This study selected the optimal conditions for enzyme treatment that can promote the extraction of functional components from Salvia plebeia (SP) and confirmed solubilization characteristics, functional component contents, and applicability evaluation in pilot-scale, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activity. The optimal conditions of pectinase, 1%, and 2 h (P) were determined through the enzyme treatment of SP. The water-soluble index and total polyphenol content were the highest in P compared to 100oC reflux condition for 2 h (CON). Component analysis performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that flavonoid contents were increased 6.6-9.5 times in the P compared to CON. There was no difference in component content when comparing the measurement lab-scale and pilot scale. CON and P indicated cytoprotective effect against H2O2-induced RAW 264.7 cells. CON and P pre-treatment also reduced the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, P showed higher antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities than CON. These results suggested that P has a higher concentration of bioactive compounds through enzyme treatment than that obtained from CON. Thus, it can be used as a primary material for industrial utilization, such as developing functional food materials using SP.
The objectives of this study are to increase the contents of functional compounds and antioxidant activity obtained from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extracts using fermentation and enzyme. The optimal conditions (1%, Aspergillus luchuensis) for extraction methods were determined through fermentation treatment of ginger (concentrations of 0.5 and 1%; Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus luchuensis). The quality characteristics of the ginger extract for each treatment method (HW, hot water treated; EZ, enzyme; AL, fermentation; ALEZ, fermentation and enzyme) were observed using the optimal conditions. The water-soluble index (WSI) and total sugar content of the ALEZ increased by 2.6 times and 6.5 times, respectively, compared with that of the HW. However, the sum of gingerol and shogaol contents of ALEZ were 73.9% in ratio compared with lower than that of the HW. Antioxidant contents were generally higher in ALEZ, similar to the WSI trend. Therefore, ALEZ was more effective in enhancing antioxidant activity than EZ and AL. The fermentation and enzymatic approach described in this study would be beneficial to food industries for developing ginger functional products and materials.
본 연구에서는 참죽나무 잎 추출물이 에탄올로 유도된 산화스트레스로부터 간세포를 보호하며, 항산화 효소 유전자 발현을 증가시킴으로써 항산화 활성을 보이는 것으로 사료된다. 또한, 참죽나무 잎에는 플라보노이드가 다량 함유되어 있으며, 특히 퀘르세틴 배당체인 qercetin 3-O-rhamnoside(quercitrin)는 건조중량 100 g당 1,456.0±12.5 mg으로 총 플라보놀 함량(1,874.5±15.5 mg)의 77.7%를 차지하여 참죽나무잎의 주요 플라보놀 성분으로 확인되었다. 결론적으로 참죽 나무 잎 추출물은 알코올에 의한 간 세포의 손상을 보호하고, 산화스트레스를 감소시켰으며, 이는 참죽나무 잎의 주요 플라보노이드인 퀘르세틴과 비교했을 때도 그 효과가 우수함을 확인하였다. 따라서 참죽나무 잎은 알코올에 의해 손상된 간을 보호하는 식품으로서 이용가치가 높을 것으로 기대된다.
The objectives of this study were to characterize the physicochemical properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and the optimum extract processing condition to increase the solubilization efficiency of 6-gingerol and polysaccharides disintegration. The physicochemical properties were investigated under high-pressure enzyme (HP) and enzyme (WB) treatment conditions such as reaction time (1, 2, 3 h), pressure (50, 70, 100 MPa) and sample types, and cell wall degradation enzyme (hemicellulase, cellulase, pectinase, glucosidase, etc.) The effect of high-pressure enzyme treatment depending on sample types was significantly highest in the freeze-dried ginger powder. The optimum condition for high-pressure enzyme treatment was with Pectinex Ultra SP-L (Pec) enzymes for 2 h at 50oC and 100 MPa. Water soluble indexes increased 4.6 and 3.8 times more compared to CON (15.35%) while total polyphenol contents increased by 1.8 and 1.7 times compared to CON (1.43%). The total contents of indicator components such as 6, 8, 10-gingerol and shogaol was 1.53%, increasing 2.7 times more compared to CON (0.57%) with a significant difference (p<0.001). The high-pressure and enzymatic approach described in this study would be beneficial to food industries for developing ginger functional product and materials.
