This article examines the types and cooking methods of Suksilkwa as recorded in 14 royal palace studies and 10 old literature texts of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1909). The types of Suksilkwa during the Joseon dynasty were Joran (棗卵), Yulran (栗卵), and Gangran (薑卵). The frequency of the Suksilkwa types during the Joseon dynasty in order were: Gangran (35.4%), Joran (32.3%), and Yulran (32.3%). Prior to 185 years ago, "Junghae-Jungraeeuigwe (丁亥整禮儀軌)" (1827), Joran (棗卵), Yulran (栗卵), and Gangran (薑卵) were called Samsaegran (三色卵). Nearly 144 years ago, "Mujin-Jinchaneuigwe (戊辰進饌儀軌)" (1868) recalled sulsilgwa (熟實果). "Imjin-Jinchaneuigwe (壬辰進饌儀軌)" (1892) first recalled assorted-sulsilgwa (各色熟實果), in which sansabyeong were added in the sulsilgwa. "Sinchuk-Jinyeoneuigwe (辛丑進宴儀軌)" (July 1901), "Imin-Jinchaneuigwe (壬寅進饌儀軌)" (April 1902), "Imin-Jinyeoneuigwe (壬寅進宴儀軌)" (November 1902) described assorted-sulsilgwa (各色熟實果) in which ohmijabyeong were added to the sulsilgwa. Further study will be conducted on recipes and ingredients recorded in these Euigwe and old books in order to develop a standardized recipe to make Suksilkwa appealing to a global palate.
This study investigated the effect of a health-related lifestyle on knowledge, attitude, control belief and behavior intention toward breast-feeding of male and female university students in order to develop a breast-feeding education program for students of childbearing age. The subjects were 445 university students (125 male and 325 female) residing in eight provinces in Korea. The overall percentage of subjects intending to breast-feed their baby was 80.7% (73.6% of males and 84.2% of females). Overall, 84.2% of the subjects had high concerns about their health status. Scores reflecting a positive attitude, knowledge, and control beliefs toward breast-feeding were significantly higher (p<0.05~p<0.001) in female students, students majoring in medicine, and higher grades. The students who scored high at attitude, knowledge, and control beliefs also had a significantly higher (p<0.001) intention to breast-feed. When we investigated the sub factors of attitudes toward breast-feeding, significantly more students taking nutrient supplements scored high for physiological factors (p<0.05) and health-related factors (p<0.01). Significantly more non-smoking and non-drinking students scored high for health-related factors (p<0.001) and physiological factors (p<0.001), respectively. The intention to breast-feed was found to be significantly higher (p<0.01) in students who did not smoke, but not with other health-related lifestyles. In summary, these results indicate that the majority of university students intend to breast-feed, with students having a positive attitude, higher knowledge, and stronger control beliefs having a higher intention to breast-feed. Although a student's health-related lifestyle affects their attitudes on the physiological and health-related aspects of breast-feeding, only smoking status had an observable connection on the intention to breast-feed. Thus, when developing breast-feeding education programs for students, we recommend efforts to enhance a favorable attitude, knowledge, and control beliefs toward breast-feeding.
This study sought to identify unique semiotic codes of Korean cuisine, including table settings, service styles, service ware selection, cooking techniques, and the logic behind menu composition. This research also aimed to verify that yangnyomjang reflects the code of Korean food culture. One of key findings from this study was that hidden codes of Korean food were found in their daily set-up for bapsang (dining table), which was found to decodify polysemic characteristics with an emphasis on harmony. These semiotic codes were influenced by the yin and yang philosophy and impact dining activities in our daily lives. Korean bapsang, composed of bap (rice), guk (soup) and banchan (side dishes), helps every individual diner share the semiotic codes of Korean cuisine within the context of paradigm and syntagm. Yangnyomjang, a major component of the Korean menu, also represents a unique code of Korean cuisine in its structure, main ingredients, production, and usage. This study also mathematically verified that a synchronic table setting of Korean cuisine provides diners with more opportunities for potential flavor combinations, compared to the Western service setting.
The purpose of this study was to develop cultural food contents from local dishes related to the historical and cultural heritage in the representative areas of Gurye and Jinan. The information on 'Story' was collected from each region's representative local native journal, searches of related web-sites, analysis of old literature, and interviews of traditional households. 'Telling', the conveyance, was focused on texts of literature analysis, which were synthesized from historical conditions, regional food materials, cuisine, regional symbolism, etc. The created food contents were displayed with balanced and healthy Korean food dishes after nutritional analysis. In Gurye, the content was extracted from the story of Hwang hyun (黃玹, 1855-1910) - figura of Gurye - and his collection, "Maecheonyarok", and the storytelling native food was prepared. In Jinan, the content was extracted from the text of an anecdote from "filial son Kwang-beom Lee", a local journal. We tried to express Gurye's clean image in connection with the patriot - Hwang hyun (his nick name was Maecheon), in the late period of Chosun through the unprocessed and simple nature of the dining table. As in Jinan's storytelling materials, we tried to express a healthy menu of health food for older people based on the clean nature and documents about the real character's filial behavior. The developed healthy menu and dining table properties in this study have been established in accordance with nutrient intake standards of energy in Korea.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the awareness, eating experience, and preference of kimchi, and the sensory evaluation of kimchi from Chinese and Korean students residing in Korea. General information (including age, sex, duration of staying, living status) was collected. A questionnaire was used to collect the information on awareness, eating experience, and preference of kimchi and dishes made with kimchi. Sensory evaluations were carried out on a 10 point scale. All subjects (37 Koreans, 43 Chinese) were aware of kimchi, with 98% of the Chinese subjects recognizing kimchi as a Korean traditional food and 65% having eaten kimchi at least once a day. The types of kimchi preferred by Chinese subjects were generally sweet and not over-bearing in seasoning, hotness, or ripeness. The more frequently eaten foods made with kimchi were jjigae, bokkeumbap, bibimbap and kimbap. However, the more preferred dishes made with kimchi were bossam, jeongol, bokkeum, jeon, and ramyeon. The Chinese subjects were especially sensitive to spicy odors (4.6±2.2/10), salted seafood odors (4.6±2.3/10), offodors (4.4±2.3/10) and aftertaste (5.9±2.1/10) compared to Korean subjects. Taken all together, the perception as well as sensory characteristic of kimchi needs to be improved for the globalization of kimchi.
