How did the Korean religious culture which was consisted of three different religions- Shamanism, Buddhism, Confucianism- be combined and transformed? The author focused the mixture and transformation of the procedure of sacrificial rite and the arrangement of sacrificial food in each religion. In this thesis, the author studied first, the conception in sacrificial rite, second, the procedure of sacrificial rite, third, the items of sacrificial rite food according to each period. In consequence of the research each religion had lost its uniqueness and became mixed to each other and settled down in Korean culture.
This paper studied what kind of foods were served how often in the table of the Royal family birthday parties by analyzing 18 sets of the Royal family birthday party menu with respect to the rank of Royal family for each season respectively among all the kinds of food menu of Chosun Dynasty. From this sudy a good representation of primary Royal King's birthday menu could be drown. The menu of the King was most in variety. And the King was served in the range of 46 to 74 kinds of food and its number of dishes varied 28 to 40, and the other royal family were served in the range of 19 to 44 kinds of foods and its number of dishes varied 15 to 26. The menu included variable dishes such as Yoomilkwa (fried cookies 油蜜果) 7, Gangjung 17 (fried rice cookies 姜?) 17, Dasik (mold cookies 茶食) 8, Suksilkwa (cooked fruits 熟實果) 1, Jungkwa (compoted fruit 正果) 1, Byung (rice cakes 餠) 25, Umchung (punch 飮淸) 4, Sengka (fresh fruits 生果) 21, Jusik (main meal 主食) 4, Chanpum (side dishes 饌品) 27, Jomipum (sauce, honey, mustard 調味品 ) 3.
Korean Chochgal is a kind of salted, fermentive food mainly made of fish in our country. It has been a suitable side'dish for the diet of rice. It has made use of an accompaniment of wine, seasoning, food of ceremony and a folk remedy. There were various kinds of Chochgal and various way of for preparation. For a long time it has developed in how to cook and how to eat. Nowaday, it has lessened to use Chochgal. In this thesis, the kinds of Chochgal and the reference frequency to them, the material, the measuring unit of material, the making terms, and the cooking kitchen utensils are studied out of the 86 books published in Korea from 1200 to 1984. 1. It was classifed Choch, Sikhae, and Oyukchang as how to cook. 2. There were 147 kinds of Chochgal, 100 kinds of Choch, 40 kinds of Sikhae and 7 kinds of Oyukchang in our traditional documents. 3. Materials were classified into main material, sub-material, and seasonings. As main materials there were fish, internals of fish, spawn, flesh, salt and soy sauce. As sub-materials there were seasoning, flavor, vegetables and cereals. 4. There were 41 kinds of measuring units. Of them, 17 kinds are for volume, 9 kinds are for quantity, 3 kinds are for length, and 12 kinds are for the rest. 5. There were 52 kinds of cooking kitchen utensils. They used mainly a sieve and pebbles. To store Chochkal a kind of jar, a woodenware and a clay ware were used. To shelter it from the wind, they sealed it with leaves and oiled paper. But few of them are used nowaday. 6. There were 209 kinds of cooking terms. Of them, 35 kinds are for the washing process, 51 kinds are for the preparing process, 38 kinds are for the making process, 25 kinds are for the fermenting process, 24 kinds are for the keeping process, and 36 kinds are for the eating(using) process.
As for the Japanese dietary style and dietary equipments, many are regarded, with the rice plant imported, as the influence of China and Korea, while traditional culture has recently changed in Japanese and Korean urban lives because of the increase of nuclear families and modernization of lives. Of 1,244 junior high school students of boys and girls in Tokyo and Seoul, we investigated the present situations of the employment of dining equipments October to November, 1987. The results obtained are as follows. More cases that each member of a family had his or her own dining equipment were found in Japan. The frequency of using chopsticks was high in both countries. Korean children, having no struggles, handled chopsticks better than Japanese children. As for the dishing-up of sidedishes, more than half of Japanese used their individual plates, while in Korean families they used whole dishes. As for the employment of dining equipments, Japanese people have established their own style because of the national character of delicacy and finicality. This kind of traditional habits were found much more in extended families than in nuclear families. In Korea, the traditional spirit and the broad-minded characteristics cherished in the continental circumstances were manifested in the employment of dining equipments and their strong national character will not easily accept the wave of modernization.
