Demand for research on the use of hydrogen, an eco-friendly fuel, is rapidly increasing in accordance with global environmental problems and IMO environmental regulations in the shipbuilding and marine industry. In the case of hydrogen, similar to liquefied natural gas, it has a characteristic that its volume decreases hundreds of times during phase transformation from gas to liquid, so it must be stored in a tank in the form of liquefied hydrogen for transport efficiency. The material of the liquid hydrogen tank is selected in consideration of mechanical properties and hydrogen embrittlement at cryogenic temperatures. In this study, welding research was conducted on STS316L material, which was most commonly used in the space industry. In this study, flux cored arc welding was performed under 4 welding conditions to derive the optimal welding conditions for STS316L material, and then mechanical properties of the welded part were compared and analyzed.
이 논문에서는 기존의 조인트 교량을 일체식 교대 교량으로 변경할 경우, 온도하중에 의한 상부구조의 인장에 따른 흉벽의 휨거동을 보강하기 위한 흉벽 FRP 보강공법을 제안하고, 설계 및 유한요소해석을 통해 보강 효과를 검토하였다. FRP 보 강재는 펄트루젼 공정으로 제작하며, 흉벽 전면부에 부착하여 일체식 교대 교량으로 변경할 때, 흉벽에 부족한 인장철근의 역할 을 대체하게 된다. 흉벽 FRP 보강공법의 설계는 ACI Committee 440을 참고하여 수행하였으며, 유한요소해석은 콘크리트, 철근 및 유리섬유와 비닐에스터로 제작한 FRP 보강재의 최대응력을 보강 방법에 따라 비교하였다. 유한요소해석 결과, FRP 보강재는 콘크리트에 발생하는 인장응력을 감소시키는 역할을 하며, 흉벽이 저항할 수 있는 휨모멘트를 증가시킬 수 있는 것으로 나타났 다.
PURPOSES : This study proposes brief guidelines for traffic engineers in the field to refer to when operating tram priority signals based on the "early green" and "green extension" methods.
METHODS : A set of VISSIM simulation analyses was conducted considering various traffic and control conditions in a hypothetical corridor consisting of two signalized intersections. The traffic conditions were varied at five different levels. The control conditions were varied at twenty-five levels by changing the tram priority traffic signal control parameters, i.e., the early green unit time and green extension unit time. A total of 125 simulation runs were from these combinations. A set of optimal signal timings for ordinary non-tram vehicles was prepared with TRANSYT-7F and implemented for the simulation. A tram priority signal control module based on VISVAP was exclusively developed for this study.
RESULTS : As expected, no specific trend was found in the relationship between the two tram priority control parameters (early green time and green extension time). However, a trend was observed when assuming that the early green and green extension operations were mutually exclusive. Specifically, an inverse trend appeared between the tram priority control parameter values and level of congestion according to the performance measure (average network delay).
CONCLUSIONS : For the early green control parameters, it is better to provide six seconds when undersaturated and four seconds when near-saturated. For the green extension control parameter, four seconds is suitable.
PURPOSES : Advancements in science and technology caused by industrialization have led to an increase in particulate matter emissions and, consequently, severity of air pollution. Nitrogen oxide (NOx), which accounts for 58% of road transport pollutants, adversely affects both human health and the environment. A test-bed was constructed to determine NOx removal efficiency at the roadside. TiO2, a material used to reduce particulate matter, was used to remove NOx. It was applied to a vertical concrete structure using the dynamic pressurized penetration TiO2 fixation method, which can be easily applied to vertical concrete structures. This study was conducted to evaluate the NOx removal efficiency of the dynamic pressurized-penetration TiO2 fixation method in a test-bed under real roadside conditions.
METHODS : A test-bed was constructed in order to determine the NOx removal efficiency using the dynamic pressurized penetration TiO2 fixation method on the roadside. The dynamic pressurized-penetration TiO2 fixation method was applied by installing a vertical concrete structure. NOx was injected into the test-bed using an exhaust gas generator. By installing a shading screen, the photocatalytic reaction of TiO2 was suppressed to a maximum concentration of 1000 ppb along the roadside. The removal efficiency was evaluated by measuring NOx concentrations. In addition, illuminance was measured using an illuminance meter.
RESULTS : From the results of the analysis of the NOx removal efficiency in the test-bed which the dynamic pressurized type TiO2 fixation method was applied to, an average removal efficiency ranging from 18% to 40% was achieved, depending on the illuminance. Similarly, according to the results of the evaluation of the NO removal efficiency, an average of removal efficiency ranging from 20% to 62% was achieved. Thus, the NOx removal efficiency increased when the illuminance was high.
