It is not known that when and by whom 'The Lee's UmsikBup' was written. This cookbook is written purely in Korean and has not been published yet. There is another book named 'UmsikBup' in the cookbooks of the Chosun Dynasty and there are many books with similar names. So this book is tentatively named 'The Lee's UmsikBup'. This book comprises fifty three items, among which there are fifteen items of rice alcoholics, three items of Gook-Su (noodles), sixteen items of side dishes, seventeen items of Tuck (rice cakes) and Guaja(kookies), and two items of fruit punch and tea. Three items were illegible because the lines were erased or the letters were not clear. The cereals needed for making rice alcoholics were sixty four percent regular rice and thirty six percent sticky rice. As for the processes, the process using Jee-ae-bop took up fifty five percent. As for side dishes, pheasants, which are seldom used for food these days, were then popular for food. And the entrails of domestic animals were much used for food. Seeing that red pepper paste mixed with vinegar was used for steamed breams (Jim) and that red pepper was used for Yeolgooja Tang, we can estimate that this book was written after red pepper was introduced. Inferring that Chohong Chang (red pepper paste mixed with vinegar and honey) is found Jinchan Ye Que, we can estimate this book was written in the late 1800's. The cereals used for making rice cakes were ninety two percent sticky rice and eight percent regular rice. Sticky rice was much more used and pepper was used for making Tuck (rice cakes) as Hun Chal Byung, So Ham Byung and Dootum Tuck. The analysis of the terms used in this book revealed that 117 items were used for cooking processes. And it also showed us that there were six kinds of cutting and thirteen kinds of heating procedure. The shapes and sizes of foods were revealed on the basis of real things. The measuring units are hard to revive since the measurements were taken by the container then in use. Thirty four kinds of containers and cookers, twenty more of which are now in use, were used for preparing foods. The use of ‘twigs stretched for the east’ had no scientific base but said something of Korean folkways at that time.
In this study, the types and characteristics of rice cake, cookies were investicated in the rice grown area-Korea, Japan (Tokyo, Osaka), China (Hongkong), Thai (Bangkok, ChiengMai), Indonesia (Bali, Jakarta), and Philippine (Manila). 1. Rice cakes and cookies were made from rice powder and rice granule. Specially, there were two kinds of basic rice powder one was rice powder in dry and the other was rice juice grinded with water on the millstone. Rice juices were named in China, MeeChang, in Manila, Galapong, in Bangkok, rice powder. 2. The kinds and numbers of steamed rice cakes were the most available in all investicated area. In Hongkong, Bangkok, ChiengMai, and Manila, beatened or kneaded rice cakes could not be seen almost. Only in Hongkong and Bangkok, fried rice cakes were available, while in Japan, boiled rice cakes were not seen almost, and also baked rice cakes were not seen in Korea, Hongkong, Bali, Jakarta. 3. In the east-south Asian area, except rice and glutinous rice, coconut and palm fruits and banana were using in recipies of rice cakes and cookies. They gave soft and tender mouth feeling, white color, and good emulsifying status. 4. The kinds and numbers of rice cookies were the most available in Bangkok, but in Bali and Jakarta, the least. The cookies of Japan had similar texture and shape to rice cake while most of cookies in Hongkong were fried in oils. In Korea, the kinds and numbers of rice cookies were less than those of rice cakes.
An ecological study of food and nutrition was conducted among 198 children, 6 to 12 years old, of the Songmyun elementary school and Samsong elementary school, located in remote villages of Chungchun-myun, Goisan-gun, Chung Buk Province between July 11 and 16, 1988. The results were summarized as follows. In regard to frequency of skipping breakfast, 3.3% of subjects skipped every morning; 15% often skipped; and the others never skipped. The most common reason for skipping a meal was lack of appetite. 6.6% of subjects often skipped an evening meal because of delayed meal preparation by a mother who returned home late. The survey found that 5.1% of subjects skipped a lunch at school. The reasons for skipping lunch were the mother’s being too busy to prepare a boxed lunch; a school bag too heavy to carry for a long distance to school; no adequate side-dishes for the boxed lunch. Growth patterns of those children having poor food habits, were reflected in lower figures in arm circumference and weight for height. The percentage of children having meals with their family on weekdays was 84.7% for breakfast; 85.6% for evening meal. About 7% of subjects had many dislikes and 74.1% had some dislikes in what they ate; 18.9% had good food preferences. There was a strong correlation between appetite or food preferences and anthropometric measurements or nutrient intake. Boiled rice was the predominant dietary staple, and principal sources of protein taken by subjects at home were soy beans and soy products. Regarding the boxed lunch prepared at home, most popular was one with only one kind of side-dish, including kimchee. 43.4% of the side-dishes were prepared with vegetables only. As for between meal snacks, milk and milk products, fruits and breads were popular among the subjects. The survey found that the children liked fruits, yogurt, corn, Chajang noodle; in contrast, lowest preference was for soup made with bones, curried meat with rice, and aromatic vegetables. The survey discovered a local dietary characteristics; 46.2% of the children customarily ate frog meat, an unconventional food.
