Despite growing interest in Korean foods, South-east Asian consumers’ perception and acceptance of Korean foods have not been well elucidated. This study was conducted to understand South-east Asian Muslim consumers’ perception and acceptance of Korean foods and the association with their food neophobia level. Ninety-three Muslim consumers (mean ages 25.2, men 35.5%, women 64.5%) from Malaysia (72%), Indonesia (16.1%), and Singapore (11.9%) rated their degree of food neophobia as well as recognition and acceptance of representative Korean menu items. Background data such as duration of stay and Korean food consumption habits were collected. Overall, participants perceived Korean foods positively (4.04 on a 5-point hedonic scale). Most well-recognized Korean foods were gimbap and bulgogi, whereas less-known spicy foods such as ojingoe deopbap were most liked among items that were actually consumed. A neophobic group rated Korean foods less favorably than neutral and neophilic groups (p<0.05). Future studies are required to identify whether or not South-east Asian Muslim consumers’ food neophobia is formed under the influence of religious regulations or reflect individual consumers’ personal traits.
This research analyzedconsumer culture and usage of sugar in modern times based on 12 modern popular Korean cooking books with sugar recipes. Procedures were formed via textual analysis. The outcomes of the study can be summarized in brief statements. According to「Banchandeungsok」,「Booinpilj」, and「Chosunmoossangsinsikyorijebeob」, sugar was utilized in 34 out of 663 or 5.1% of cooked foods during the 1910s to 1920s. According to books such as 「Ganpyounchosunyorijebeob」,「Ililhwalyongsinyoungyangyoribeob」,「Chosun’s cooking of the four seasons」,「Halpaengyoungoo」, 「Chosunyorijebeob」, and 「Required reading for housewife」, sugar was added to 165 out of 998 or 16.5% of cooked foods during the 1930s. According to the books like「Chosunyorihak」,「Chosunyoribeob」, and「Woorieumsik」, sugar was an ingredient in 241 out of 756 or 31.9% of cooked foods during the 1940s. Sugar depicted within the 12 modern popular Korean cooking books primarily functioned as an alternative sweetener, starch, sweet enhancer, preservative, and seasoning. Similar to illustrated sugar from modern popular Korean cooking books, sugar has continually been favored by Korean cooks starting from the 1910s with 5.1% usage, the 1930s with 16.5% usage, and the 1940s with 31.9% usage. Despite its short history, sugar’s culinary importance in Korea has been on the rise ever since the early 1900s. Although sugar is an exotic spice in Korea, it has gained social, cultural, and symbolic recognition as well as practicality within Korean food culture. Thus, it has become more internalized and familiarized as an inseparable sweetness that characterizes current Korean food.
This study aimed to investigate the perception and preferences related to Korean food of university students in Yanbian, China. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 306 (124 males and 182 females) students. The preferences for Chinese food (44.7%) and a combination of Korean (32.0%) and Chosun food (12.4%) were similar, and Korean food was more preferred than traditional Chosun food. The main reason for preferences for Korean food was taste. The perception of Korean hot spices and kimchi smell was not good, whereas positive perceptions where held for foods made with jang, new Korean food experience and healthiness of Korean food. Awareness of Korean food was in the order of bibimbap, kimchibokkeum- bap, gimbap, baechi-kimchi and ttoe-bbokki. Preference order was bulgogi, so-galbi, jang-jorim, dak-galbi and dewaeji-galbil. Meat foods and Korean traditional foods were relatively high, whereas kimchi, ttoe-bbokki and bibimbap were relatively low in terms of preference. More female than male students preferred Korean food, and the perception of new food experience and healthiness of Korean food were positive. Moreover, both awareness and preference related to Korean food were significantly higher in female than male students. These results can be used as a foundation to prepare a localization strategy of Korean food to China.
This study aimed to investigate the perception and preferences related to Korean food according to the ethnicity of university students in Yanbian, China. Korean food was preferred by Korean-Chinese as compared with Chinese students, and Korean-Chinese students preferred Korean food more than Chinese food. Both Korean-Chinese and Chinese preferred Korean food more than traditional Chosun food. More Korean-Chinese than Chinese students had positive perceptions of Korean food, which included foods made with jang, kimchi smell, and healthiness due to diversity. For evaluation of Korean food taste, more Chinese than Korean-Chinese subjects thought Korean food is not greasy and hoped salty taste. Both awareness and preferences related to Korean food were significantly higher in Korean-Chinese than Chinese students. Meat foods (so-galbi, dak-galbi, jang-jorim) were relatively high in terms of preference in both Korean-Chinese and Chinese students. Moreover, Chinese students preferred Korean traditional foods (sujeonggwa, yakgwa, gangjeong). In Korean- Chinese students, Korean representative traditional foods (kimchi, jangajji) and Korean traditional holiday foods (tteokguk, mandu-guk) were relatively low in terms of preference. This study found that the traditional food culture of Korean-Chinese has been maintained in Yanbian, whereas there is a change in the young generation.