The aim of this study was to review Byung-Kwa-Ryu recipes in old cookbooks of the head & noble family (Jong-Ga). As for details and classification, we examined the materials and recipes of Byung-Kwa-Ryu. To accomplish this, old cookbooks of the head & noble family (「Soowoonjabbang」,「Eumsikdimibang」,「Onjubub」, and「Jusiksiui」) were reviewed. The introduced Byung-Kwa-Ryu recipes numbered 47 total; four from「Soowoonjabbang」, 18 from「Eumsikdimibang」, nine from「Onjubub」, and 16 from「Jusiksiui」. We classified the foods (Byung-Kwa_Ryu) into two categories, Tteok-Ryu (Korean rice cake) and Kwa-Jung-Ryu (Korean traditional cookie), on the basis of previous studies. These were further classified into 11 categories: Tteok-Ryu (Jjin-tteok, Salmeun-tteok, Chin-tteok, Jijin-tteok), Kwa-Jung-Ryu (Yumilkwa, Yukwa, Jeongkwa, Dasik, Kwapyun, Dang (Yeot), and others. The most common Byung-Kwa-Ryu type was Jjin-tteok in Tteok-Ryu (14). The next most common Byung-Kwa-Ryu types were Yukwa in Kwa-Jung-Ryu (6) and Yumilkwa in Kwa-Jung-Ryu (5).
This study investigated consumer perception and purchase behavior regarding Han-gwa (traditional Korean confection) in housewives residing in the Seoul and Gyeonggi area. This study was conducted by self-administered questionnaires. Out of 839 questionnaires, 713 questionnaires (85.0%) were used for statistical analyses including frequency analysis, the Chisquare, and one-way ANOVA. Based on the data collected, independence variables were divided less than 40 years (<40), 40s, 50 years or higher (50) by age. The major findings were as follows; Firstly, 72.1% of the total respondents had the experience of purchasing Han-gwa. Gangjeong was the most popular item among purchased. As the purpose of purchasing, holiday gift and snack was on the highest rank. Hypermarkets / discount stores (48.9%) was the most common place for the place of purchase. Secondly, there was a significant difference in the perception of Han-gwa by age; respondents aged 50 years or older showed more positive perception in Han-gwa in 3 factors among total of 11 factors. Thirdly, for the popularization of Han-gwa, ‘too sweet taste (44.2%)’ and ‘small portion size (22.9%)’ were pointed to be improved by respondents. Results of this study indicate that 1) Yu-gwa and Yak-gwa require new product development based on age segmentation, and health and food safety are important variables considered when housewives purchase Han-gwa.
This study examined the food purchasing behavior of rural housewives in Bibong-myeon, Hwaseong. The survey targeted grocery shopping for the home, in particular by housewives. The type of grocery store frequented, age, socioeconomic factors, and ease of purchase were compared with interests in health foods. One super supermarket (SSM), three supermarkets (SM), and four convenience stores were examined in the research area, whereas a large-scale discount store and grocery stores were also examined outside the research area. The grocery store visiting rate was 61.5% in the research area and 38.5% in the other area. The SSM (62.7%) and SM (29.9%) in the research area and LDS (57.1%) and SSM (16.7%) in the other area were most frequently visited. Major purchasing products greatly differed according to the grocery store type. Major foods purchased in the SSM were grain, meat, and fish. Major foods purchased in the LDS and SM were processed products and vegetables, respectively. The LDS visiting frequency was 41.7% for 2-3 times per month and 41.7% for <1 time per month. The means of transport were mostly by private car (87.5%), whereas the SSM was visited 1-2 times per week 53.1% of the time by foot. In addition, various grocery stores are absent in rural areas and it is therefore important to find other methods to assess the food environment of rural areas. In future research, it will be necessary to design various ways to perform food environment research.
The main aim of this study was to investigate side dishes served to guests of head families (Jong-ga) in Korea. In order to conduct of this research, we analyzed two books published by the Rural Development Administration (RDA) on the foods and the stories from head families: "Sharing beyond succession, stories and foods from the head families" and "Aesthetics of Serving". The total number of head families serving foods to guests was 10: 5 from Gyeongsangbuk-do, 2 from Jeollanam-do, 1 from Gyeonggi-do, 1 from Gyeongsangnam-do, and 1 from Chungcheongbuk-do. We classified the foods into 7 categories, staple dishes, side dishes, rice cakes, desserts, beverages, alcoholic beverages and others, on the basis of previous studies. Most foods served to guests were side dishes (119). These were further classified into 14 categories: Guk Tang, Namul, Hwe, Bokkeum, Mareunchan, Gui, Jorim, Pyeonyuk Jokpyoen Suran, Jiim Seon, Jeon Jeok, Jangajji, Kimchi, Jeotgal Sikhae and Jang. The most common side dish was Jangs (17), served by 8 head families. The next most common side dishes were Marenchan (15), Jeon Jeok (14) and Kimchi (11).
