The purpose of this study was to analyze consumer recognition, perceived importance, and satisfaction to create a new apple processed product and to promote its consumption. Data were collected from 527 men and women living throughout Korea through a self-administrated questionnaire. Frequencies, one-way analysis of variance, and Duncan's multiple range were conducted using SPSS v. 17.0 software. Recognition of juice and drinks, milk and dairy products, apple jam, and seasoning was high, while that of the other products was low. Consumer perceived importance of products was higher than consumer satisfaction of products. Quality preservation attributes were sanitation, taste, flavor, place of origin, and convenience of purchase. Attributes for improved consumer post-purchase satisfaction after purchasing were content of apple, quality of apple, price, and certificate of quality. The attributes of content of apple and certificate of quality were statistically different by consumer age.
To establish a globalization strategy for Korean food, it is important to ascertain foreign consumer's taste preferences and to evaluate their sensory perceptions of Korean food. In concert with previous studies, the most preferred food were Bulgogi and Galbi. However, respondents showed somewhat different preferences for other foods. Chinese and other Asian participants preferred Galbitang and Samgyetang, while Japanese participants preferred Pajeon, Galbitang and Japchae, and Western participants preferred Galbitang, Mandu and Bibimbap. The most preferred condiment was hot pepper paste (the representative condiment of Korea) and the least preferred one was ginger. Hot pepper paste was preferred most by Japanese participants, while Chinese participants tended not to prefer ginger and other Asian participants excepting those from China and Japan disliked vinegar most. Foreign consumers tended to consider Korean food as sweet, salty and very hot. Chinese participants considered Korean food to be 'plain' and 'light and washy' in taste, while Japanese participants considered Korean food to be 'greasy' and 'thick and sticky'. Chinese participants considered typical servings to be inadequate, while Japanese participants considered the servings as excessive.
The purpose of this study was to investigate nutritional knowledge, practice of eating behavior guidelines, and problematic dietary habits in working high school students in comparison with non-working high school students. A survey questionnaire was formulated to obtain information on demographic variables, body size, part-time jobs, nutritional knowledge, practice of eating behavior guidelines, and dietary habits. The developed questionnaire was given out to 515 students attending a vocational high school in Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do. Those who had been working 5 hours or more per day for at least a month at the time of survey administration were defined as working students for this study. Proportions of working students were similar between male and female students (i.e. 49.5% for male, 50.5% for female). No significant difference was found in scores of nutritional knowledge between working (8.43±2.29) and non-working students (8.60±2.19). However, some dietary habits were found to be dependent on working status. While approximately 43% of non-working students reported skipping a meal, about 57% of working students did so (p〈0.01). The proportion of students with any drinking experience was significantly higher among working students (92%) compared to non-working students (80%) (p〈0.001). Working students were found to drink alcoholic beverages more often than non-working students (p〈0.001). The mean score of practice of eating behavior guidelines was lower in working students than non-working students. The magnitude of this difference was modest (51.33±0.63 in working students, 53.40±0.51 in non-working students), but reached statistical significance (p〈0.01). Based on the findings from this study, it is suggested that specific behavior-oriented messages to improve certain problematic dietary habits need to be directed toward working high school students.
This article examines the types of tteok (Korean rice cake) recorded in 21 old literatures of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1909) according to its main ingredients. Tteok varieties of the Joseon dynasty were categorized into jjin-tteok, chin-tteok, jijin-tteok, salmeun-tteok and guun-tteok and their changes in cooking method were discussed from the early to late eras of the Joseon dynasty. These can be summarized as follows. In the early, middle and late eras of the Joseon dynasty, there were 1, 15 and 84 kinds of tteok using non-glutinous rice as the main ingredient, and 6, 24 and 120 kinds using glutinous rice, respectively. Tteok using wheat flour was not found in the early Joseon dynasty, whereas 6 and 32 kinds were found in the middle and late eras, respectively. There were 1, 4 and 5 kinds of tteoks using buckwheat, and 5, 11 and 19 kinds using other ingredients such as yam, barley, elephant's ear, oat, and arrowroot flour, in the early, middle and late eras, respectively. The frequency of the main ingredient increased in the order of glutinous rice>non-glutinous rice>wheat flour>other ingredient>buckwheat flour during the Joseon dynasty and the ratio of tteoks using non-glutinous and glutinous rice flours was 1:1.5. The number and types of tteok were noted to increase abruptly throughout the Joseon dynasty. This may be associated with the commercial industrial development that prevailed in the late Joseon dynasty. Further study will be conducted on their recipes and ingredients recorded in these old literatures to develop a standardized recipe for the globalization of tteok.