This study was designed to establish Korean food culture by analizing 17 sets of Jinyounuigue(진연의궤) Jinchanuigue(진찬의궤), and Jinjarkuigue(진작의궤) which were the records of royal party procedures in Yi dynasty. Side dishes were classified into 20 groups in this study ; Tang (場) 19, Jungol (전골) 3, J'im 18, Jun (전) 20, Jock 14, Pyunuk (片肉) 14, Cho 12, Hyae 17, Po 8, Chae 3, Bung 1, Nanri 1, Sooran 1, Sookran 1, Jaban 1, Kimchi 2, etc. all of 140 different kinds of side dishes. There was no tendency in omission or addition of food materials. Food materials were beef, pork, lamb, chicken, duck, peasant meat, dock's egg, fish, shellfishes, mollusca, curstacea, seaweeds, vegetables, fruits, beancurds, muk (a starch jelly), d'ock, muchrooms, etc. Seasonings were soysauce, pepper, sesame oil, ginger, green-onion, garlic, bean paste, ginger powder, red pepper powder, red pepper paste, salts, vinegar, honey, sesame power, etc.
우리나라 장수자(長壽者)의 생활(生活) 및 의식조사연구(意識調査硏究)의 일환(一環)으로, 우리나라 장수지역(長壽地域)의 특성(特性)을 조사(調査).비교(比較)한 결과(結果)는 다음과 같다. 1. 80세 이상 장수자수(長壽者數)는 171,449명(名)으로 전인구대비(全人口對比) 0.46%였으며 이 중 남자가 42,842名(0.23%)이고 여자는 128,607名(0.69%)이었다. 2. 시(市)(도(道))별(別) 장수율(長壽率)을 보면 제주가 1.03%로서 가장 높았고, 그 다음이 전남(0.79%), 전북(0.66%), 경북(0.65%), 경남(0.61%)의 순으로 감소하였고, 인천(0.22%), 서울과 부산(0.23%), 대구(0.28%)등 대도시는 농어촌보다 장수율(長壽率)이 현저히 낮았다. 3. 장수율(長壽率)이 1.0% 이상인 장수지역(長壽地域)은 전국(全國)에서 17개군(個郡)으로, 전남이 10개(個) 지역(地域)으로 가장 많았으며, 그 밖에는 경북과 경남이 2개(個) 지역(地域), 전북, 경기 및 제주가 1개(個) 지역(地域)씩이었다. 4. 전국(全國) 장수지역(長壽地域)중에서 장수율(長壽率) 북제주가 1.65%로서 가장 높았으며, 그 다음이 남해(1.56%), 승주(1.24%), 보성(1.22%), 곡성(1.20%)의 순으로 감소하였다. 최장수지역(最長壽地域)인 북제주의 남(男).여별(女別) 장수율(長壽率) 각각 0.71%, 2.51%였다. 5. 우리나라 장수자(長壽者)의 성별(性別) 구성비(構成比)를 보면 여(女)/남비(男比)가 3.0이었다. 따라서 여자가 남자보다 3배(倍) 정도 장수율(長壽率)이 높음을 알 수 있었다. 6. 장수지역(長壽地域)을 분류(分類)하여 보면 해안(海岸).농어촌지방(農漁村地方)이 7개 지역, 도서지방(島嶼地方)이 3개 지역, 산간벽지농촌지방(山間僻地農村地方)이 7개 지역으로 나눌 수 있었다. 따라서 장수지역(長壽地域)은 탈도시화(脫都市化) 현상(現象)이 두드러진 곳이다. 7. 우리나라 장수지역(長壽地域)의 기상현황(氣象現況)은 연평균(年平均) 기온(氣溫)이 11.2~14.8℃, 연평균(年平均) 강우량(降雨量)이 878.5~1585.9mm의 범위내에 있었으며 대부분 북위(北緯) 38도(度) 이남(以南)에 위치하고 있었다. 8. 우리나라 장수자(長壽者)의 교육정도(敎育程度)는 무학(無學)이 전체의 71.5%로 가장 많았고, 그 다음이 서당(書堂)(15.8%)이었으며, 보통학교 졸업 이상이 4.8%에 불과했다. 그러나 남자의 경우는 50.4%가 어떤 형태(形態)든 교육(敎育)을 받았다는 사실은 흥미있는 일이다. 9. 장수자(長壽者)의 일상생활기능(日常生活機能)에 의한 건강상태(健康常態)를 비교하여 본 결과(結果), 지금도 상당히 활발히 활동(活動)하거나 노동(勞動)을 하고 있는 사람이 53.0%로 가장 많고, 그 다음이 집안에서 가벼운 일을 할 수 있는 사람이 23.5%로서, 비교적 활동적인 장수자가 전제의 76.5%나 되고 있으므로 장수자의 현재의 건강상태는 매우 만족스러움을 알수있었다.
