The objective of this research were to investigate the evaluative criteria and sub-factor in terms of food preparation and eating for the housewives and cooks in Ulsan Metropolitan City. 217 full-time housewives and 129 cooks were surveyed for this research. The cooks evaluated preference, cooking time, taste, food color, food temperature more important than the housewives. The evaluative criteria in food preparation and eating was consisted of 4 factors; the eating atmosphere factor, the preference factor, the quality factor and the table setting factor. There was a significant mean difference of the eating atmosphere factor between men and women. There was a significant mean difference of the preference factor between marital status, age, Engel Coefficient, educational level and occupation. The quality factor was varied from sex, marital status and occupation.
부산지역 대학생 340명을 대상으로 전통음식의 패스트푸드화에 관한 견해를 조사한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 조사 대상자는 남학생이 56.2%, 여학생이 43.8%, 20-24세가 66.8%를 차지하였고, 자기집에 거주하는 학생이 73.6%이었으며, 평균용돈은 16-20만원이 31.8%로 가장 많은 비율 차지하였다. 2. 패스트푸드가 식습관에 미치는 영향은 '입맛이 서구화 되었다', '지방의 과잉섭취가 되었다', '외식을 더 좋아하게 되었다', '비만가능성이 커졌다' 의 순으로 나타났으며, 성별(p<0.01)로 유의적이 차이를 보여 남학생은 입맛의 서구화, 여학생은 지방의 과잉섭취의 비율이 높게 나타났다. 3. 외국브랜드 패스트푸드점의 이용에 대한 견해는 '생각해보지 많았다' (32.9%), '이용을 자제해야 한다' (23.1%)로 나타났으며 전통음식 패스트푸드점의 이용에 대해서는 '가끔 이용할 것이다' (56.5%). '많이 이용할 것이다' (19.8%)로 나타나 빠른 시일내에 한국형 전통음식 패스트푸드업체의 개발이 필요한 것으로 보인다. 4. 국내브랜드 패스트푸드점에 대한 견해로는 '모르겠다' (32.1%), '맛이 떨어진다' (20.8%), '어쩐지 외국 브랜드보다 못하다' (13.3%)의 순이었고, 성별(p<0.01)로 유의적인 차이를 보여 맛의 차이는 여학생이, 가격의 차이는 남학생이 높은 비율로 꼽았다. 5. 전통음식의 패스트푸드점에 대한 견해로는 '전망이 있다'가 62.2%, '신속히 이루어져야 한다'가 15.5%로 나타났으며, 전통음식 중 패스트푸드화 할 수 있는 음식으로는 떡, 한과류(27%), 불고기, 음료, 빈대떡, 잡채, 갈비찜, 구절판의 순이었다. 6. 전통음식을 패스트푸드화 하는데 있어서의 문제점으로는 사람들의 인식(29.7%), 음식의 기계화와 자동화(26.2%), 정성부족으로 인한 맛의 감소(21.6%) 순으로 나타났고, 성별(p<0.01), 연령별(p<0.05)로 유의적 인 차이를 보였다. 7. 전통음식 패스트푸드점이 생기면 이용도에 관한 견해는 '가끔 이용할 것이다'가 56.5%, '많이 이용할 것이다'가 19.8%로 나타났고, 연령별(p<0.05), 주거상태별(p<0.05)로 유의적인 차이를 보였는데 연령이 많을수록 '이용치 않겠다'는 비율이 높았고, 특히 주거상태별로는 '전혀 이용치 않을 것이다'의 비율이 하숙생이 높게 나타났다. 본 연구는 유행에 민감하고 문화의 변화를 주도하며 패스트푸드를 가장 많이 이용하는 세대인 대학생들을 대상으로 우리의 전통음식을 패스트푸드화 하였을 때의 견해를 알아보고 그 전망을 살피기 위한 연구였다. 연구결과에서 나타난 바와 같이 유행의 첨단을 달리는 신세대라 하더라도 많은 비율의 대학생들이 전통음식의 패스트푸드화에 전망을 밝게 보고 있었으며 이를 위해서는 많은 문제점도 지적하였다. 이에 전통음식의 패스트푸드화와 상품화에 대한 인식이 고무적인 방향으로 변화하고 있어 앞으로 계속 그 추이를 연구할 가치가 있다고 사료된다.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of body weight control program for obese children. The program included nutrition education, exercise and behavioral therapy for 20 weekly sessions. The results from this study were as follows. The average age of the subjects was 11.3 years, mean height and weight were 146.12cm and 59.42kg respectively. After weight control preogram, Rohrer index(Rl) was significantly decreased from 186.78 to 182.72(p<0.001). There were not significant differences in body fat percent(%) and fat weight(kg) but it showed decreased pattern. In the change of body circumferences, chest circumference was significantly increased(p<0.01) and mid-arm circumference was significantly decreased(p<0.001) after weight control program. Triglyceride(TG) level in serum was significantly decreased from 113.79 to 80.36(p<0.01) and total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol level showed declind pattern. The food habits of obese children significantly improved(p<0.001) after weight control prgram. And there were desirable changes of food attitude, excercise and life habits. These results suggest that weight control program including nutrition education, exercise and behavioral therapy may be effective for helping obese children.
