This study considered the whole intake patterns and realities of consumption of instant noodles on sales targeting children and adolescents. Based on a total of 1021 subjects, data from self-administrated questionnaires were collected and analyzed using comparative statistical analysis, including frequency, chi-square, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results of the study were as follows. The preference levels for instant noodles by children and adolescents were 5.25, thereby showing a more than moderate preference. Middle school boy students' preference for instant noodles was the highest. The main reason for preferring instant noodles was taste and convenience. The main reason for disliking instant noodles was poor nutrition and likelihood of becoming fat. The intake of instant noodles was the highest between lunch and dinner with a frequency of once to twice per week. Content of soup powder given taking instant noodles was the largest in having putted all. The soup quantity of being left given taking instant noodles was possessed the majority in almost not eating soup. The main reason for not consuming soup was being full or concerns for health. A significant difference was observed in preference level for instant noodles and in intake patterns depending on the respondents' general characteristics. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
This study was intended to examine the continuance and transformation of food culture during the enlightenment and Japanese ruling era by analyzing the novel of "Toji". In the novel "Toji", the chaotic political and economic situation is reflected, along with the peoples' hard lives in the latter era of the Choson Dynasty. After the full-fledged invasion of China by the Japanese, the shift to a wartime posture was accompanied by an increased need for food. This led to a rationing and delivery system for rice in the late 1930s. While it was hard for people to obtain even brewer's grains and bean-curd dregs, food distribution officers were well off. Another distinctive feature of the food culture during the enlightenment and Japanese ruling era was that foreign food and recipes were introduced naturally to Korea through the influx of various foreigners. The industry of Choson was held by Japanese monopolistic capital, as a result, Choson had equal to the role as a spending site and was only gradually left destitute. In the Japanese ruling era, there were new type of business including such as patisserie of the types of civilization in the town, and those tempted Korean people. However, the Japanese and pro-Japan collaborators dominated commercial business. Being urbanization through the modernization, it was became patronized fast food in the populous downtown, and the change of industry structure and life style greatly influenced into our food culture. Acceptance the convenient Japanese style fast food such as Udong, pickled radish made was actively accepted with a longing for the advancement civilization. After the enlightenment, many Japanese exchange students went to Tokyo to get advanced civilization and provided urban mood according to their consumption of bread, coffee, Western food, which were considered a part of the elite culture.
The nutritional value of kimchi is gaining global focus along with new possibilities and uses for the various salts used in making kimchi. The purpose of the study is to conduct research on the uses of various salts and investigate the consumer recognition of salt use in kimchi preparation. The findings are from 824 consumers over 19 years old from 15 locations who participated in this questionnaire via one-to-one interviews from September 23rd to October 14th, 2009. The results of the questionnaire show that when customers cooked, 71.9% used solar salt, 62.2% used flower salt (refined salt), 27.4% used Hanju salt (purified salt), 59.0% used processed salt (roasted salt), 47.4% used bamboo salt, 69.4% used Mat salt (table salt), and 18.2% used low sodium salt. The most preferred origin of salts was domestic. Most customers salted Chinese cabbage while preparing kimchi. Consumers showed low perceptions of different salts used in kimchi production, and did not exactly recognize the characteristics of various salts. The preferences for domestic and solar salts were very high, while the preference for sea salts was low. In conclusion, various types of salts could improve the quality of kimchi. This study hopes to help consumers produce better kimchi to match different needs. Therefore, attention should be paid to promoting the characteristics of various salts influencing the quality of kimchi.
The purpose of this paper was to research the history of Korean restaurants in Manhattan, NY in the 1960's-1970's. These Korean restaurants were the pioneers in the globalization of Korean food. It is assumed that 'Mi Cin' was the first Korean restaurant in Manhattan and opened on March 1st, 1960. In the 1960's, it is estimated that there were four Korean restaurants in Manhattan. In the 1970's, the number of Korean restaurants increased to more than 18, and their main menu items were divided into three types: Korean fusion menu such as 'Lunch Special' for American customers, beef barbecue menu for American and Korean customers, and Korean traditional menu for increasing Korean immigrants.