This study attempted to establish the optimal conditions for storage of spring kimchi cabbage to stably control supply and demand. To this end, this study stored kimchi cabbages in various manners for different periods and compared the quality characteristics of kimchi using these cabbages. According to the results, pre-drying with photocatalytic and pre-cooling treatments showed average selectivity loss rates of 18.83 and 21.37%, respectively, which were lower than those of other treatments. Spring kimchi cabbages were stored for 15 weeks under various conditions, and the kimchi was stored for 4 weeks at 4°C. After ripening, each kimchi was analyzed for their soluble solid content, pH, acidity, and salinity. The average pH of kimchi was 4.60 and tended to rise, whereas average acidity was 0.38% and fell by 0.24 to 0.31% as the storage period was extended. Extension of the storage period caused decreases in soluble solid content and salinity, and the number of lactic acid bacteria decreased due to increased pH and reduced acidity (p<0.05). Sensory evaluation showed that all experts and non-professionals preferred kimchi treated by precooling compared to any other treatment.
We investigated the antioxidant, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of dried type sodium-reduced bibimbap using dandelion complex powder (DCP). DCP is known to add moisture to the skin and relieve symptoms of atopic dermatitis. The sodium content of the standard sample was 1,110.87 mg per serving. The sodium was significantly reduced by 30%, resulting in 762.62 mg of sodium for the reduced sodium group (p<0.05). The ash contents of the standard sample group with DCP showed the highest value (3.17%) in all samples and was affected by minerals of DCP (p<0.05). The total flavonoid contents and ABTS radical scavenging activity, indicators of antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activities, showed significantly high activities with addition of DCP (p<0.05). In the sensory results, bulgogi and savory flavor of the samples with DCP showed significantly higher values, and samples with DCP received the highest scores for after-taste. All samples were confirmed to be microbiologically safe according to the food code applied to food manufacturers. Pathogenic microorganisms tests were either negative or not detected in all samples.
Nutrition labeling can provide information in order for people to select products suitable for their own health, and sodium content labeling for processed foods is important since sodium is one of the main causes of cardiac diseases. This study had carried out to propose the desirable sodium content labeling by conducting surveys on the awareness of sodium content in processed foods, understanding of sodium content labeling, and requirements for new sodium comparative claims. The survey period was from 12th of September, 2016 through the 24th, during which a self-administered questionnaire survey was given to 1,003 persons through demographic quota sampling by age and region. As a result of the survey, 66.0% of respondents assuring nutrition labeling answered they check sodium content labeling, whereas 83.2% were aware of excessive intake of sodium having a negative effect on health. Exactly 49.9% of respondents answered that the current system for nutrition labeling on processed foods does not help one to understand the content of sodium, whereas 72.9% answered they wanted to compare sodium contents with those of other products when buying or taking processed foods. As 92.5% cited the importance of sodium comparative claims made by processed foods, preparation of a new system for food labeling should be considered by which consumers can easily compare sodium contents with those of other similar products.
Although excessive intake of sodium is known to cause various diseases and threaten public health and policies for reducing overconsumption of sodium are being implemented, the theoretical research on sodium intake is incomplete. This study attempted to provide a policy basis by examining whether or not planned behavior theory, which is a typical health communication theory used to describe health-related behaviors, can be applied to explain sodium intake behavior. Especially, sodium ingestion behaviors were compared using the theory of actions planned for men and women as well as young people, middle-aged, and elderly persons, who are predicted to show differences in eating habits. In this study, questionnaires were prepared to measure the daily eating habits of subjects and subordinate factors of planned behavior theory: behavioral beliefs, outcome expectations, normative beliefs, compliance motivation, and control beliefs. Questionnaires were given to 93 college students and their families. As a result of the difference analysis and path analysis of the questionnaire responses, the following suggestions were obtained. First, age difference is more obvious than sex difference in terms of low salt intentions. For example, older people are healthier than younger people in terms of eating habits and health concerns. Second, the elderly are more likely to practice the low-salt formula when they are provided information on the benefits and effects of the low-salt formula compared to younger ones. Third, systematic efforts are needed to promote a culture that emphasizes the health benefits of a low salt diet rather than providing piecemeal information on the advantages and effects of a low salt diet.
This study aimed to investigate potential acceptability of Korean jang products among Halal food consumer’s to predict its market possibility in a Halal food market. Focus Group Interview (FGI) was implemented to 11 Halal food consumers residing in Korea for more than 4 month. During the test, 3 types of fermented paste, doenjang, ssamjang and gochujang were evaluated by applying these to Korean foods. In depth interview was conducted on the liking of the jang applied samples, general experiences of Korean food and fermented food in their home countries. The results showed that consumers were positive to Korean jang applied samples in general. The mean liking ratings of doenjang, ssamjang and gochujang were 7.1, 7 and 7.6 on 9-point hedonic scale, respectively. Consumers focused on the sweet and spicy flavor quality of the samples. Consumers commonly responded that the doenjang tasted too salty and needed to increase sweet and spicy flavor, and ssamjang needed to increase spicy flavor as well. Sweetening was necessary for gochujang. The reasons of liking Korean jang were because the flavors were unique yet familiar. The balanced flavor of salty, sweet and spicy flavor were additional reasons of liking. However, the fermented smell of jang products were reasons of disliking the products.