Changes in chemical components of green tea leaves at different cooking conditions-blanching and frying-were surveyed as a method of utilizing low graded green tea leaves which missed appropriate plucking times. There was no significant difference in protein content during cooking. But contents of chlorophyll, tannin, vitamin C and caffeine were decreased during cooking, contents of chlorophyll and caffeine showed a greater decrease in frying than blanching. Content of total amino acid of green tea leaf was 15.8% and blanching showed bigger diminution of its content in comparision with frying during cooking.
두릅나무 Aralia elata순의 saponin을 분리하여 조사한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. Saponin의 함량과 종류는 자연산이 온상산보다 많고, 가열에 의해서는 모두 감소하였으며, 잎이 자랄수록 그 함량은 증가하였다. 자연산 날것 식용적기(Nr2)의 총 saponin 종류는 37개였다. 2. 자연산의 saponin 패턴은 생육시기에 따라 변하였으며 날것 식용적기(Nr2)가 다른 것에 비해서 크게 달랐다. 그러나 가열 처리한 결과는 saponin 패턴이 변화되어 시기적 차가 줄었다. 온상산은 자연산에 비해 피크가 단순하고 시기별 차이는 적었지만 가열에 의한 패턴의 차도 적었다. 3. 자연산 날것 식용적기는 ‘b’ saponin이 특이하게 많았고 나머지에서는 ‘d’ saponin이 가장 많았다.
두릅나무 순의 saponin을 추출하여 그 구조를 밝혀 본 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 자연산 날 것 식용적기의 crude saponin에서 aglycon으로 oleanolic acid와 hederagenin외에 1,3-methylenedioxy-3-dehydroxyoleanolic acid를 동정하였으며 당으로 α, β-glucose와 arabinose, rhamnose를 확인하였다. 2. 자연산 날 것 식용적기에 가장 많은 ‘b’ saponin(elatoside FH2)을 분리하여 동정한 결과 그 구조는 3-0-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid라 추정된다.
The effect of water extract in fruits of Omija (Schizandra chinensis Ballion) on liver function in expermental liver injuries induced by CCl4. The levels of GPT, GOT activities in serum were decreased apparently on the dosage of water extract in fruits of Omija correspond to raw Omija 1g compared to control group. The levels of Microsomal protein, glycogen, and pyruvate in liver and of Urea nitrogen, GPT, GOT, LDH in serum showed a trend toward restoration of normalization. No effective of levels of hepatic G6P DH activity and serum free fatty acid by water extract in fruits of Omija.
To assess the effects of water extracts in fruits of Omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) on alcohol metabolism, rats were orally administrated with alcohol (25% alcohol, 0.75g/200g B.W., 40% alcohol, 0.8g/200g B.W.). The level of metabolites and enzyme activities of the serum and liver were unchanged by the 25% ethanol or 40% ethanol treatment with acute orally administration. Blood alcohol level was markdely decreased by the treatment with water extracts in fruits of Omija. The serum level of Urea nitrogen, Free fatty acid, GPT and LDH were tended to decreased, level of GOT was unchanged. Contents of hepatic microsomal protein, glycogen, pyruvate in the liver were increased by water extracts in fruits of Omija. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates that water extract in fruits of Omija promotes the overall metabolism and detoxication of alcohol.
The effect of water extract in fruits of Omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats were determining the contents of metabolites and enzyme activities in the liver and serum of rat. The treatment with water extract in fruits of Omija showed increased in contents of protein, glycogen, and activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and a decreased in pyruvate content in the hepatic tissue from the alloxan treated group. These treatments were decreased contents of glucose, urea nitrogen, free fatty acid and activities of GPT, GOT, LDH.
건시제조 중 invertase의 활성 변화를 조사하고 정제된 invertase의 효소적 특성에 관하여 실험한 바 그 결과는 다음과 같다. 건조가 진행됨에 따라 invertase의 활성은 증가하여 건조 10일째 최고 활성을 나타내었으며 그 이후는 감소하였다. 건시에서 invertase를 250 mM potassium phosphate(pH 7.4)로 추출하여 (NH4)2SO4염석, DEAE-cellulose 및 sephadex G-200 column chromatography의 과정으로 정제한 결과 정제도는 조효소액보다 약 27배 증가되었으며 회수율은 약 11%였다. 최적 pH는 sucrose, raffinose에 대하여 각각 5.0과 6.0으로 나타났으며 최적온도는 40℃였다. 열과 pH 안정성은 50℃까지 그리고 pH 5 부근에서 안정하였다. Sucrose에 대한 Km값은 2.5 mM이었으며, 정제된 invertase는 polyacrylamide gel 전기영동상에서 하나의 band를 나타내었다.