This study was to examine Kwa-Jung-ryu, a traditional Korean confectionery, made by head families. We examined the materials and recipes of Kwa-Jung-ryu, which were classified into Yumilgwa, Yugwa, Jeonggwa, Dasikgwa, Yeot-Gangjeong, Dang (Yeot), and others. There were 13 head families that introduced Kwa-Jung-ryu, two each from Gyeonggi-do, Jeolla-do, and Chuncheong-do, and seven from Gyeongsang-do. There are 33 types of Kwa-Jung-ryu, which averages to about 2.5 types per family. But the Pungsan Ryu, Yeoju Lee, and Andong Kwon families introduced the most Kwa-Jung-ryu with 5 types each. The most popular types of Kwa-Jung-ryu were Yumilgwa, introduced by 7 families (Yakgwa by 6 and Maejakgwa by 1), then Jeonggwa by 6 families (Jeonggwa by 3, Pyeon-gang by 1, and Jeonggwa and Pyeon-gang by 2), and Dasikgwa and other Kwa-Jung-ryu by 5 families (Gotgam-mari by 4 and Seopsansam by 1). Classifying Kwa-Jung-ryu by recipe, the most frequently introduced were 8 types of Jeonggwa-ryu, 7 types of Yumilgwa, 5 types of Dasikgwa, 3 types of Yeot-Gangjeong and Dang (Yeot), and 2 types of Yugwa.
The purpose of this study was to develop an evaluation indicator for the industrialization of local cuisine. We conducted a literature study, interviews with experts, and a Delphi survey. The resulting evaluation indicator was divided into four groups and nine sub-groups. The four groups were locality, taste and functionality, industrial base, and business value. The nine sub-groups were traditionality, regionality, eating quality, nutrition and functionality, condition of development, technological level, rights and policy, marketability, and ripple effects. Also 22 items were created as indicators for evaluating classes ; historicity, sustainability, rarity, awareness of local resident, the number of similar restaurant, appearance, taste, nutritional balance, health functionality, availability of raw materials, suitability of environmental exchange of market, standardization of recipe, simplification of recipe, storability, intellectual property rights, government's policy, appropriacy of price, popularization, possibility of franchise, globalization, improvement of local image, vitalization of local economy. The four most important classes corresponded to one of the four groups. These classes were sustainability, taste, state (local autonomy) policy, vitalization of local economy. The implications of this study are that the possibility of industrializing the local cuisine of each region can be evaluated and applied. Moreover, these indicators could promote the discovery of local cuisines, support planning for the commercialization of local cuisine.
This study was performed to examine the relationship between the body mass index (BMI), the body fat, and the serum lipids of post-menopausal women in rural areas. The subjects were 510 women aged 50 and over. As a result of this study, we found a trend of decreasing BMI as age increased, but body fat increased. In addition, there was a significant decreasing of the lean body mass than an increasing of the body mass index according to increasing age. Therefore, this study confirmed that a main cause of rural women being classified as obese is a decrease in lean body mass, rather than an increase in of body fat. Of all subjects, 36.3% (18.5≤BMI 〈 23) of all subjects were classified as having normal BMI, whereas only 21.4% were classified as having normal body fat. Out of 190 subjects who were body fat 30% and over, 38 subjects were classified as obese (BMI≥25) and 113 subjects were classified as overweight (23≤BMI 〈 25). The percentile of those with a BMI of 25kg/m2 was 70, and they had 30.82% body fat. HDL cholesterol showed a negative correlation with anthropometric factors (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist hip ratio, body fat), and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides showed a positive correlation. Especially, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and hip circumference showed significant correlations. Because of differences in the body fat and lean body mass by age group, it seems difficult to assess obesity via BMI only. The elderly especially should have a higher significance placed on body fat or abdominal fat than only BMI.
This study aimed to identify efficient methods for the globalization of Korean food in Vietnam. For this, we interviewed owners of 11 Korean restaurants in Hanoi and 9 Korean restaurants in Ho Chi Minh. Due to the rapid economic development of Vietnam, the restaurant industry for the middle class has drastically increased. For the globalization of Korean food, new positioning of Korean restaurants is needed. Research has shown that Korean restaurants need to change their style of management. Although the first generation of Korean restaurant owners managed restaurants as a family business, a new professional management system is now required. Above all, it is necessary to develop and support a comprehensive food culture system in which the menu is suited to the taste of the natives and its recipe is distributed with food material quality control, hygienic control, and operation of a localized management system.
