This study was to investigate the effects of concentration of malt extract in Sikhye manufacture on saccharification time, shapes of saccharified rice(the cooked rice) and sensory evaluation score of Sikhye. The optimum concentration of malt extract to reduce saccharification time and to keep desirable shapes of saccharified rice was 4 times (rice 24g, malt 28g and D.W. 240ml) as suitable as base composition formula(rice 6g, malt 7g and D.W. 240ml). The shapes of saccharified rice were influenced by the concentration of malt extract, the saccharification time and the shapes of steamed rice before saccharification. A good taste(softness) of Sikhye rice and the desirable shapes of saccharified rice were more suitable in the case of a small amount of unsaccharified starch than in the case of finishing saccharification. The optimum saccharification time to keep the desirable shapes of saccharified rice was 240min and also was desirable between 210 and 270min. To keep a good taste(softness) and the desirable shapes of saccharified rice, and to reduce the manufacturing time, it is desirable to in mass production of Sikhye add 3 times more water after making Sikhye in the ratio of rice 24g, malt 28g and water 240ml. In this case the whole amount will become 4 times as much as the original one.
This study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activity of grapefruit extracts and polylysine mixture against food-borne pathogens. The mixture was showed a potent and quick antibacterial activity for 5 major bacteria causing food poisoning i.e. Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O-157, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae. The antibacterial effect of the mixture on the ordinary bacteria inhibiting on the surface of lettuce was lasted even 6 hrs after the treatment, however the mixture was non-effective on the color, smell and taste of lettuce. The treatment with 10% mixture solution of the foods such as fish, meat, rice and bread suppressed the growth of the bacteria and kept the foods more freshly than the untreated foods.
This paper is an effort to describe dietary behaviors to keep them healthy among adults. A probability sample was drawn from residents aged between 15 and 60 living in Ulsan City area through a multi-staged cluster sampling method. The data collected by face-to-face interview includes 1,232 respondents. Both univariate and bivariate analyses were employed to describe the dietary behaviors. The dietary behaviors in this study includes preference of taking fat-part of meat, fried food, salty food, hot-taste food, drinking coffee and milk, and taking supplementary medicine. About half of the respondents reported to take fat removed when eating meat, and more than 68% of them preferred not to take any kinds of fried food. With respect to preference of salty and hot-taste food, 39.6% of the respondents take medium-salty and 39.4% do hot-taste food. A third of the respondents drink two-four cups of coffee a day. Those who reported not to drink milk at all were prevalent(37.4% of the respondents) than expected. However, less than 20% of the respondents reported to have any kinds of supplementary health food in a year. These dietary behaviors were examined by sociodemographic characteristics for bivariate analyses.
The purposes of this study were to (a) measure plate waste of school lunches, (b) evaluate the nutrients actually consumed by students in elementary school foodservice. The survey was conducted between May 11 and July 1, 1998 through the practical measurement and questionnaires. Statistical data analysis was completed using SAS program for descriptive analysis and T-test. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The mean plate waste of menu group were soup, vegetable side dishes, kimchi, and meat side dish in order. 2. There was little difference between estimation and weighing of plate waste. 3. The satisfaction of children with school lunches were significantly higher for boys(73.55%) than for girls(71.13%). The highest level of the satisfaction was meat side dishes among boys and girls. 4. The majority reasons for leaving leftover were 'too big portion' and 'food is not tasty'. 5. There was significant negative correlation between plate waste and student's satisfaction. In summary, increased satisfaction with school lunches in most menus resulted in decreased plate waste rate. 6. Comparison of 13 RDA, energy, vitamin A and calcium were below recommended allowances for boys while energy vitamin A, calcium and iron were for girls. In general, the nutrient intake was more adequate for boys than girls because of the girl's lower allowances.
