This study examined the food purchasing behavior of rural housewives in Bibong-myeon, Hwaseong. The survey targeted grocery shopping for the home, in particular by housewives. The type of grocery store frequented, age, socioeconomic factors, and ease of purchase were compared with interests in health foods. One super supermarket (SSM), three supermarkets (SM), and four convenience stores were examined in the research area, whereas a large-scale discount store and grocery stores were also examined outside the research area. The grocery store visiting rate was 61.5% in the research area and 38.5% in the other area. The SSM (62.7%) and SM (29.9%) in the research area and LDS (57.1%) and SSM (16.7%) in the other area were most frequently visited. Major purchasing products greatly differed according to the grocery store type. Major foods purchased in the SSM were grain, meat, and fish. Major foods purchased in the LDS and SM were processed products and vegetables, respectively. The LDS visiting frequency was 41.7% for 2-3 times per month and 41.7% for <1 time per month. The means of transport were mostly by private car (87.5%), whereas the SSM was visited 1-2 times per week 53.1% of the time by foot. In addition, various grocery stores are absent in rural areas and it is therefore important to find other methods to assess the food environment of rural areas. In future research, it will be necessary to design various ways to perform food environment research.
Century-old nutrition and health concepts can be revived and applied in the modern age in the forms of newly developed menus, recipes, and lifestyle education. Current medical nutrition therapy concepts were first described in the Chosun Dynasty (1392-1897) in Korea based on the philosophy that food and medicine originate from the same source, which is known as ‘food as medicine’. Recognizing the importance of culture, tradition, local diet, and lifestyle on health and medical nutrition therapy, we tried to rediscover traditional Korean approaches towards food consumption and nutrition through systematic review of the literature and developed contemporary menus accordingly. The medical nutrition therapy prescriptions described in ‘Shikryochanyo’ (1460) by the Chosun Dynasty’s royal physician Soonyi Jeao cover 45 different diseases. In this project, we developed contemporary menus for those disease models that are most prevalent in modern society. Menus developed with foods that are readily available today were evaluated for their nutritional content and adequacy using a computer-aided nutritional analysis program (CAN pro 3.0, developed by the Korean Nutrition Society for comparison with RDA for Koreans). Therefore, century-old nutrition and health concepts can be revived and applied in modern society as newly developed menus recipes and lifestyle education.
Increasing numbers of Korean adults, especially women, are adopting vegetarian diets for various reasons. In this study, the characteristics of vegetarianism among females residing in Seoul were examined. In addition, the dietary habits and eating behaviors between vegetarians and non-vegetarians were investigated. A total of 148 females (73 vegetarians, 75 non-vegetarians) were recruited and questionnaires regarding their demographic characteristics and eating habits were completed. The eating behavior and daily intake of food groups was assessed using the three factor eating questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-R18) and food frequency questionnaire, respectively. The ages, BMI, education, and religious affiliation were not significantly different between the two groups. More than 30% of vegetarians had followed a vegetarian diet for longer than 24 months. The most common motivations for vegetarianism in study participants were ‘health or weight control’ (46.6%) followed by ‘environmental concerns or animal welfare’ (24.7%). Vegetarians had a lower intake of cereals, Kimchi, and soda, but a higher intake of potatoes and sweet potatoes, vegetables, mushrooms, seaweed, and fruits compared to non-vegetarians. Significant differences in eating behavior scores were also found between the two groups; in particular, vegetarians reported higher levels of restrained eating and emotional eating than non-vegetarians. Scores of uncontrolled eating, however, were not significantly different between the two groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that while vegetarianism is associated with healthy dietary habits, it is associated with restrained eating behaviors which may increase the risk of eating disorders in women.
This study was designed to measure taste sensitivity and the five basic senses by an educational classification instrument. The instrument was a rice kit that could use samples in a dry powder form or oil extract after long-term storage To test for taste, sucrose, salt, citric acid, and quinine sulfate were made at different concentrations and taste sensitivity was measured on a scale from level 1 to level 5. To obtain baseline data, an inspection tool for the five senses was used and randomly applied on 101 schoolchildren in the third and fourth grade in the city of Cheonan in Korea. The inspection tool was composed of 17 questions; 5 questions regarding visual characteristics and three questions each for characteristics regarding taste, hearing, smell, and touch. The average age of the schoolchildren was 9.5 years old and there were 49 third grade students (9 years of age), and 52 fourth grade students (ten years of age). There were slightly more male students than female students, 56 (55.4%) compared to 45 (44.6%), respectively. The average height of female students was higher than that of males, but the average BMI (body mass index) of the male students was slightly higher than that of female students (18.28 compared to 18.09, respectively). Female students were slightly more sensitive to salty tastes than male students (2.8 compared to 2.5, respectively). In the score distribution for each sense, touch sense was the highest at 7.59, sight sense was 7.49, hearing sense was 5.43, smell sense was 5.24, and taste sense was lowest at 3.69. Therefore, schoolchildren first tend to recognize and deem important the touch and sight of food before its taste.