While ruling Chosun, with a view to making Chosun the primary supplier of food, Japan made the peasantry of Chosun go to ruin by leaving land from them through land enterprises, and the projects of increasing rice production. At the same time, Japan formed the higher classes comprising pro-Japanese capitalists, landlords and intellectuals, and protected them in order to carry out her colonial policies. Naturally there came into being a great gulf between the minority of high society and the majority of the poor in Chosun. As there was a great difference in food life between the two, I'm going to examine the literature of those days to grasp exactly the condition of their food intake. As for the staple food, out of thirteen provinces in Chosun, 13% lived on only rice and 27% on other minor cereals with no rice. As for the subsidiary food, about thirty percents did not take any animal protein. The examination of intake of nutrition by classes shows that the higher and middle classes took the necessary amount of calorie and protein and that the component ratio of calorie was comparatively properly distributed. The lower classes are defined as those whose monthly income was less than 100 won and the peasantry in general. And again the peasantry are classified into three-high, middle and low-according to their farming conditions. The tenant farmers in Kyeongguido and the peasants of Darli community took enough amount of calorie and protein, but much smaller amount of animal protein. Fire-field farmers led not less miserable food intake than the extremely poor peasants. They seldom lived on rice. Potatoes, oats and millets were their staple food. Lastly, Engel's coefficient for the Tomack-min (the residents in mud huts) who were among the three extremely poor classes, was 73.3%, which was much higher than that of the lower classes in then Japan. Rationed rice and barley were their staple food but the rationed amount was not sufficient to satisfy needs of physical labor. In conclusion, during the period of Japanese ruling of Chosun, the minority of higher and middle classes in Chosun generally took sufficient amount of nutrient, while the status of food intake with poor peasants, fire-field farmers and Tomack-min was extremely miserable.
A secondary survey was conducted of 503 customers, to investigate eating out behaviours at five fast food restaurants of Youido apartment compound in Seoul, in April of 1988. The results are summarized as follows: The majority, 84% of customers, were aged 14 to 30, consisting of junior and senior high school children, college students and company employees. In contrast to the previous survey of 1986, in which no elderly customers were found, a small number of elderly customers were observed in this study. The reasons given by customers for patronizing fast food restaurants were the following, from most to least frequent: 'convenient', 'allows for companionship', 'the pleasant place to eat', 'dining equipment and tableware are hygienic', 'to be able to stay as long as I want', and 'foods rapidly served'. Only 24.2% of the customers purchased the fast foods for a full meal, 38.3% purchased the foods for snacking, and others purchased ice cream only or drink only. The majority of the customers ate the purchased foods at the fast food restaurants. However, a limited number of female customers preferred to take the packed fast foods to their homes. Taste preference was a major factor in food selection from available menu items, among the younger customers; whereas customers over 30 years old were concerned with nutritive balance. Fried chicken, pizza, rolled rice with laver, ice cream, and juice were high on the list of liked foods; in contrast, lower preference was for fish burger, doughnut, spaghetti, Chajang noodles and chili beans. The survey discovered that the preference for fried chicken, pizza, and salad had increased compared to the previous survey of 1986. Preference by food nationality was highest for Korean food, then Western food, Chinese food, and Japanese food, in that order. Customers offered suggestions for better fast food service, such as lowering the price; greater variety in the menu; developing fast foods from the traditional Korean foods; and increasing the proportion of vegetables and fruits on the fast food menu. The customers, in particular, emphasized a need for the development of Korean traditional beverage of malt drink and persimmon punch, as well as mungbean pan cakes and sweet- spicy rice noodles (docbokki), as fast foods.