This study investigated the food and dietary educational content in primary, middle and high school textbooks in order to provide fundamental data for the development of educational programs on Korean traditional food culture. The research objects consisted of 51 kinds of textbooks (15 kinds of primary school textbooks, 29 kinds of middle school home economics textbooks and 7 kinds of high school home economics textbooks), and the contents related to food and dietary education were counted and analyzed. The content analysis was performed using two categories: application method and subject matter. Application method included texts, cases, visual aids (pictures, photos, illustrations, chart, etc.) and activities, whereas subject matter consisted of seven types (well balanced nutrition and health, understanding of food and nutrition, cooking principles, cooking lessons, traditional foods and culture, others). The results of the application method in primary school textbooks show that visual aids were the most common in all six grades. For the subject matter, 'understanding of food and nutrition' was most abundant in primary school textbooks while 'well balanced nutrition and health' accounted for a large part of the contents in middle school textbooks. However, the contents regarding traditional foods and culture were insufficient in primary and middle school textbooks. These results suggest that educational contents on traditional foods and culture should be added to primary and middle school textbooks and covered in various subjects. Furthermore, high school 'home economics' contents need to emphasize comprehensive food and dietary education and adjust to 'science & technology for life'.
The purpose of this study is to present the scheme that can enhance the value of native local foods by analyzing the case into which storytelling is incorporated in order to revitalize native local foods. Towards this end, the cases of native local foods throughout the country were recommended through professional survey and one region among them was finally selected through the field study. The survey on the native local foods was conducted through qualitative study. The four stages of storytelling: the findings of storytelling, the production of storytelling, the experience of storytelling, and sharing of storytelling were analyzed by stage and the contents of the survey by stage were developed. In the findings of story, the origins and background of the main family's foods and food-related stories were derived. The production of stories deals with how to convey the stories of surveyed native local foods to consumers and it presented the stories about the place and food menu. In the experience of storytelling, the physical environment and non-physical environment, in which people visit native local eating houses and experience native local foods were analyzed. Finally, in the sharing of story, how the tourists who have experienced the native local foods make stories and disseminate and share them was analyzed. The significance of this study is that through the storytelling technique it presented the findings, production, experience and sharing of native local foods in the level that can apply to practical business. Although the research is in the stage of inquiry, this study is meaningful in that it presented the basic methodology that can induce the revitalization of the native local food industry through examining the tradition and significance of native local foods that can be found in all the regions of the country.
한국 고추 주산지에서 '금탑', '부강' 품종을 1998년과 1999년에 재배하여 4회에 걸쳐 홍고추를 수확하였다. 과실 내적품질로 환원당, capsaicinoids, 비타민C 함량을 측정하여 고추 성장기간의 온도, 강우량, 일조시간의 기상여건과 상관을 살펴보았다. 고추의 환원당 함량은 늦게 수확할수록 높아지는 경향을 보이고 있다. Capsaicinoids 함량은 수확시기별, 년도별 편차가 심하게 나타났으며. 비타민 C의 함량은 품종보다 기상여건에 더 많은 영향을 받았다. 기상여건과의 고추 성분별 상관은 환원당 함량에서는 수확 전 강우량과 음의 상관을, 일조시간과는 높은 양의 상관이 있었다. Capsaicinoids와 비타민 C 함량은 수확 전 강우와 음의 상관이 나타냈는데, 비타민 C의 경우 두 품종 모두 비교적 높은 결정계수(R2 값)를 보였다.
Agrobacterium vector를 이용한 세포사멸 억제유전자인 AtBI-1(Arabidopsis thaliana Bax Inhibitor-1)을 벼에 도입하기 위하여, 벼품종별 식물체 재분화 능력과 AtBI-1 유전자가 도입된 형질전환체 벼에 관한 연구를 수행하여 얻어진 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 벼의 품종별 식물체 재분화 능력을 조사한바 자포니카형 벼가 인디카형 및 통일형 벼에 비해 식물체 재분화능력이 높게 나타났다. 공시 품종 중에서 일품벼의 식물체 재분화율(7%)이 가장 높았다. 배양용기별 식물체 재분화 능력을 조사한바, petri-dish에서 보다 시험관에서 식물체 재분화율이 높았다. 4주동안 자란 ‘일품’ 유래의 callus를 Agrobacterium과 co-cultivation한 후 kanamycin과 carbenicillin이 첨가된 재분화 배지에 이식하였을 때 12.0%의 가장 높은 형질전환율을 나타내었다. 형질전환된 식물체의 genomic DNA를 이용한 PCR 결과는 Bin-AtBI-1-GFP 유전자는 1 kb 부근에 삽입된 것이 확인되었으며, Southern blot 분석에서도 확인이 되었다. 형질전환체의 CLSM(confocal laser scanning microscope) 분석에서 잎, 줄기, 뿌리에서 GFP가 발현되어 형광색을 띄고 있음을 확인 하였다.