CONCLUSIONS : From the results of the experiment conducted, the efficiency of NOx removal per unit volume was obtained according to the illuminance of TiO2 concrete along an actual road. Field applicability of the dynamic pressurized-penetration-type TiO2 fixation method to vertical concrete structures along roads was confirmed.
이 논문은 루이자 메이 올컷의 『작은 아씨들』과 존 번연의 『천로역정』의 내 용상 상관관계를 살펴보고 『천로역정』의 주제가 『작은 아씨들』 주인공 네 자 매의 성장에 어떻게 영향을 주고 있는지 고찰하기 위한 시도이다. 『천로역정』 은 근대 영미 대중에게 크나큰 영향을 준 기독교적 삶에 대한 우화로서, 천국에 이르기까지 기독교인들이 맞게 되는 어려움에 대해 경고하면서 바람직한 순례 자의 길에 대해 보여준 작품이다. 『작은 아씨들』첫 부분부터 주인공들은 자신 들이 겪고 있는 어려움을 『천로역정』의 주인공 크리스천이 이겨냈던 상황에 빗 대고, 각 주인공들이 극복해야 할 어려움을 『천로역정』에서 따오는 등 두 작품 은 밀접한 상관성을 보인다. 루이자 메이 올컷은 작품 속 소녀들이 겪는 고난을 성별 구분 없이 기독교인이라면 누구나 극복해야 할 어려움으로 상정함으로써 이 작품이 소녀들의 성장기일 뿐만 아니라 보편적 기독교인의 성장 이야기로 만들어 시대를 초원하여 우리에게 여전히 감동을 전해주고 있다.
This study was conducted to investigate the vertical distribution and vascular plants in the Gakho mountain. Form the results of three field surveys from May 2022 to September 2022, a total of 478 total taxa, representing 426 species, 11 subspecies, 35 varieties, four forms, and two hybrids were identified, which were categorized in 282 genera and 94 families. We identified the elevational distribution ranges of 398 taxa of vascular plants. Among them, 19 taxa were endemic to Korea, one taxon was identified as a rare plant. The floristic target plants amounted to 72 taxa, specifically two taxa of grade V, two taxa of grade IV, 16 taxa of grade III, 27 taxa of grade II, and 25 taxa of grade I. Further, 71 taxa were identified as northern lineage plants. A total of 19 taxa of alien plants were identified, with a Naturalized Index of 4.0%, an Urbanization Index of 6.6%, and three plants that disturbed the ecosystem. The result of analyzing the pattern of species richness showed a reversed hump shape with minimum richness at midhigh elevation. A cluster analysis showed a high degree of similarity between adjacent elevation sections that are geographically adjacent with similar habitat environments. Warmth index in the Gakho mountain ranged from 57.2°C · month to 84.2°C · month. Our results provide basic data on vascular plants and valuable information on elevational distribution ranges of current plant species in the Gakho mountain, which could serve as a baseline for comparison of the shifts in elevation under future climate change.
In modern society, the delivery service market has grown explosively due to rapid changes in social structure and the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, various problems such as injury to workers and an increase in human accidents are occurring due to the loading and unloading of parcels. In order to solve this problem, domestic company n is developing a “robot-based cargo loading and unloading system”. In developing a new technology system, quantitative reliability targets should be set for efficient operation and development. In this paper, reliability analysis was conducted through field data for the pneumatic gripper of the “robot-based cargo loading system”. The reliability of the failure data was analyzed to estimate the distribution parameters and MTTF. Random data was derived for the probability of occurrence of a failure with the estimated value. By repeating the simulation to predict the number and year of failures according to the estimated parameters of the probability distribution, it was proposed as a method that reflects realistic probabilities rather than calculating with simple arithmetic using the average MTTF previously used in the field.
A bending experiment was conducted to verify the structural performance of the U-flange truss hybrid bean using rebars or steel pipes to reinforce the upper compression zone. As a result of evaluating the bending strength of the truss hybrid beam according to the Structural Design Standard (KDS 14 2020: 2022) by introducing the lattice member as a tensile resistance element, the following conclusions were obtained. Considering the lattice element as a tensile resistance element, the nominal bending strength was increased by 38.57 to 47.90 kN.m. As a result of reviewing the experiment as to whether the flexural member has proper ductility, it was found that it is desirable to place appropriate rebars, steel quality plans, and lateral restraints on the upper and lower parts of the hybrid beam to have sufficient ductility ratio.