The effort to understand customer is essential and customer satisfaction measurement tool is needed in today's intensively competitive environment of restaurants. The objectives of this study were to measure customers' expectation and satisfaction of service quality attributes and to identify relatively important attributes for overall satisfaction in restaurants. The questionnaires were distributed to 232 customers at 78 family-style, pizza and fast food restaurants. Statistical data analysis was completed using SPSS for t-test, ANOVA, factor analysis, Pearson's correlation and regression analysis. The results of this study were as follows: 1) four and six- dimensional structures were established from 25 expectation and satisfaction attributes, respectively. 2) Demographic variables and usage characteristics didn't affect on service quality expectation, but expectations were significantly different according to the types of restaurant. 3) Expectation/satisfaction matrix showed different patterns in 3 types of restaurant. 4) 'Quality of food' and 'atmosphere' were the most relatively important attributes for overall satisfaction in restaurants.
This study is designed to 1) understand customers' choice behavior and preference of foodservices in campus and 2) provide recommendation on management strategies for university foodservice manager. Individual interview and focus group interview were used to identify important selection attributes. The questionnaire was developed and distributed to 480 Yonsei university students and statistical data analysis was completed using SPSS WIN/7.5 for descriptive analysis, multidimensional scaling and conjoint analysis. The results of this study were summarized as follows: Students evaluated four foodservices in different ways, and strength/weakness points could be identified from the evaluation patterns. Most students(51.1%) were frequently used 'A' foodservice, though they preferred other foodservices, and cost, mainly, caused the difference. Perceptual map from multidimensional scaling showed that preference and patronage were close with different attributes. Cost was most relatively important attribute to select foodservice in campus from conjoint analysis. Therefore, relative importance of attributes should be considered in customer preference survey for constructing management plan.
경기, 강원, 전라남도, 충청북도, 경상남도, 제주도 지역민들의 산채 대한 인지도, 식용빈도, 이용방법 등에 대한 질문지 조사를 한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1) 산채에 대한 인상은 「자연식품이다」라는 응답을 한 경우가 42.6%로 가장 높아서 자연식품에 대한 관심이 높아지고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 2) 산채의 떫은 맛을 우려내는 방법은 「특별히 하지 않는다」가 62.9%로 가장 많은 것으로 나타났다. 3) 산채의 입수 방법은 재래시장에서 가장 많이 구입하고 있었으며, 도시보다 농촌이, 60세이상의 연령층에서는 들에서 직접 채취하는 비율이 높았다. 4) 산채의 식용빈도는 총 응답자의 28.7%가 가끔 먹는다라고 답하였으며, 도시보다 농촌의 경우 자주 먹는다는 응답율이 높았고 노인 동거가족과 40세 이상 연령층(31%)에서 자주 먹고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 5) 잘 알고 있는 산채의 이름은 평균적으로 더덕, 도라지, 고사리, 쑥, 달래를 95%이상 잘 알고 있다라고 응답하였으며 두릅 고들빼기는 각각 88.6% 85.1%이상 알고 있었다. 자주 먹는 산채는 고사리, 도라지, 달래, 더덕, 쑥, 고들빼기의 순이었으며 전라 경상지역에서는 도라지 다음으로 자주 먹는 산채를 쑥으로 응답하였다. 6) 밥에 넣어 먹는 산채는 총 25종류였으며 그 중 쑥의 이용율이 41.9%로 가장 높았다. 쑥은 떡으로 77.8%, 튀김이나 전으로 50.1%, 술담그는데 4.6%가 이용되고 있었다. 국 찌개, 생채의 조리에는 달래가 가장 많이 이용되고 있었으며, 나물이나 볶음에 이용되는 산채의 종류는 58종으로 가장 많았으며, 고사리가 볶음에 가장 많이 이용되고 있었다. 김치에는 돌나물과 고들빼기가 가장 많이 이용되고 있었으며, 술과 장아찌용으로는 더덕이 각각 40%, 46%로 가장 많이 이용되고 있었으며, 도라지는 가장 다양한 조리법으로 이용되고 있었다. 7) 산채의 저장법으로 데쳐서 말려서 저장하는 산채는 43종이었으며 그 중 고사리가 32.3%로 가장 높은 비율이었으며 참취, 고비, 참나물, 쑥, 곰취도 데쳐서 건조하여 저장하고 있었다. 그외 고들빼기, 도라지, 씀바귀, 고사리 등은 소금물에 담가 저장하고 있었으며, 냉동저장도 다수가 응답하였다.