A survey was conducted to assess the food-purchase behavior of 197 Taejon full time housewives 30 to 49 years of age. Food purchase was assessed using a questionnaire and the resulting data were analyzed using SPSS programs. Demographic data revealed that most of the households have three to five family members and that the Engel Indices of the participating households were mostly between 10 and 30%. Noticeable results of the food purchase assessment are as follows. In the grain and grain products items, the low-education group purchased more rice and barley than the high-education group, whereas the high-education group purchased more glutinous rice, brown rice, bread, macaronis and spaghetti than the low-education group. In the vegetable items, the low-education group purchased more Chinese cabbage and radish than the high-education group, while the high-education group purchased more head lettuce, broccoli and sweet pepper than the low-education group. In the meat items, the beef purchase was higher in the high-education than in the low-education group, while the pork purchase was higher in the low-education than in the high-education group . In the processed meat items, ham was the most favorite purchase item regardless of the education level. In the fish and shellfish items, Pacific cod and Alaska pollack were purchased more in the low-education than in the high-education group, and salmon and dried icefish strip were purchased more in the high-education than in the low-education group. No items in fruit group showed significant differences in the purchase amount between the low-education and the high-education group although the latter purchased more imported-fruits such as melons, kiwis, grapefruits, and oranges. Dairy products such as milk, cheese and butter were purchased more in the high-education than in the low-education group. It was also found that both the number of food items and the consumption of foods coming from animals were higher in the high-education than in the low-education group.
Judging from the studies carried out by Dr. Jo, Yong Jin on the Koreans' faces, Koreans divided into two constitutions according to their facial features and heritages. The one population is the Northern lineage whose ancestor migrated from Siberia in ice age. In order to survive in cold climate, they have developed a high level of metabolic heat production. Cold adaptation for preventing heat loss results in a reduction in the facial surface area with small eyes, nose and lips. The other population is the Southern lineage who is the descent of native in Korean peninsular. They have big eyes with double edged eyelids, broad nose and thick lips. It is generally believed that both genetic and environmetal factors influence eating behaviors. Although we can't recognized their heritage that may contribute to the metabolism and eating behavior, we commonly recognize their physiological heritage acceding to their facial features. In order to investigate the relationship among the size and shape of facial feature, the eating behavior, anthropometric measurement in female college students, the eating behaviors was measured during an instant-noodle lunch eaten in a laboratory setting at the ambient temperature of 23℃. The anterior surface area of left eye and length of right eye were positively correlated with the difference between the peak postprandial and the meal-start core temperature. The surface area of lower lip also negatively correlated with the meal-start core temperature and meal duration. In addition, the total lips' area was positively correlated with the difference between the peak postprandial and the meal-start core temperature and negatively correlated with the meal duration. However anthropometric measurements were not related with the size of facial features.
The method of the squid safe made in Kyungsando was examined, and fermentation precess was established. The chemical composition and functional effects of the squid sikhe were examined. In the sensory evaluation, the squid sikhe made from Gampo accepted to be best for traditional Kyungsangdo squid sikhe and it is called standard sikhe. The Gampo sguid sikhe showed higher values in total sugar, free reducing sugar and nitrogen compound analysis compared to the orthers. The sugar of standard sikhe consisted of four kinds including glucose. The contents of free amino acid was increased in the order of glutamic acid, alanine, and methionine. The composition of amino acid in water or salt soluble protein of squid sikhe contained 17 kinds, and the contents was increased in order of glut amine acid, aspartic acid, and proline.
