To collect data for empirical study, a survey was distributed to 284 Japanese tourists through Korean travel agencies. Logistic regression analysis was carried out in order to determine media and cultural beliefs affecting the diffusion process of Korean food. The results showed that cultural beliefs had no significant effects on the diffusion process of most Korean food. However, people who valued similarities between the two countries-South Korea and Japan-demonstrated a significant effect on performance and identification group. Therefore, cultural beliefs did not influence the diffusion of Korean food, although there are surely cultural beliefs and subjective factors affecting their reform decisions.
This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant activity of Jeolpyeon containing lotus seed powder. Original Jeolpyeon and Jeolpyeon with BHT (butyl hydroxy toluene) werecompared. Antioxidant activities were measured based ontotal polyphenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, DPPH radicalscavenging activity, reducing power, and SOD-like activity. Total polyphenolic and total flavonoid contents of Jeolpyeon containing lotus seed powder were estimated at 37.81±0.45 mg GAE/g and 26.35±0.13 mg QE/g respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased upon addition of lotus seed powder. Further, reducing power was higher in Jeolpyeon containing lotus seed powder than original Jeolpyeon or Jeolpyeon with BHT. The antioxidative effect of Jeolpyeon significantly increased uponaddition of lotus seed powder.
This study investigated the sensory characteristics of adlay tea favorably consumed by Korean consumers and analyzed the drivers behind for liking or disliking adlay tea. Six adlay tea products showing the highest market share in South Korea were selected. Sensory properties of the six products were analyzed using generic descriptive analysis. Among these, four products were further selected for consumer taste acceptance test. Sensory lexicons of adlay tea were developed by trained panelists, and the sensory characteristics of each adlay tea product were measured based on the perceived intensities of these attributes elicited from the samples. In the consumer taste acceptance test, frequent tea and coffee drinkers participated. Consumers rated the acceptance of each tea product on a 9-point hedonic scale and evaluated the reasons for liking or disliking each product based on the check-all-that-apply method. Analysis of Variance, principal component analysis, frequency analysis, and correspondence analysis were utilized for statistical analysis. Twenty sensory attributes were developed in order to characterize the six adlay tea products. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that attributes such as viscosity, black soybean flavor, goso flavor, peanut flavor, seaweed flavor, green, and presence of chunks were key factors differentiating the adlay tea products. In the consumer taste test, roasted flavor, goso flavor, peanut flavor, and presence of chunks were positive drivers for liking the adlay tea products, whereas seaweed and green flavors were negative attributes that drove consumers away.
This study was conducted to examine the quality characteristics of tofu prepared with Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) leaf powder (LLP). Moisture, crude ash, carbohydrate, crude protein, and crude lipid contents of Loquat leaf powder were 10.25, 6.72, 69.54, 8.23, and 5.26%, respectively. The yield rates, turbidity, and total acidity of tofu increased according to the quantity of added LLP, whereas pH level decreased. The L- and a-values of samples decreased as the amount of LLP increased, whereas b-value increased. With regard to textural characteristics, LLP addition increased hardness, chewiness, and brittleness, as well as reduced springiness and cohesiveness. In terms of overall acceptability, the most preferred tofu samples were the control and 0.3% LLP addition groups.
Changes in social, economical, and cultural environment affect the manner in which mourners greet those expressing condolence to the deceased. While the funeral process was done at home in the past, nowadays, most families prefer a funeral home. Funeral homes provide all necessary services for the funeral process, including food for visitors and rituals. This research was conducted using a questionnaire in the Kyonggido area. Overall food satisfaction level of visitors was moderate; satisfaction with cleanness was the highest, followed by taste, quality, freshness, and diversity. Satisfaction level of foodservice by the type of funeral homes showed home funeral was highest, followed by general funeral home, hospital funeral home. Regarding the acceptance of food items served at the funeral home, Yukgaejang was the most preferred, followed by Gaorichomuchim, Pyeonyuk, Kodarichim, and Injeolmi. There were differences in food acceptance according to age and gender of visitors. Male prefers Samgyeopsal-suyuk to Pyeonyuk. but female prefer Pyeonyuk to Samgyeopsal-suyuk. Elder individuals preferred Kodarichim, Gaoricho-muchim. Younger individuals preferred Jeon, Ojingeodorajimuchim, and Samgyeopsal-suyuk.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brown rice and brown rice phytosterol on blood pressure and lipid levels in spontaneously hypertension rats (SHR). SHR were grouped according to blood pressure and fed either a control diet or experimental diets containing 50% brown rice powder or 5% brown rice phytosterol for 3 weeks. Body weight gain and epididymal fat weight were significantly reduced in the brown rice powder and brown rice phytosterol groups compared to control. Brown rice and brown rice phytosterol diets suppressed age-dependent increases in systolic blood pressure compared to control. In addition, brown rice and brown rice phytosterol diets decreased total lipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels in the liver, whereas serum HDL cholesterol increased. Lastly, brown rice phytosterol reduced TBARS contents in the kidney. These results suggest that brown rice and brown rice phytosterol exert antihypertensive effects that improve lipid metabolism in SHR.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary factors associated with characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in upper-grade elementary school students. The study subjects were 397 students, and 52% of total study subjects were boys. The risk for developing ADHD was assessed by using a DSM-IV questionnaire. Boy's ADHD score was higher than that of girls (p<0.001). Subjects were divided into two groups according to the median of the ADHD score in boys and girls. The high ADHD score group showed higher frequency of skipping breakfast and a lower score for good dietary habits, as compared to the normal group. Further, the high ADHD score group showed higher frequency of processed food intake with lower frequency of vegetable intake, as compared to the normal group. These results suggest that undesirable eating habits and frequent intake of processed foods may be associated with higher risk of developing ADHD in elementary school students.