This study investigated consumer perception and purchase behavior regarding Han-gwa (traditional Korean confection) in housewives residing in the Seoul and Gyeonggi area. This study was conducted by self-administered questionnaires. Out of 839 questionnaires, 713 questionnaires (85.0%) were used for statistical analyses including frequency analysis, the Chisquare, and one-way ANOVA. Based on the data collected, independence variables were divided less than 40 years (<40), 40s, 50 years or higher (50) by age. The major findings were as follows; Firstly, 72.1% of the total respondents had the experience of purchasing Han-gwa. Gangjeong was the most popular item among purchased. As the purpose of purchasing, holiday gift and snack was on the highest rank. Hypermarkets / discount stores (48.9%) was the most common place for the place of purchase. Secondly, there was a significant difference in the perception of Han-gwa by age; respondents aged 50 years or older showed more positive perception in Han-gwa in 3 factors among total of 11 factors. Thirdly, for the popularization of Han-gwa, ‘too sweet taste (44.2%)’ and ‘small portion size (22.9%)’ were pointed to be improved by respondents. Results of this study indicate that 1) Yu-gwa and Yak-gwa require new product development based on age segmentation, and health and food safety are important variables considered when housewives purchase Han-gwa.
Egg is a food that has been loved from ancient times by people all around the world. It has been called a present from god because its rounded shape was believed to refer to the earth. We found the oldest and most perfectly preserved egg fossil at Chunmachong (天馬) in Kyungju (慶州). We believe that it was used during the period of the Three States or the unified Silla (新羅), and, accordingly, it was a noble food that has been found at the king’s grave of the age. Egg, which is called egg of chicken in Korean, was written as egg of chicken (鷄卵), son of chicken (鷄子), bird’s egg of chicken (鷄蛋), and round thing of chicken (鷄丸) in the Korean alphabet and Chinese characters. The ancient countries had the following myths about eggs In myths about offspring by egg, they were born as heaven’s will to make them god. There were 19 proverbs: ‘Hitting a rock with an egg’, ‘It’s like the yellow part of an egg’ and ‘Even an egg stops when it rolls’, etc. According to a theory of divination based on topography, people use eggs when they find a good place. There are 10 proverbs (四字成語): Dongjiipran (冬至立卵), Nanyeoseoktu (卵與石投) etc. Studies for analysis of egg recipes found in the old literature (cooking, agriculture and fishing, and medical books) in the Chosun Dynasty recorded 36 times where cuisine with egg was mentioned as the main ingredient, 154 times as a sub-ingredient, 79 times as a garnish, and 20 times etc. As a garnish, they were ‘finely sliced’, ‘thin rectangular and the rhombus form’, and ‘rounded shape’; after grilling they were divided into yellow and white parts. When cooked, they were used in comparison of the size or shape of an object with that of other objects.
The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in perception of food hygiene and interest in dietary information among university students. A total of 550 college students from Seoul and the surrounding metropolitan area participated in this questionnaire using one-to-one interviews from September 20th to 28th, 2012. Three groups were classified according to level of awareness and practice of food safety. The highest education level of food safety was in the active-practice group (69.6%), with 58.0% in the want-practice group and 24.6% in the low-practice group. There were significant differences between the awareness and practice groups in terms of importance of food safety (p<0.001). Exactly 74.3% interest in food hygiene was measured in the active-practice group. Interests in dietary and food information were different between the groups: 71.4% for the active-practice group versus 24.6% for the low-practice group (p<0.001). Lowpractice group showed the lowest scores for interests in organic food, pesticide-free food, low-pesticide food, slow food, LOHAS, healthy-functional food, nutritional labels, and expiration dates. In conclusion, appropriate levels of food hygiene and food safety education should be provided by the food industry according to perception of food awareness and practice of food safety.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the post-purchase behavior of customers who experienced cognitive dissonance after exposure to a franchise foodservice advertisement. The study adopted cognitive dissonance theory to explain the dissonance resulting from the combination of advertisements and actual product that consumers received. In detail, the research hypothesized that cognitive dissonance will affect consumers’ post-purchase behavior as well as their efforts to reduce dissonance. Exactly 274 questionnaires were used in the analysis. The results showed that more than 80% of respondents were influenced by advertisements when purchasing menus, and 50% were unsatisfied when the provided menu “was not the same as the advertisement shown.” It was found that advertisement type did not significantly affect either group that experienced dissonance. In terms of satisfaction, however, the former group showed greater dissatisfaction when dissonance occurred (p<.001). Finally, there was a significant difference between the two groups regarding post-purchase behavior (p<.05). Customers with dissonance were likely to ‘express dissatisfaction directly to the store’, ‘leave negative reviews’, and ‘participate in negative word-of-mouth’. Thus, the results revealed that cognitive dissonance could significantly influence customer satisfaction and consequently lead to negative post-purchasing behaviors.