The aim of this study was to classify Korean consumers based on their food-related lifestyle type, and to investigate the relationship between sushi consumption and food-related lifestyle type. Self-reported questionnaires were completed by 300 Korean adults. The SPSS 18.0 program was used to analyze the samples. Data was analyzed by frequency, descriptive factor, reliability, cluster analysis, ANOVA, and chi-square test. A factor analysis extracted four factors comprising foodrelated lifestyle, which we named Health-seeking (factor 1), Taste-seeking (factor 2), Convenience-seeking (factor 3), and Economy-seeking (factor 4). According to a cluster analysis based on those four factors, consumers were classified into three clusters. Cluster 1 was the Taste and Health-seeking cluster, Cluster 2 was the Convenience-seeking cluster, and Cluster 3 was the Passive Eating Habits cluster. The results also indicated that the selection attributes of each cluster were significantly different in terms of perception, the global state of sushi, sushi preference, frequency, companions, place of sushi consumption, and preference for different sushi sub-ingredients. Based on these results, consumer characteristics in the sushi market are discussed.
This study was intended to outline the characteristics of the food culture in the area of Kyungsangnamdo and its modernization by interpretation and analysis of the novel Toji, which was set in Hadong, Jinjoo in the area of Kyungsangnamdo in the early 20th century. The characteristics of the Kyungsangnamdo area's native dish during the Japanese ruling era in the latter half of the Choson dynasty are as follows. In the first part of the novel, which spans from 1897 to 1908, vegetable and grain food development can be seen in the area of Hadong, the interior plains of Kyungsangnamdo, where there is a typical farming village in the mountains. The second part of the novel, which spans from 1911 through 1917, includes some mentions of the properties of Kyungsangnamdo area's native dishes through the lens of emigrated Koreans living on Gando island. Gando island is in China, and is where Seohee, the heroine, escapes from her homeland and remains for a period of years. There is a unique type of seafood in the Gando area using fresh marine products, exactly the same as in the Kyungsangnamdo area. The third part of the novel spans 1919 through 1929, after Seohee returns to her own country and regains her house. There is a noticeable description of food culture in the area of Jinjoo in Kyungsangnamdo through the description of Seohee focusing on the education of her children. The well-described features of Jinjoo are boiled rice with soup of beef leg bones and Jinjoo bibimbob, with vegetables and a variety of foods using cod. Cod are caught in large quantities in Kyunjgsangnamdo, and cities in the area grow to medium size as the area became traffic-based. The fourth part of the novel spans from 1929 through 1938, and includes very detailed descriptions of characters and background locations. Salted fish combined with the wild ingredients of Mt. Jiri feature prominently in the Kyungsangnamdo's area descriptions. The fifth part spans from 1940 through 1945, and as the Japanese colonization era ends, the foods described in Kyungsangnamdo seem to develop the usage of soybean paste. With abundant fish and shellfish Kyungsangnamdo, the dishes that evolve to use soybean paste include mussel soybean paste soup, picked bean leaves in soybean paste, chaitgook - cold soup from soybean paste, and seolchigook used with seaweed and sea laver.
The aim of this research was to analyze changes in a Roasted Beef recipe through Sulhamyukjuk. In order to conduct this study, we investigated ancient and modern culinary literature published until 1950. The main method of research in this study was content analysis. There were 15 pieces of ancient and modern culinary literature used. In addition, the roasted beef recipes totaled 78. Analysis of recipe data published over the last 300 years showed two different types of Roasted Beef recipes: 1) Roasted Skewered Beef and 2) General Roasted Beef. In the case of Roasted type, the method was divided into three steps: 1) Coating of flour porridge after marinade in the source, 2) Three dippings into cold water during Roasting, and 3) Roasting again with Seasoning.