Along with the development of the automobile industry, the materials and processing technology of parts have also developed. In particular, various materials have been developed and applied to automobile bumpers, which are directly related to crash safety. In particular, the application of composite materials is expanding for weight reduction. In this study, a new composite material made of a mixture of carbon fiber and aramid fiber was developed and the possibility of application to an automobile bumper was reviewed, and significant results were obtained.
지진은 예상하지 못한 위치와 규모로 지반을 흔들어서 막대한 물적 및 인적 피해를 발생시킨다. 따라서 지진으로 인 한 진동을 최소화하고 피해를 방지하기 위하여 다양한 내진 기술 개발 연구가 수행되고 있다. 최근에는 우수한 성능을 나타내 는 다양한 신소재가 개발되고 있으며 이를 접목된 내진 기술 개발 연구가 하나의 트렌드가 되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 반영구적 이고 자동복원이 가능한 신소재를 적용한 새로운 개념의 영구마찰 자동복원 댐퍼를 제안하고 핵심 부재에 대한 물리적 특성 검 증 연구를 수행한다. 영구마찰 자동복원 댐퍼의 핵심은 복원 특성을 나타내는 초탄성 형상기억합금과 폴리우레탄을 부재로 장 착시키고 추가적인 마찰 특성을 나타내는 네오디뮴 영구자석을 사용하였다. 이러한 핵심 부재는 재료실험을 통해 특성을 검증 하였고 도출된 거동 응답 결과를 통해 영구마찰 자동복원 댐퍼의 구조실험 예측 거동을 도출하였다. 우수한 복원 성능을 나타 내는 영구마찰 자동복원 댐퍼는 최대 하중 성능과 에너지 소산 능력이 우수하여 구조물에 적용 시 강한 지진에도 버티면서 발 생된 손상도 회복 시킬 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.
강진은 적절한 내진 설계 기술이 적용되지 않으면 건물 붕괴로 인하여 극심한 피해가 발생할 수 있다. 이를 해결할 수 있는 면진 기술은 구조물과 지반 사이에 베어링 장치를 적용하여 지진 에너지를 흡수하고 건물에 전달되는 진동을 감쇠한 다. 본 연구는 고무 마찰 베어링 장치의 구조물 적용성을 검증하고 지진으로부터 안전성을 확보하기 위하여 고무 마찰 베어링 프레임 구조물에 대한 수치해석을 수행하였다. 수치해석 결과로써 최대 지붕 가속도와 총 밑면 전단력이 감소되어 내진 성능을 확인하였다. 또한, 최대 층간 변위 및 최대 잔류 층간 변위에 대한 분석 결과로 프레임 구조물을 경제적 복구 수준의 결과를 도 출하여 고무 마찰 베어링 장치의 우수한 내진 성능을 확인하였다.
The image and emotions associated with Korean food were investigated in 24 food workers (12 Koreans and 12 foreigners) living in Korea. There are a total of 22 terms for the image of Korean food of Koreans and foreigners, including 7 common words, and a total of 33 terms for emotion, including 10 common words. Differences in the images and emotions associated with the perception of Korean food according to the characteristics of the country and region and Korean food experience were established in foreign food workers. In the images of Korean food, Koreans mentioned ‘jeong, sharing, balanced, Korean table setting, seasonal (seasonality), yearning, trust’, whereas foreigners mentioned ‘red, spicy, distinctive flavor, repulsion, sweet, non-salty, tradition and history, and unfamiliarity’. In Korean food emotions, Koreans were “relaxing, friendly, maternal, hospitable, nostalgic, exotic, clean, trust, delicious, touching, and free”, whereas foreigners were “happy, appealing, enthusiastic, excited, uncomfortable, worried, adventurous, nervous, joyful, fusion, food-cultural, and amazing”.
Bongsu(Beacon Fire Station) is a facility that sends signals with fire and smoke and has been used in Korea since the Three Kingdoms period. This facility was installed to know the north and south crises. This trend continues until the Joseon Dynasty, and it has been somewhat completed in the 17th century. In previous studies, beacon fire was identified mainly from the border area to Hanyang. Based on this, it was classified into Gyeongbongsu, Yeonbyeonbongsu, and Naejibongsu. However, it is difficult to define the characteristics of beacon fire in coastal areas only with this classification. In the case of beacon fire in island areas, there was a tendency to value communication connection within the region rather than connection with the capital. As a case analysis for this, an academic review was conducted with the cases of Ganghwa Island and Jeju Island. As a result, it was confirmed that the role and character of the beacon vary depending on the defense system and the physical distance from the land, even if it has the topographical commonality of the same island.