The objective of this study was to access the effects of sensory and physical properties of Beandaeduk on 7 different combination methods (three were combined with mung bean and different proportions of water; four were combined with mung bean and various cereals with constant water), and 3 storage periods (0, 1 and 3 weeks at -18℃). This experiment was consisted of sensory evaluation I (appearance, texture, taste, flavor and overall preference), II (color, moisture, volume, hardness, elasticity, viscosity and ratio materials, off-flavor and oder) and physical analysis of each sample, and questionaire survey of Beandaeduk. In sensory evaluation I except flavor, significant differences (p〈0.05) were found among different combination methods of sample. Also significant differences (p〈0.05) were found in sample for storage periods, except appearance. In sensory evaluation II, only moisture and oder of samples were significantly different (p〈0.05) for storage periods, and there were significant differences (p〈0.05) in samples among different combination methods, except elasicity. Stepwise regression for storage periods in sensory I showed that texture and taste were important factors in overall preference of sample. In the questionaire survey, preference and adding materials of Beandaeduk were different according to province. Half of respondents preferred to get instant Beandaeduk and instant mung bean powder.
본 연구에서는 7% 소금 용액을 이용하여 예비 열처리(60℃, 1시간), pH8.5로의 예비 열처리, 염화칼슘 첨가 및 microwave를 이용한 후열처리가 오이지 침지 용액의 pH, 산도, AIS내의 총 펙틴 함량, HWSP 함량, 견고도에 미치는 영향에 대해 살펴보았다. 제조 0, 5, 10, 15, 25일째의 분석을 통해 pH는 감소, 산도는 높아지는 경향을 보였으며 최종 분석일의 pH는 예비 열처리, 염화칼슘 첨가 및 microwave 후열처리군이 가장 높은 3.1, 산도는 1.93%로 가장 낮은 수치를 보였다. AIS에 존재하는 총 펙틴 함량은 시간이 지남에 따라 감소하는 경향을 보였으며 대조군에 비해 처리군들의 감소율은 적었으며 예비 열처리, 염화칼슘 첨가 및 microwave 후열처리군의 최종 함량은 가장 높은 17.93%로 나타났다. HWSP의 함량은 제조 후 5일째부터 15일째까지는 증가하다가 그 이후에는 급격히 감소했다. Texturometer에 의한 견고도 측정결과 제조 후 15일째부터는 실험군들간에 차이가 많이 나기 시작했으며 최종 견고도는 대조군이 가장 낮은 4.77kg, 예비 열처리, 염화칼슘 첨가 및 microwave 후열처리군이 가장 높은 6.88kg로 나타났다. 연구결과로 보아 총 펙틴 함량과 견고도와는 서로 연관이 깊은 것으로 보이며 microwave 후열처리는 펙틴물질의 분해를 저지시켜 견고도가 감소되는 정도를 낮게 해 줄 수 있는 방법이 될 수 있다고 생각한다.
우리나라의 밀가루 소비 실태를 1986년과 1987년도를 대상으로 조사하였다. 아울러 제분공업의 현황도 간단히 서술하였다. 밀가루 소비 실태는 연도간에 큰 차이를 보이지 않았으므로 1986년도를 중심으로 분석하였다. 제분회사에서의 밀가루 총판매량은 1,556,891톤이었고 이 중 51.1%는 대리점으로, 나머지는 대량생산업체로 판매되었다. 밀가루의 주용도는 제면, 제과, 제빵, 막걸리, 일반(가정용, 수퍼마켓, 소매점)이었다. 다목적 밀가루의 1등급과 2등급은 제면과 막걸리용으로 이용되었고, 제빵에는 강력밀가루 1등급이 주로 사용되었다. 제과용 밀가루로는 다목적 밀가루 1등급이 주로 사용되었다.