This study attempted to identify differences in Korean food consumption behaviors between groups of Japanese consumers segmented in accordance to their food-related lifestyles. This study was performed to provide Korean food service companies basic information to implement a strategy for the globalization of Korean food. As a result of the empirical analysis, the food-related lifestyles of Japanese consumers were deduced to the following four factors: "health and safetyoriented lifestyle", "palate and safety-oriented lifestyle", "economic efficiency-oriented lifestyle", and "simplicity-oriented lifestyle". Further, as a result of the cluster analysis, food-related lifestyles were classified into the following three groups: "a group highly interested in food-related life", "an economic efficiency-oriented group", and "a simplicity-oriented group". Second, there were significant differences in demographic characteristics and the characteristics of Korean food consumption behaviors between the groups. Third, also in a comparison of satisfaction with and loyalty to Korean restaurants with crucial attributes during the selection of Korean food, there were significant differences between the groups. Therefore, it is necessary to develop various Korean food products that will cater to Japanese consumers in accordance with each segmented group.
This study was aimed at research on Jeonyak (煎藥) appearing in the bibliography. It was during the Goryeo Dynasty that Jeonyak was first mentioned in literature. At this time, Jeonyak was served for consumption during Palgwanhoe. The ingredients and recipes of Jeonyak were listed for the first time in Suunjapbang, a book written by Kim Yu during the Joseon Dynasty. Since then, they have been found in various books and materials. During the Joseon Dynasty, Jeonyak was made in Neuiwon, a medical administrative organization in the palace, and administered as a seasonal food on Dongji Day in the winter. The king gave various to his guests or subjects as special gifts. As a result, Jeonyak became well known to many people and even to those in foreign countries. Jeonyak is a Korean traditional medicated diet food made from decocted beef-feet, bone stock, and other spices, including jujube paste, honey, ginger, pepper, clove, and cinnamon. Jeonyak has a long 800-year history, and its ingredients and recipes have changed only gradually. Milk was a major ingredient of Jeonyak during the Goryeo Dynasty, but glue and gelatin were added in the Joseon Dynasty. Since then, recipes have mainly used gelatin made from beef-feet, skin, beef-bone, and so on. In conclusion, Jeonyak has an 800-year history as a special medicated diet food (藥膳) served seasonally on Dongji Day in the winter.
This research analyzed the naming standard of Korea menu names divided into two groups, main dish and side dish. The research was conducted by contents analysis of selected literature articles and multiple-response cross tabulation analysis. The result demonstrated that the naming standard of Korea food consisted of the main ingredient name - sub ingredient name - main condiment name and main recipe. On the other hand, the menu name that is in native language or has a historical origin is exempt from this classification. Therefore, this study proposes a new standard, 'Hansik Menu Naming', to assist the food service industry and correct the names of unknown foreign dishes.
The two purposes of this study were to understand service encounters in Korean restaurants by foreigners living in Korea and to examine the effect of service encounters on the customer's emotion feelings, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intention. Based on the reactions of a total of 614 foreigners obtained by empirical research, this study reviews the reliability and fitness of the research model, and verifies a total of 4 hypotheses using the Amos program. The hypothesized relationships in the model were tested simultaneously using a structural equation model (SEM). The proposed model provided an adequate fit to the data: χ2 683.466 (df=216), CMIN/df 3.164, RMR 0.095, GFI 0.911, AGFI 0.886, NFI 0.933, CFI 0.953, and RMSEA 0.059. As a result of empirical analysis, the physical environment, interactions with employees, and interactions with other customers were quantified as service encounter factors in Korean restaurants. These factors were indicated to have an influence on customer's emotion feelings. Also, customer's emotion feelings had a positive influence on customer satisfaction and behavioral intent. Limitations and future research are also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how constructs of job embeddedness (fit, links and sacrifice) affected innovation-related behaviors. This study also investigated the relationship between innovation-related behaviors and turnover intention. The samples of this study were employees of Daegu City restaurants who visited the 2010 Daegu Food Tour Expo on October 7-10. A total of 302 questionnaires were analyzed with the statistical methods of factor analysis, reliability test, and covariance structural analysis. There were two findings of the research. First, we found that fits, links, and sacrifice were positively related to innovation-related behaviors. Second, we found that innovation-related behaviors were negatively related to turnover intention. Therefore, restaurant managers in Daegu City should pay attention to providing employee organization that helps them to first in, makes sure that they have lots of links with other employees, and bestows as many wage and fringe benefits as possible. Also, restaurant managers should reward the innovation-related behaviors of employees.