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of servicescapes in Korean restaurants on customers' experiential value, pleasure feeling and customer satisfaction. Based on a total of 550 samples obtained from empirical research, this study reviewed the reliability and fitness of research model using the Amos program. The relationships hypothesized in the model were tested simultaneously by using a structural equation model (SEM). The proposed model provided an adequate fit to the data, χ2=406.097 (df 130), p〈.001, GFI .915, AGFI .889, RMR .042, NFI .955, CFI .969, RMSEA .062. SEM results showed that the servicescape showed a positive significant effect on customers' experiential value (β=.808, t=15.171, p〈.001), and customers' experiential value had a positive significant effect on pleasure feeling (β=.756, t=10.616, p〈.001). Also, customer's experiential value (β=.391, t=8.579, p〈.001) and pleasure feeling (β=.573, t=13.091, p〈.001) had a positive significant effects on customer satisfaction. Analysis of mediating roles showed that, the effect of servicescapes in Korean restaurants on customers' pleasure feeling was perfectly mediated by the customers' experiential value. Limitations of this study and future research directions are also discussed.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of saltwort, on the quality characteristics of sponge cake. In addition, we examined the commercialization potential of sponge cake containing saltwort. To accomplish this, saltwort was added to sponge cakes at concentrations of 0%, 3%, 5% and 7% and quality and sensory tests were then conducted. The 7% group had the highest water and ash content. There was no difference in the fat content between samples. The control group showed the highest protein content and the lowest specific gravity. As the content of saltwort increased, the specific gravity of the sponge cake increased. Additionally, the dough yield and loss during baking were highest, in the control group, and these values decreased as the saltwort content increased. Similarly, the volume and specific volume were highest in the control group, and these values decreased as the content of saltwort powder increased. Color measurements of the samples, revealed that the L-value decreased as the content of saltwort powder increased. Furthermore, the a-value of the saltwort powder groups was higher than that of the control group and the b-value was highest in the 7% group. There were no differences in elasticity and cohesion between samples, but chewiness and brittleness increased the content of saltwort powder increased. The results of the sensory test revealed that the color, flavor and taste scores were the highest in the 5% group. The pore size was greatest in the control group, while hardness was greatest in the 7% group, chewiness was highest in the 5% group and moistness was highest in the 5% group. Finally, the overall preference was for the 5% group.
The principal objective of this study was to determine the optimal mixing condition of two different amounts of cabbage and rice flour for the preparation of a cabbage cream soup. The experimental design was based on the central composite design methodology of response surface, which included 10 experimental points, including two replicates for the cabbage and rice flour. Physiochemical and sensory properties were measured, and these values were applied to the mathematical models. A canonical form and perturbation plot showed the influence of each ingredient on the mixed final product. Water content and pH values increased with increasing quantities of rice flour. Neither cabbage or rice flour affected the L and a values, but the b value increased with greater quantity of both ingredients. Viscosity increased with increasing added cabbage. Sensory evaluation results were significant in the predicted model for flavor (p<0.05), concentration (p<0.01) and overall quality (p<0.01). As a result, the optimum formulations by numerical and graphical methods were calculated as 111.79 g cabbage and 8.99 g rice flour.
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of various kinds of commercial salts, including sun-dried (Korea), purified, and traditional salts on the chemical and sensory properties and growth of microorganisms involved in kimchi fermentation. Kimchi was prepared by salting in 10% NaCl solution for 2 hours followed by addition of other spices and fermentation at 20℃. The decreases in pH suggested that kimchi fermentation can be classified into 3 steps: initial, intermediate, and final stages. In texture analysis, the hardness and fracturability of traditional salt kimchi were higher than those of regular kimchi. From the sensory evaluation test for kimchi, sensory scores were high for traditional salt addition, especially taste, overall preference and texture. Among various microorganisms related to kimchi fermentation, the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pichia membranaefaciens and Escherichia coli were examined. Based on the conditions of kimchi fermentation, a 2% and 5% concentration of each salt were studied. Also, the conditions of the cultures at 37℃ were examined. There was no considerable difference in the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Escherichia coli in the different kinds of salts. However, the growth of Pichia membranaefaciens was strongly inhibited by a 5% concentration of traditional salt during incubation at 37℃.
The object of this study was to investigate the effects of rice particle size on the physicochemical properties of beef-rice porridge. The pH of beef-rice porridge was decreased as compared to that of the control, while the redness of beef porridge increased according to rice particle size. The viscosity of flour in the beef-rice porridge was the highest among three porridges, at 40℃. The protein content of beef-rice porridge was increased 3-fold over that of rice porridges. The total amino acid content of the beef-rice porridge was 3071.2 mg/100 g, and that of rice porridge was 1147.5 mg/100 g. As compared to rice porridge, the maximum amounts of the amino acids Lys and Thr were increased beef-rice porridge. Sensory evaluation results showed that the beef-rice porridge with a particle size half that of rice had the highest scores in color, taste, texture, and overall preference. Based on these results, it is suggested that beef-rice porridge with a particle size half (0.7-2.5 mm) that of rice has optimal quality in terms of both physicochemical and sensory properties.
