The present study was surveyed for the normal meal and particular folk meal in east cot area in Kyungpook province, Pohang, Youngduk, and Uljin areas. The results are as below: Most subjects for surveying were 30-40 years old and permanent residents in those areas. For the normal meal, the boiled rice was the top main dishes among 18 main dishes. The folloing upper five main dishes were boiled bean rice, boiled barley rice, boiled miscellaneous cereals rice, noodles, and Bbimbab (miced rice with cooked various vegetables and meats). Less frequent main dishes were raw fish Bbimbab and the various fish soups etc. The two upper side dishes, out of 17 surveyed ones, were kimchi and soybean paste soup. Twelve dishes(about 70%) out of 17 side dishes, the loach soup, the marinated and fermented raw fishes (fish Sikhae'), the baked mackerel, the pickled fishes, the friedsardine, the green seaweed, and the quid, etc. were made from the sea products. For the particular folk meal, about 30 kinds of the specific folk food items of this area were surveyed: Gudungchi' Sikhae', which was made with seaweed, out of the 11 kinds of fish Sikhae', raw fish(Whae') in water, Sigumjang', a salty agar, a steamed seaweed which was covered with the flour or bean power the various kinds of fish soups, the various kinds of fish stews were the particular folk side dishes in these areas. The dietary habit in these east coast areas were affected by the various sea food products, the fishes and the seaweeds, which were acquired easily through four season in these area.
The several sacrificial rites foods in east coast areas Kyungpook province, Pohang, Youngduk, and Uljin, were surveyed. For the anniversary menorial service, the food items in these reas were mainly rice(Bab'), soup(Guk'), stew(Tang'), fruits, neats and fishes, alcohol which are the typical food items for any other area in Korea. In this east coast area, the seaweed was used more often than in inner land area for this rite food. Four kinds of rice cake(Ddeok' or Pyun') were surveyed for this rite. For the baked food item(Geuk'), the fish squid and the Alaska pollack were used frequently for Geuk'. For the fruits dishes, 3 items were the basic. Tang' which was made with the various fishes, were used very frequently. For the religious memorial service for god to guard the household, the displayed food items were different from depending on the type of the god to guard the household, however, the general display of the food items was almost the same as in land area. For the winter sacrificial rite, the boiled rice(97%) and Bakpyun' was used mostly for the Ddeok'. For the Guk', bean sprout was used mostly, however, the seaweed soup was also used(7%). The fish Tang' was the most used one(35%). For young-deung-je', which implied th safe guard of the household, most of the food items are similar to those of the normal sacrificial rite, however, the fishes which were not fishy were used. The housekeeper arranged the rite to catch a large amount of the fishes and to hope the wellbeing of the household, Poong-yer-je is so called as Byul-sin-gud'(a practice of an exorciser). The food items for this Poong-yer-je' were almost similar to those of the winter sacrificial rite, however, Geulpyun' was mostly used for the Pyun'. In addition that, the red-bean Si-ruddock', Baekpyun', and Yung-ddock'(a dragon cake) were used for this rite, At the end of the sacrificial rite, Yong-ddock' was served to the dragon king which was believed in sea.
Jeupjang like salted soybean paste with vegetable is the Korean traditional side order eating at table. Bibliographical studies on the Jeupjang in historic books such as Jeungbo-Sanlim-Keongjae(Re-edition of agriculture economic), Imwon- Keongjae Ji(Book of country economic) and Keuhap-Chongseo(Handbook of household) described the Korean food in the 18 century carried out. In addition, investigation and analytical studies on various home-made Jeupjang in present was accomplished. Jeupjangs were classified into three types according to variety preparing methods. Three types were fermented soybean paste (Doenjang) type using traditional Meju(soybean cake stater) for Jeupjang, salted pickle (Jangachi) type buried cucumber and eggplant into soybean paste or soysauce (Kanjang), and salted sauer kraut (Kimchii) type prepared vegetable in Jeupjang-Meju mash. The procedures for producing Jeupjang were Jeupjang-Meju making, and mixing vegetable with Meju powder into brine. At last process was fermented in horse wastes or grasses for 7-14 days. But manufacturing methods of Jeupjang before the 18 century were different in present. Nowadays glutinous rice, red pepper powder and various vegetable were used for domestic Jeupjang.
The following demonstrates similarities between Japanese and Korean food culture. The facts have been discovered through the examination of records kept by Korean Communication Facilities and Japanese Envoys. Both countries used the numbers 7, 5, 3, in food treats. Both demonstrated Da do(茶道) style during banquet. Japanese Na-ra-dae(奈良臺) is similar to Korean Sue-bae-sang(壽杯床). Both countries had a Kan-ban(decorative table, 看盤) and Mi-soo(wine and someatables, 味數) during banquet. The composition of the table may be the same for both Korean Geo-sick-oh-kwa-sang and Japanese 3Jeup(soups) 15Che(dishes). Agasang is a Kan-ban(decorative table) of Choson's Da-do(茶道) style.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the drinking patterns and behaviors of Yangsan College students. Data were collected by a self-administered survey from the subjects, of which male students were 336 and female 165. The results of this study were as follows: 1. With regard to attitude toward drinking, 93.1% of the male subjects and 84.3% female subjects reported to have favor for drinking while only 9.3% of the subjects against drinking. 2. Those who reported to have at least a drink everyday were 13.3% of the subjects. For drinking frequency subjects who reported once in two or three day were most popular(21.9%). The frequency of drinking alcohol was associated positively with amount of discretionary money the students have. 3. For amount of drinking, 42.5% of subjects responded that they were able to drink soju at least one bottle per occasion. Data showed a high positive correlation between drinking frequency and financial costs they spent to drink. 4. The reasons subjects gave to drink included social gatherings after school or student activities (40.1%), change of mood(16.5%), and personal cerebration(16.5%). 5. The most popular place for the subject to go for a drink was neighborhood pubs(43.5%), followed by bar or pubs at downtown(28.3%) and nearby campus(12.2%).