Soy sauce, a basic ingredient in Asian cuisine, is made of fermented soybeans, salt, water, and barley or wheat flour. The sensory characteristics of soy sauce are not only determined through its main ingredients but also by various flavor compounds produced during the fermentation process. This study was conducted to identify the sensory attributes of five different commercial soy sauce samples that differ in Meju types (traditional Meju or modified Meju) and usage types. Thirty three sensory attributes, including appearance (1), odor (16), flavor (14), and mouthfeel (2) attributes, were generated and evaluated by eight trained panelists. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and principal component analysis. There were significant differences in the intensities of all sensory attributes among the soy sauce samples. Soy sauce made with traditional Meju had high intensity of fermented fish, beany, musty odors and salt, Cheonggukjang, fermented fish flavors. Whereas two soy sauces made with modified Meju were strong in alcohol, sweet, Doenjang, roasted soybean flavors. Two soy sauces for soup made with modified Meju had medium levels of briny, sulfury, fermented odors and bitter, chemical flavors and biting mouthfeel characteristic.
In this study, to explore the use of lotus leaf powder, quality characteristics of sponge cake manufactured with different levels of lotus leaf power were investigated. We discovered that the pH, gravity, and cooling temperature of sponge cake increased as the content of lotus leaf power additive increased compared with those of the control group. Likewise, L and b levels of sponge cake increased with increasing level of lotus leaf power; 20% lotus leaf powder appeared to show the highest L and B levels, but levels were lower than those of the control group. Sponge cake levels of hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness increased as the amount of lotus leaf powder additive increased. In sensory evaluation, overall acceptability of 5% lotus leaf powder was the highest. Thus, it is possible to develop sponge cake with improved healthoriented aspects by addition of 5% lotus leaf powder.
This study analyzed fish paste containing Lagocephalus lunaris powder (LLP). The moisture, crude ash, crude protein, and crude lipid content of LLP were 6.21%, 1.03%, 74.50%, and 1.21% respectively. The tested concentrations of LLP were 0, 3, 5, and 7%. The pH of the samples ranged from 6.75 to 6.89, and moisture content ranged from 75.23% to 76.95%. The L values of the samples decreased as the concentrations of LLP decreased, and the a and b values increased. In addition, the folding test results in all test samples were “AA”, indicating a good mean flexibility. In the texture meter test, the hardness, strength, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness increased according to increasing concentrations of LLP. In the sensory evaluation, the fish paste prepared with 5% LLP were preferred over other fish pastes. These results suggest that LLP can be applied to fish paste for substantially increasing its quality and functionality.
This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of mung bean starch and the quality characteristics of mung bean starch gels supplemented with gelatin and isolated soy protein (0, 2, 5%) during storage at 5oC for 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours. The swelling power of mung bean starch supplemented with gelatin did not significantly change, whereas those supplemented with isolated soy protein (ISP) significantly increased. The solubility of mung bean starch supplemented with gelatin and ISP, however, significantly increased with increasing concentration. In addition, the soluble amylose and soluble carbohydrate of mung bean starch supplemented with gelatin and ISP significantly decreased with increasing concentration. In terms of pasting properties measured by the Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), the pasting temperature of mung bean starch supplemented with gelatin and ISP was not significantly different, whereas peak viscosity, minimum viscosity, final viscosity, breakdown, and consistency decreased. DSC thermograms showed that the onset temperature of mung bean starch supplemented with gelatin and ISP did not significantly change, whereas the enthalpy increased with the addition of 5% ISP. The lightness (L) and redness (a) of mung bean starch gels supplemented with gelatin, ISP, and without additives increased during cold storage, whereas the yellowness (b) decreased. The addition of gelatin and ISP suppressed changes in L, a and b of mung bean starch gel during cold storage. Synereses of mung bean starch gel supplemented with gelatin and ISP was lower than that without additives, with the addition of gelatin suppressing synereses more than ISP. The addition of gelatin and ISP also suppressed increases in hardness, chewiness, and gumminess of mung bean starch gels during cold storage. In the sensory evaluation, the addition of gelatin and ISP suppressed increases in hardness and brittleness of mung bean starch gels during cold storage. The addition of 2%, 5% gelatin and 2% ISP also suppressed a decrease in the overall acceptability of mung bean starch gels during 24-48 hr cold storage. Thus, the addition of 2-5% gelatin and 2% ISP to mung bean starch is appropriate for suppressing the quality deterioration of 24-48 hr coldstored mung bean starch gels.
This study was carried out to investigate the quality characteristics of low-salt kimchi with salt partially replaced by Salicornia herbacea L. powder (SH). We prepared kimchi with seasonings in which salt was replaced by 0% (S00), 10% (S10), 20% (S20) and 30% (S30) SH. The salinity level of kimchi was about 1%, and there was no significant difference between the experimental groups. Although lactic acid bacterial numbers of kimchi replaced with SH (S10~S30) increased significantly compared to those of control (S00), the pH and titratable acidity of kimchi replaced with SH were not significantly different. Hardness of kimchi tended to increase as fermentation progressed and with SH addition. The results of the sensory evaluation corroborated the physicochemical characteristics. Furthermore, the sensory characteristics of kimchi were not significantly different upon addition of SH. The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of kimchi were not significantly different despite replacement of salt in kimchi seasoning by SH up to 10%.