This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and/or Sterptococcus thermophilus on the fermentation of yoghurt containing 5% (w/v) buckwheat sprouts. The results revealed that after 12 hours of fermentation the appropriate pH, titratable acidity and number of viable cells were attained. At that time, the rutin content of the buckwheat sprout-added yoghurt prepared by the mixed culture method was not changed, but the quercetin content increased greatly. Conversely, the rutin content of yoghurt that only contained Streptococcus thermophilus was decreased while the quercetin content was increased. The total phenol contents as well as the DPPH radical scavenging activities of both the mixed culture and Streptococcus thermophilus yoghurt did not differ significantly. Taken together, the results revealed that the use of a mixed culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus during the preparation of buchwheat sprout-added yoghurt was desirable due to the decrease in pH and increase in titratable acidity and viable cells that occurred after 12 hr of fermentation. Moreover, phytochemicals in buckwheat sprouts such as rutin, quercetin and phenol compounds were comparatively increased during fermentation and influenced the antioxidant activity in buckwheat sprout-added yoghurt.
In this study, the rheological properties of doughs blended with 5% to 20% fermented rice bran (FRB) were investigated using farinographs, amylographs, extensographs, and SEM. In the farinograph analysis, the water absorption decreased and the replacement ratio of FRB increased over the time of development of the dough. The stability time of the dough was shortened, and the degree of softening decreased with added volume of FRB. The amylograph analysis showed that the temperature at the beginning of gelatinization showed a tendency to increase with increasing replacement ratio of FRB, but the gelatinization temperature showed no significant difference between the FRB-added groups and control group. The extensograph analysis showed that when the replacement ratio of FRB was over 10%, the extension of the dough decreased while the resistance was increased. In the SEM analysis, the added dough with less than 10% FRB had similar characteristics in gluten matrix and gas bubbles to those of the control of wheat flour alone. It was concluded that an added FRB volume of below 10% is most suitable for bread making.
To elucidate the effects of an obesity control program on body composition and serum lipid levels, 31 obese elementary students (male: 25, female: 6) residing in the Gyeonggi area were evaluated and their body composition, serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TG (triglyceride) were analyzed. The average age, height, weight and BMI (body mass index) were 11.52±1.00 yrs, 151.96±8.04 cm, 68.21±9.03 kg and 29.40±1.79 kg/m2 for the males, respectively, and 11.17±1.17 yrs, 147.83±5.15 cm, 65.05±10.86 kg and 29.62±3.24 kg/m2 for the females, respectively. There was a significant decrease in BMI for males (p〈0.001) and females (p〈0.05). There were also significant changes in all of the biochemical levels evaluated before and after the study. Specifically, the total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TG level decreased after the obesity control program, while the HDL-cholesterol level increased after the program. These results indicate that obesity control programs do change the BMI, serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TG levels in obese elementary students. Thus, obesity control programs are urgently needed to prevent degenerative disease and decrease obesity among children in elementary school.
This study was performed to compare the dietary intake and food sources of zinc (Zn), using a database of Zn composition developed in this study, between elementary schoolchildren in a remote rural area (RA, n=58, 9.9±1.7 yrs) and those in an urban area (UA, n=60, 9.4±1.8 yrs) in Chungnam province in Korea. A dietary survey for three days by food record method was performed. All kinds of foods (n=273) consumed by subjects were collected by aliquot sampling method, and the Zn content of these foods were analyzed by wet technique. The results showed that the daily mean intakes of energy, calcium, iron, and vitamin C from diet in the RA were in the range of 49-88% of the Korean DRI (KDRI), while those in the UA were similar to or greater than the KDRI, except for calcium and iron. The daily mean intake of Zn from the RA diet was 7.0±0.5 mg/d (114.1±8.4% of the KDRI), and 16.0±1.0 mg/d (258.3±16.3% of the KDRI) in that of the UA (p〈0.001). The percentage of dietary intake of Zn less than 2/3 of the KDRI was 19.0% in the RA, in comparison to 1.7% in the UA. Those in the RA consumed Zn from plant foods more often than did those in the UA (p〈0.001). Beef rib stew was the food source with highest Zn amount for the total subjects, followed by beef rib meat, roasted; and beef soup w/seasoned red pepper sauce. These results showed that some children in the RA had poor Zn nutrition based upon low intakes and poor food sources of Zn, while overall, children in the UA had good Zn nutrition. Therefore, those in RAs should have their Zn nutrition improved through government policy and nutrition education.