This paper attempts to study the court food based on the historic ceremony book, Jung Ri Eui Gwiea which describes the king's visit to the royal tomb, 'Hyun Neung Won', during the rein of Chung Jo, the 22th King of Yi Dynasty. According to this book, the foods used for the ceremony of the court and the courtesy of dinner party appears as follows. 1. At the birthday party of Bong-su Dang, the main table with 70 dishes and the side table of extraodinary flavor with 12 dishes were served to Mrs. Hong of Hea Kyung Kung, the mother of Chung Jo. As soon as they were served, the napkins, menu card, flowers and soups followed them, and a cup (Jack) of wine (with soup) was served to her seven times. This party was held by Sang Chim, Sang Kung, Sang Eui, Jun Chan, Chan Chang, Jun Eui, In Eui, Sa Chan and Jun Bin. 2. At the birthday party of Yun-hee Dang;the main table with 82 dishes and the side table of extraodinary flavor with 40 dishes were served to her. And the napkins and menu cards followed them and a cup(Jack) of wine was served to her four times. The courtesy of this party was held by Sang Chim, Sang Kung, Sang Eui, Jun Sun and Yeo Jeo Jip Sa. 3. At the party of Yak No Yun for the oldman, there were some soups (Doo Po Tang), cooked sliced meats (Penn Yeuk), steamed legumes (Heuk Tea Zeung), and some fruits on the main table. The napkins, menu cards and flowers followed them, and wine was served on the table for the king. The feast was held by Chan Eui, In Eui, and Tong Rea. 4. Foods used in these parties were classified into 9 groups such as Rice cakes, Rice and Noodles, Dessert Cakes, Sugars, Fruits, Side Dishes, Beverages, Sauces and Wine. 5. The units of height, amount, weight, and number measured for cooking were used variously. 6. The foods accumulated highly on the dishes were decorated with paper and silk flowers. 7. The containers for cooking and the utensils for the feast were used variously.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the value evaluation of food in urban Korean adolescents. The conclusions drawn from the analysis of values of foods are as follows: 1. There are five factors drawn from the analysis of values of foods, that is, subjective evaluational factor. Objective factors are social factor, economic factor, quality attribute factor, and freguency of food intake factor. And it has been revealed that there is some relationship between these factors. The subjective evaluational variable depends most strongly on the sensory variable, especially taste, flavor, color and shape of food, described in the order of influence. It also depends on the experiential frequency of intake. 2. With regard to the attitude of evaluation of food, there is a considerable difference between junior high school students and high school students, and between male and female students, This difference can be noticed in almost all the variables dealt with in this study, especially in the subjective evaluational aspect, experiential aspect, and social aspect, A significant difference was found between junior high school students and high school students and between male and female students on both subjective and objective values of foods. Male students valued food which brought about a 'Satiety' more so than female. And consequently, they take such kinds of foods more frequently. More female students than male students and more junior high school students than high school students have a strong conception of the socio-cultural value of foods, that is, the spatial and temporal symbol of foods.
This study was conducted to research on the nutritional status of vegetarian boys high school students, to keep abreast with the international trend of stressing the vegetarian diet, thereby analyzing the degree of the influence of their dietary habit on their growth. The object of the study were 62boys high school students who are lacto-ovo vegetarians, and the author adopted three popular research methods. questionaire physical test and blood test Though vegetarian diet is helpful for the prevention of coronary and heart diesedse of the adults, but it is not enough for the students who are needed lot of protein and calorie.
Soybean and mungbean sprouts are vegetables indigenous to Korea which have been grown throughout the year from the most remote age. They had been called interchangeably as duchaeah or duah. Control method of environmental conditions for soybean or mungbean sprouts growing had been already appreciated from long time ago. A growing method once developed might have been handed over considerable period. Siroo (시루) and yongsoo (용수) had been the most common containers and the watering skill is of the utmost importance for soybean sprouts growing. As the demand of soybean sprouts in the market increased, a pit has been used for bean sprouts growing, and transformed into regular soybean sprouts factory. Now bean sprouts are international food and the demand of bean sprouts seems permanent in Korea. Accordingly the long-term policy concerned with the production of soybean sprouts should be prepared, placing emphasis on improved quality and safety.
The first historical record on the use of wild edible plants as foods in Korea involves sswuk and manul concerned with the mythology of Tangun. Numerous names of wild vegetables had been recorded in various ancient books. Wild edible plants are of great value as food resources and for domestication, since they have variable edible portions and quite a long picking season. Several kinds of wild edible plants have been already grown as vegetable crops. Doragi (Platycodon grandiflorum) is probably the one with the longest history of cultivation. During World War II, an attempt had been made to substitute vegetable crops for wild edible plants. As picking wild greens requires a great deal of labor and plants of wild growth are limited in the amount, domestication of wild vegetables as crops appears to be an urgent need for securing food resources in Korea.
The drinking manners of the modern generaton were reviewed based on historical records. First, for reasons of health, we should reject the drinking from the same cup as others in reciprocation. Second, if the other people are older or younger brothers above the same level, pouring with one hand is all right, but if 5 years older or more, or stranger, grasp the bottle in two hands in the following manner. With the right hand under the bottle, and the left hand supporting its side, carefully pour wine not to show the palm of the hand. Third, ladies, also, can drink freely at the same table, but if people of the opposite sex are sitting together, they should pour with two hands to convey the meaning of courteous treatment. Fourth, because the level of our living is not two high, we must not order more them we can use, so that when we are finished, there will be no remainder.