This study was to investigate the consumption patterns of fast food in small city. The survey was conducted by questionnaires from March to April in 1997. The object was 500 men and women who were in their teens through fifties and living in Kimchen and Sangju city. A total of 444 subjects(88.8%) excluding incomplete answer were analyzed, all statistical data analysis were conducted using the SAS/PC+. 1. The reason why people go to fast food restaurants are quickness, a convenient place, good taste, low prices, good service, and good atmosphere. There was significant correlation with each element with one exception between taste and prices. 2. On the question about the fast food which was eaten most frequently, responded hamburger to 39.86%, noodles to 29.50%, chicken to 16.67%, pizza to 10.36% and the others to 3.60%. And female, teens and twenties ate hamburger more often and another groups ate noodles more often. 3. The standard of choosing fast food restaurants was taste, prices, sanitation, atmosphere and service. There was significant correlation with exception between taste and prices, sanitation and service, atmosphere and service. 4. About propriety of fast food serving size as one meal, it was not enough portion for female and 40s. 5. The awareness that eating foreign-made food was not right, was significant difference among age groups, but not sex. 6. Customers was discontented with sanitation, price and service. There was also significant correlation with each element. 7. The frequency of eating fast food was 1-2 times/a month(35.36%), 3-5 times/a month(31.31%), 5-10 times/a month(18.24%), hardly using(11.04%), 10-20 times/a month(2.70%), over 20 times/a month(1.35%). There was significant difference among sex and age groups.
This study was conducted to investigate the sanitation status and food waste state from 220 restaurant owners in Taejon area by questionnaires. As a result, the restaurant owners had proper knowledges on the purposes of the good menu system which is to prove public sanitation and to reduce food waste by changing present food service style. According to the restaurant management characteristics study, the subjects recognized highly for the importance of cleanliness(4.6), taste(4.5) where diversity of portion size(3.9), attractiveness(4.0) were low. 86.3% of the subjects mentioned great reductions in food waste after practicing good menu system. Also the subjects recognized the necessity for further researches on this field. After practicing good menu system in restaurant, their food waste was reduced.
The issue of health and nutritional wellbeing becomes one of the utmost concerns for the welfare of the elderly in a society of increased aging populations. This study was conducted to assess nutritional state and to identify possible dietary factors that might influence health and nutritional state of the free living elderly women. Two hundred sixty two elderly women, aged 60-90 who are actively participating in a continuing education program for the elderly in Seoul area, were interviewed using a dietary habit questionnaire and a 24-hour recall. Anthropometric measurements such as heights, weights, body mass index, and tricep skinfolds and dental status were significantly different between the two age groups, 〈75 and ≥ 75 years of age. Sixty eight percent of the subjects were using nutritional supplements regularly, in the descending order of vitamin-mineral supplements(40%), botanicals(27.6%), tonic drinks(16%), and health foods(13.2%). For hot beverages, our study subjects drank coffee (33.6%) and green tea (17.9%) frequently, followed by doongulae, job's tears, citron and kyulmyung tea. With regard to micronutrients, vitamin C intake was found to be lower in the group aged over 75 compared to that below 75 (p〈0.05). Calcium intake was significantly higher among the elderly with good dental status followed by the groups with gingivitis, denture, and missed teeth with poor chewing abilities (p〈0.05). The amount of personal spending money was found to be a significant contributing factor (p〈0.05) to the energy and nutrient intake in an individual. The results of the present study can be applied to the identification of the possible factors that might intervene the aging process, to the planning of the nutrition education program, and to the development of health food products for the promotion of health and nutrition of the elderly women.
This study examines the effects of the Korean horticultural foods which are, by traditional wisdom, supposed to contain anti-aging substance. All twenty three kinds of plants are chosen as a sample for the experiment in which the content of three main anti-aging nutrients, -carotene, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E are respectively measured by Nilis, Colorimetric, and AOAC method. The result shows: among the samples, top six plants that contain the most -carotene content are high quality tea(Camellia sinensis), thistle(Cirsium japonicum Var.), Angelica keiskei, mulberry leaves(Morus alba l.), field horsetail(Equisetum arvensa), and carrot(Daucus carota), in order; top four for a Vitamin C contents are low quality tea, mulberry leaves, pine leaves(Pinus densiflora), and high quality tea, in order; top four for a Vitamin E contents are persimmon leaves(Diospyros mongolicum) tea, high quality tea, low quality tea, and pine leaves, in order. Drying or boiling process increases the content of -carotene and Vitamin E in high quality tea, dropwort(Oenanthe javanica), field horsetail, and wild aster(Ligularia stenocephala Marsumum et Koldzumi), while, in case of mulberry leaves, drying process lowers them. Vitamin C content strikingly decreases in heating and drying process.