The purpose of this study was to assess the needs of education program and to analyze importance of education courses for school food service cooks. The questionnaires were developed by reviewing literatures on education programs for cooks and by interviewing with cooks who are working in school food service. A total of 150 questionnaires were surveyed at Kyonggi University and 90 of them were analyzed. The cooks in school food service wanted to take continuing education program about cooking skills and school food service operation skills. They wanted to take a culinary courses for 10 days and they wanted to take a food service operation courses for a week. The school food service cooks emphasized on courses of job analysis, laws and regulation, food sanitation, standard recipe, safety, equipment, and facility and layout. And they thought not only Korean food but also western food, Chinese food and Japanese food are important.
Purpose of this study was to investigate the health status and life style of middle-aged people in Daejon. The subjects expressed more fear for disease as getting older(p<0.01). Sixty six percent of the subjects have suffered in the past or suffer at present certain kinds of disease. The older they are, the more disease they have. The alimentary disease, neuralgia, and arthritis were the most popular disease. The eye strain and exhaustion of body were indicated more frequently in fifties than in thirties or forties(p<0.01). They considered excercise as the most important factor to maintain health status, and then moderation in diet, relaxation, rest, decrease of alcohol intake, no smoking. Forty three percent of them were non-drinker. The number of drinker was four times more in male than female and increased as getting younger(p<0.01). Only male revealed smoker and 29% of them smoked 10-20 cigarettes per day. The number of smoker decreased as getting older(p<0.01). Male played exercise more regularly than female and subjects have better exercise habit as getting older(p<0.01). This study suggests that practical programs for self-health control should be developed for playing exercise regularly for female and for considering nutrition, no smoking, and no drinking in the daily life for male.
In order to investigate the eating out behavior of university students, this survey was conducted using the questionaires for 710 students(369 male, 341 female) from 11 universities in Seoul. It was revealed that 39.4% of the subjects spent 60,000~100,000 won for monthly eating out cost and 57.8% of them ate out more than once a day. Most of them expended less than 3,500 won for lunch, while 36.5% of them spent 4,000 ~5,000 won for dinner. Dinner was regarded more important than lunch. Korean foods were the most preferred menu for eating out with friends and fast foods were the second. But Boonsik(snack bar foods), Chinese foods and Japanease foods were rarely selected. Frequency of selecting fast foods was 8 times greater than that of Boonsik. This indicates that the preference of western flavor and the pursuit of convenience is getting more obvious. While dating, western foods were preferred, followed by Korean foods, fast foods. The 80 kinds of foods were reported as favored eating out foods. Although 50 among 80 were Korean foods, the rest of them were Koreanized foreign foods most of those were western style. This may suggest that when the students become adults, they will be much fond of western dish for their dinning out. This tendency of preferring western flavor were much apparent in foods for dinner compared with lunch. In both sexes, the standard of food choice was in the order of taste, price, mood, hygiene, service and brand name. But male students were more conscious of price and service while female students were more concerned about taste and hygiene. Most unsatisfying feature in restaurant was unstable atmosphere for both sexes. Taste was the most important sensory factor in selecting the foods, followed by appearance, smell and texture. Major source of restaurant information was recommendation by friends or relatives. But the use of internet or magazine was negligible. Female students had more positive attitude, compared with male students, in using restaurant information and pursuing eating out for gourmet. The dining out menu of which price ranges about 3,000~5,000 won could be preferable foods for most people. Therefore, instead of blaming them for eating too much fast foods, new menus which fit the food preference and affordability of the students should be developed.
This study was undertaken to assess grade and gender differences in dietary behavior, food preference and perception about body image of students in 4, 5 and 6th grades in elementary school in Kwangju. Anthropometric data showed that mean height and weight were 137.98±6.79cm 32.69±6.09kg, in the 4th grade, 144.11±6.91cm, 36.88±7.60kg in the 5th grade and 151.52±7.47cm, 42.68±8.06kg in the 6th grade. Height and weight of male and female students of each grade were very similar to those of the Korean standard Growth data. Females in the 5th and 6th grades were taller than those in male students, which suggested the height growth spurt in females. Furthermore, both genders showed marked variability even in the same group. All the three different obesity indices(BMI, Rohrer and % of ideal body weight) showed higher value in males than in females consistently. Male respondents desired taller and heavier body shape while females perceived they were heavy and desired only taller and thinner body image. There were significant differences in satisfaction with height, weight and body image by grade(p〈0.05). 36.7% of subjects responded that they did not eat despite hunger. In higher grade they felt guilty after eating sweet things. Strikingly, it was noted a small number of students tried to take a diet pills or vomited on purpose. Data on food preference showed that female did not like sweet food and pork. While male students preferred red meat and chicken. Thus result indicated that there was a great difference in food preference by gender.