The objective of this study was to analyze the awareness and satisfaction regarding Korean traditional foods in elementary, middle, and high school students. In a survey of 1,030 students, 55.9% of the total respondents stated that traditional Korean food is 'Korean food that uses unique Korean recipes' (p<0.001). In terms of awareness of traditional food, most middle and high school students responded that the mass media was the biggest influence, while elementary students said that their parents were the most pervasive influence. In terms of satisfaction with traditional food served in school, 13 menus had the highest popularity among elementary school students. Most elementary school students preferred Korean traditional foods compared to middle and high school students. The awareness and satisfaction regarding Korean traditional food in elementary, middle and high school students.
This study analyzed restaurant table settings with Gestalt's law of visual perception to obtain basic data for future marketing strategies. The research uses methods that involve applying images of restaurant table settings to Gestalt's law of visual perception, doing content analysis, and conducting a frequency analysis as well as a Chi-square test for classification analysis by visual perception. Results show a significant difference in the laws of visual perception, especially in the laws of nearness and closure, between table settings of different countries and backgrounds, such as Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Western cultures. In terms of the law of nearness, Chinese dishes were low, while other countries' dishes and Korean dishes showed high figures. In terms of the law of closure, Japanese dishes and western dishes had low values, while other countries' dishes and Korean dishes were high in their closure. Further studies on consumer awareness by visual perception classification need to be conducted.
The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of loyalty program in family and fastfood restaurant on relationship quality (trust, commitment) and revisit intention. Based on total 394 samples obtained from empirical research, this study reviewed the reliability and fitness of a research model using the Amos program. The hypothesized relationships in the model were simultaneously tested using a structural equation model (SEM). The proposed model provided an adequate fit to the data, χ2 102.338 (df 48), GFI .959, RMR .049, NFI .970, CFI .984 SEM resulted that loyalty progam (β= .429, t=7.880, p〈 .001) showed a positive significant effect on trust, and that loyalty program (β= .455, t=9.532, p〈 .001) had a positive significant effect on commitment. Also, both trust (β= .450, t=6.595, p〈 .001) and commitment (β= .474, t=5.117, p〈 .001) had a positive significant effect on revisit intention. In addition, there were moderating effects related to restaurant type (family and fastfood restaurant) in terms of causal relationships between loyalty program, relationship quality and revisit intention. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
The aim of this study was to provide strategic implications for the coffee market in which competition got severer through IPA analysis based on the attributes of selection of a specialized franchise coffee shop. The results of a positive analysis conducted with undergraduates in their twenties were as follows: According to the evaluation of the importance of the attributes of selection of a specialized coffee shop, the most important were 'cleanliness and hygienic facilities inside the shop (6.09)' and 'taste and quality of the menu (coffee) (6.09)'. According to the performance analysis, those showing the highest performance were 'brand image (4.92)' and 'cleanliness and hygienic facilities inside the shop (4.92)'. According to the result of IPA analysis, what customers regarded as being the most important were 'taste and quality of the menu (coffee)', 'kindness of the staff', and 'cleanliness and hygienic facilities inside the shop', and, in fact, they showed great performances as well. However, 'price of the menu (coffee)' was regarded as being important but did not indicate a great performance; therefore, they showed dissatisfaction with it. Although they did not think 'environment around the shop', 'brand image', 'brand recognition' or 'interior size and scale of the shop' were important, the attributes did not appear to show great performances. Therefore, we need constant maintenance strate gies regarding the fact that consumers are considered to be very important for evaluation, and should make efforts to change the price in advance.
The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal mixing conditions for two different amounts of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder and olive oil for the processing of chicken sausage. The experiment was designed according to the central composite design of response surface methodology, with ten experimental points, including two replicates for turmeric powder and olive oil. The physicochemical and mechanical analysis of each sample, including water holding capacity, moisture content, lightness, redness, yellowness, hardness, chewiness, gumminess, and cohesiveness, showed significant differences. The results from sensory evaluations also showed very significant differences in color, flavor, tenderness, chewiness, and overall quality. The optimal formulation, calculated by numerical and graphical methods, was 1.89 g of turmeric powder and 9.77 g of olive oil. Under these conditions, the model predicted pH-6.01, salinity-0.20, WHC-94.88, L* value-61.13, b* value-37.45, hardness-36.66×102 (N), springiness-8.70 (mm), chewiness-26.88×103 (N×mm).