This study was a survey of consumer awareness and attitudes about genetically modified foods and their labeling regulations. Questionnaires were distributed to 4,620 consumers who lived in different areas of Korea, and 4,076 people responded. The consumers were asked about knowledge, labeling information, and their sources of information about GM foods. Respondents from Seoul, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam answered mostly "nearly don't know > moderate > never know > know a little." Respondents from Gyeonggi answered "moderate > nearly don't know > never know > know a little." According to occupation, housewives, company employees, consultants, and students answered mostly "nearly don't know > moderate > never know > know a little. "Consumers answered about the intent to buy GM foods differently according to area, occupation, and education. Seoul and Gyeonggi residents said that reinforcing factors to relieve the insecurity of GM foods were "evaluating safety > management of GM foods by the government > GM food regulation system." There were other answers according to area, occupation, and education. About GM-related education methods that they wished to have, residents of the Seoul area said "books/leaflets" most often, but residents of the Gyounggi area said "attending a lecture" most often. Housewives also said "attending a lecture," but teachers and students said "Internetbased education" most often. About the kinds of education that they could join, Seoul residents answered "consumer groups > school parents > public institutions," but Gyeonggi and Chungnam area residents answered "public institutions > consumer groups > school parents." Housewives and students answered "consumer groups" most often, but consultants and private business owners answered "public institutions" most often. We realized that different education methods were necessary for different areas, occupations, and education levels.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the difference in bakery choice attributes according to consumers' general characteristics and purchasing behavior. Among 350 questionnaires distributed to bakery consumers, 277 complete questionnaires (79.1%) were analyzed. Bakery choice attributes were classified into five factors: "environment and image", "bakery product features", "location", "employee service", and "price and sales promotion"; the mean scores of these factors' importance levels were 3.59, 3.58, 3.49, 3.36, and 3.00, respectively. Males considered 'employee service' factor significantly more than did females. Further, the importance level of 'employee service' factor was significantly greater as consumer's age increased. The importance levels of 'bakery product features' and 'employee service' factors were considered significantly more by consumers who spent KRW10,000-15,000 than those who spent KRW5,000 or less. 'Price and sales promotion' was considered to be more important by consumers who obtained information from the Internet than from the TV and radio. 'Location' factor was considered to be more significant as purchasing frequency increased. Such differences in importance level of bakery choice attributes according to consumers' gender, age, job, and purchasing behavior should be considered and applied to the development of marketing strategies targeted at consumers.
The purpose of this research was to identify not only the effect of what consumers want from their brand identification and brand attachment, but also the effect of their perceived brand identification on their perceived brand attachment in the family restaurant setting. This research also investigated the causal relationship between a consumer's perceived brand attachment and brand loyalty. A total of 332 questionnaires were collected from customers who visited one of 4 nationallybranded family restaurants in Daegu. With the consent of the store managers of each family restaurant brand, students of Dongguk University helped respondents fill out questionnaires and collected the data. There were three major findings of this research. First, the benefits that consumers wanted were found to have a significant effect on their perceived brand identification and brand attachment. Second, the perceived brand identification of customers was found to have a significant effect on their perceived brand attachment. And third, the perceived brand attachment of customers was found to have a significant effect on their perceived brand loyalty. Also, consumer's benefits sought affected their perceived brand attachment through their perceived brand identification, and consumer's benefits sought and brand identification respectively influenced their perceived brand loyalty through their perceived brand attachment. Therefore, marketing managers or general managers of family restaurants should identify consumer benefits in order to increase sales and profits.