Green Tea consists of 15-30% catechins (a type of polyphenol), which act as super antioxidants, inhibitory action against aging process. Antioxidants fight radical-free oxygen, an agent which can begin the process of cancer by damaging essential body chemicals and harming DNA. This study was peformed to develop the elderly diet using Green Tea as an inhibitory action against aging process. Nokchaborijook (Baley gruel added rice powder and Green Tea) was manufactured by various levels of Green Tea(1, 4, 7%) and the grinding period(15, 30, 45 sec). The optimum levels of added Green Tea and grinding periods on Nokchaborijook were determined with the results of sensory evaluation by response surface methodology and analysis of composition. The Anti-oxidant Vitamin A, C, E and Flavonoid were increased with increased levels of Green Tea and grinding periods be decreased. As the levels of Green Tea and grinding periods were increased, the green color and penetrated force became stronger. Among the sensory attributes, Bitterness, Green Tea Flavor and Hashness were greater depending on increasing Green Tea. Jujube flavor was greater relying on decreasing Green Tea. Greenness and spreadability of particles were increased as both the amounts of Green Tea and the grinding period were increased. This result was used to determine the optimum conditions of adding levels of Green Tea and grinding periods. The optimum conditions of Nokchaborijook was established as adding of 5.8% Green Tea grinded for 15 seconds.
본 연구는 우리나라의 여러 가지 산채류 중에서 식이섬유와 flavonoid 함량이 높은 참취를 편리하게 섭취할 수 있도록 건조 분말 형태로 찹쌀떡에 이용하였다. 참취와 소금의 첨가수준에 따른 이화학적, 관능적 특성을 알아보고 노인에게 적합한 건강식을 개발하고자 하였다. 참취와 소금의 첨가량에 따른 찹쌀떡의 관능적 특성을 조사한 결과 관능적 특성 중 쓴맛과 참취향은 참취 첨가량이 증가할수록 유의적으로 증가하였고, 소금첨가량에는 유의적 차이가 없었다. 짠맛은 소금 첨가량이 증가할수록 증가하였고 참취 첨가량에는 유의적 차이가 없었다. 경도는 참취 첨가량이 증가할수록 감소하는 경향을 보였다. 촉촉한 정도는 참취 첨가량이 증가할수록 덜 촉촉하였으며 쫄깃한 정도는 참취 첨가량이 증가할수록 감소하였는데 유의적 차이는 없었다. 수분함량은 참취 첨가량이 증가할수록 증가하였고 소금 첨가량이 증가할수록 감소하였다. 색도 측정 결과 백색도는 참취 첨가량이 증가할수록 감소하였고 소금 첨가량이 증가할수록 감소하였다. 녹색의 정도(a)는 참취 첨가량과 소금 첨가량이 많아질수록 증가되었다. 황색도(b)는 참취 첨가량이 증가할수록 감소하였고 소금의 첨가량이 증가할수록 증가했다. flavonoid 함량은 참취 첨가량이 증가할수록 증가하였고 소금 첨가량이 증가할수록 감소하였다. 참취 찹쌀떡을 제조하기 위한 요인들의 최적수준은 참취향이 최대이면서 쓴맛은 최소인 수준에서 경도가 가장 낮은 처리 조합으로 결정하였다. 그 결과 최적 수준은 3.1%, 소금 0.6% 첨가로 결정되었다.
The residents of institutional settings for the disabled people are likely to be a potentially nutritional at-risk groups. The objective of the present study was to investigate the current nutrition and foodservice management in institutions for the disabled using a survey questionnaire. The majority (85%) of the institutions was using a simple pre-set menu that consists of rice, soup or stew, kimchi, and two other side dishes. Some twelve percent of the institutions served only one side dish. The residents were consuming a diet of a low diversity with insufficient amounts of micronutrient rich foods. As a protein source, legumes and soybean curds, and eggs were served 90% and 94% of the time, while beef, pork or poultry, a better iron source, was served less than 2-3 times per month. Fruits were most infrequently served food items in these facilities with 38% of the facilities serving fruits only 2-3 times per month. With regard to the nutrition and health care management, the physical examination on the residents was conducted annually in 88.8%, routine hemoglobin measurement peformed in 66%, and nutrition education was conducted in 10.9% of the surveyed facilities. The foodservice and nutrition management manual will help ensure a safe and better quality foodservice for the disabled people, which is necessary for the improvement of health and nutrition of these people.