Restaurant managers seeking to maximize revenue should look carefully at how long their tables are occupied and how much the average diner spends. This study examined the effect of the customer's party size on restaurant revenue. The dining periods were divided into 2 types (lunch vs. dinner/weekdays vs. weekends), which were combined to show the average spending per minute (SPM), to determine if the dining periods have measurable effects on the dining duration and average bill. The results show that the dining duration for dinner was much longer than that for lunch and there was no significant difference in dining duration between weekdays and weekends. On the other hand, customers in larger parties at lunch time had a higher SPM than those in smaller parties. A larger customer party size was associated with a longer dining duration for dinner and on weekdays. During all operating periods (lunch, dinner, weekdays, weekends), the party size had a significantly positive effect on the mean spending per minute. For restaurant managers, these findings suggest opportunities to increase revenue and adopt revenue management strategies.
The purpose of this study was to analyze methods and contents of global Korean food marketing. In-depth interviews were conducted from July to October in 2010 using a qualitative research approach. Government agencies and restaurant companies emphasized well-being and healthy aspects as a Korean food identity. Regarding the marketing contents, government agencies commonly included standard loanword orthography and recipes. On the other hand, restaurant companies contained their own contents differentiated from other brands. Government agencies used CF, video, book and newspaper as communication channels but restaurant companies did not have systematic communication channels. Government agencies attempted to use holding, supporting and participating expositions as communication methods, whereas restaurant companies mainly used sales promotion and point-of-purchase as communication methods.
The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics of dried noodles when different concentrations of Loquat (Eriobotyya japonica Lindley) leaf powder (LLP) were added to the wheat flour. The cooking quality, mechanical texture properties, and viscosity were measured, and a sensory evaluation was conducted with the prepared noodles. The gelatinization points of the composite LLP-wheat flours were shown to increase. As measured via amylograph, viscosity at 95℃, viscosity at 95℃ after 15 minutes, and maximum viscosity values of those samples decreased as the LLP content increased. As increasing amounts of LLP were added, the L and a values were reduced, whereas the b value was increased and the color values, weight, and volume of the cooked noodle increased, as did the turbidity of the soup. With regard to the textural characteristics, the LLP additive increased hardness and cohesiveness, and reduced adhesiveness and springiness. Overall, the noodles prepared with 5% LLP were preferred more than the others, according to the results of our sensory evaluation.
Response surface methodology (RSM) was performed in order to determine the optimal mixing conditions of different amounts of egg and sugar for the preparation of soybean pudding. The experiments were designed according to a central composite design by designating whole egg and sugar content as independent variables. Meanwhile, sweetness, Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage (CIE) color parameters (L*, a* and b* values), hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and gumminess were response variables. Overall optimization, conducted by overlaying the contour plots under investigation, was able to determine the optimal range of dependent variables within which the 14 responses were simultaneously optimized. The point chosen as a representative of this optimal region corresponded to 50.00 g of whole egg and 31.66 g of sugar. Under these conditions, the model predicted L* value=80.03, a* value=-5.44, b* value=27.86, sweetness=21.23 (˚Brix), hardness=25.45×105 (dyne/cm2), cohesiveness=67.90 (%), springiness=46.20 (%), and gumminess=12.71 (g).
This study was performed to examine the relationship between the body mass index (BMI), the body fat, and the serum lipids of post-menopausal women in rural areas. The subjects were 510 women aged 50 and over. As a result of this study, we found a trend of decreasing BMI as age increased, but body fat increased. In addition, there was a significant decreasing of the lean body mass than an increasing of the body mass index according to increasing age. Therefore, this study confirmed that a main cause of rural women being classified as obese is a decrease in lean body mass, rather than an increase in of body fat. Of all subjects, 36.3% (18.5≤BMI 〈 23) of all subjects were classified as having normal BMI, whereas only 21.4% were classified as having normal body fat. Out of 190 subjects who were body fat 30% and over, 38 subjects were classified as obese (BMI≥25) and 113 subjects were classified as overweight (23≤BMI 〈 25). The percentile of those with a BMI of 25kg/m2 was 70, and they had 30.82% body fat. HDL cholesterol showed a negative correlation with anthropometric factors (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist hip ratio, body fat), and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides showed a positive correlation. Especially, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and hip circumference showed significant correlations. Because of differences in the body fat and lean body mass by age group, it seems difficult to assess obesity via BMI only. The elderly especially should have a higher significance placed on body fat or abdominal fat than only BMI.