This study was conducted to improve the kimchi intake for high school students of various kimchi sub-ingredients and foods using kimchi. The students believed that kimchi is good for health. The overall satisfaction, baechu quality and the taste and degree of fermentation of kimchi was high, but there was a low preference for offered kimchi kinds, kimchi subingredient, foods using kimchi. The types of kimchi preferred and often offered in school meals were baechu-kimchi and kkakdugi. The common kimchi sub-ingredients were radish and welsh onion in vegetables, squid and oyster in sea foods, saeu-jeot and myeolchi-jeot in salted fish, and pear and apple in fruits. The preference for kimchi sub-ingredients were high for sesame leaf and yeolmu in vegetables, saeu-sal and squid in sea foods, saeu-jeot and nakji-jeot in salted fish, and pear and apple in fruits. The foods using kimchi preferred and often offered with school meals were kimchi-jjigae, bokkeumkimchi, kimchi soup, kimchi-bokkeum-bap, and kimchi-jeon. The kimchi sub-ingredient for which students had the greatest preference was meats. Among the foods using kimchi with meats, the most preferred were kimchi-pyeonyuk bossam, doejigogi kimchi duruchigi, and kimchi galbi-jjim. Among the foods using kimchi with noodles, the most preferred were kimchi- bibimmyeon, kimchi -naengmyeon, and kimchi-cheese spaghetti. Among the foods using kimchi with vegetables, the most preferred were kimchi-pa-jeon, kimchi- deopbap and kimchi- goguma gui. Of the foods using kimchi with processed foods, the most preferred were kimchi-mandu, kimchi-bacon jumeok-bap and kimchi- cheese omelet. Among the foods using kimchi containing sea food, kimchi-haemul bokkeum-bap, kimchi-hoe-deopbap, and kimchi-saeu-jjim were most preferred. Overall, these results suggest that various kimchi sub-ingredients and foods using kimchi should be improved for kimchi intake of school meals.
This paper examines the dining tendencies of Koreans toward meat dishes and their related factors, with 301 people residing in Korea as subjects. We questioned this population on their restaurant choices, eating habits, preferences and a dislike with respect to method of cooking. All age groups, with the exception of 50~60 year-olds, were found to consume meat dishes in specialized restaurants. The selection factor for restaurants varied, depending on the age group: affordable cost was the most important factor for whom under 20 year-old. Whereas 20-40 year-old people considered taste and ambience the most for choosing restaurant. The 50-60 year-old people found to seek for convenient restaurant. In terms of the most preferred parts of beef, 20-30 year-old people preferred tenderloin (42.3%) while 40-60 year-old people preferred sirloin (45.6% and 41.2% each). All the other age groups preferred ribs the most (It was also found that) men preferred the rib parts and women preferred tenderloin. With respect to pork, all age groups preferred pork belly, with the highest response rate in the under 20 age group. When consuming meat dishes, 91.0% of respondents pointed to roasting as the most frequent preparation method, the reason being good taste was deemed the highest number of responses. In a survey on preference for stewed meats, 74.8% of the sample pool was found to prefer stew dishes but 24.9% of respondents provided negative answers, the reason for dislike was found to be poor taste for women, and both a long preparation time and poor taste for men. In fact, regardless of marital status, a high number of responses were given for poor taste as the reason for disliking stew dishes. Based on the examined factors for inconveniences in preparing meat dishes, the most common inconvenience factor was the odor of meat left on clothes after the dining experience, followed by the smoke generated in roasting meat, and the safety risk involved with changing the grill. In terms of stir fry preparation, the negative thoughts were due to the splashing of food and spices while cooking, followed by the meat odor left on clothes after dining experience, and the sanitation level of the cooking containers. For deep frying the sanitation level of cooking containers was the biggest reason for dislike, followed by splashing of food when preparing. Lastly, it was indicated that the problem of steaming method was a difficulty of judging the portion, on the top of this, people found that the sanitation level of cooking container and a long preparation time were also the problem of this cooking method.
This study investigated the eating preferences and patterns for kimchi by elementary school students in Seoul, Korea. Seven hundred and sixty-six elementary school students in the Seoul area were surveyed during June, 2008, and the results are summarized as follows. The percentage of elementary school students living in a nuclear family was 93.6%. The BMIs of students were 'normal' (81.7%), 'underweight' (9.7%), and 'overweight' (8.6%). Most students (70.2%) liked kimchi. The main reasons cited were 'hot taste' (46.5%) by males and 'texture of chewing' (40.6%) by females. Most students had eaten Baechukimchi (97.8%) and Kkakdugi (96.9%), with Korean lettuce Kimchi (29.7%) marking the lowest experience. Regarding food prepared with Kimchi, most students had eaten Kimchi jjige (99.2%) and Kimchi bokkeumbap (96.9%). Kimchijapchae (27.8), Kimchi pizza (14.8%), Kimchi hamburger (13.3%), and Kimchi spaghetti (9.5%) received low grades.
The objective of this study was to familiarize people with the native local food of Chungnam Province by developing its regional food as a culture resource. Native Local Food Search and luxury itemization based on regionally-characterized stories enhances self-perception of the national culture, promotes appropriate local images to the public, and contributes to the local economy by increasing regional tourism. Therefore, this study researched local stories of cultural significance, that is, those connected to the history and originality of Chungnam Province, and developed contents related to Chungnam native local food. Features of the native local food were introduced by a story telling method in order to appeal to the five senses. The story was composed for easy understanding of the value of food, and the brand image of Chungnam was developed based on representative historical stories of the region. In this study, the following were developed as representative images of Chungnam: 'Royal meal table of King Moo-ryung' in Kongju was presented by recomposing the story of King Moo-ryung, a famouns king of the Baekje era; 'Mong-yoo-do-won's rice meal table' was introduced via Mongyoo-do-won's painting by Kyeon An, a famous painter of the Chosun era who was born in Seosan. The 'Royal meal table of King Moo-ryung' was set with food made from local farm products, demonstrating the flavor and elegance of the Baekje era. 'Mong-yoo-do-won's rice meal table' resembled Kyeon An's Mong-yoo-do-won-do, which has a background featuring early spring. The rice table was designed to remind people of a flamboyant painting like a scattered peach blossom leaf in the early spring. To verify the health effectiveness of each rice table, the function of each ingredient was investigated through 'Sik-ryo-chan-yo:a dietary treatment', which was published by Soon-Ui Cheon during the Chosan era. According to the results, most of ingredients are certainly beneficial to health, as was recognized in the early Choson era.
The purpose of this study was to compare the awareness of dietary patterns and health of full-time and employed housewives. The investigation gathered information on general characteristics, dietary lifestyle, nutritional status, and health by questionnaire as well as anthropometric measurements. The subjects included housewives living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province (86 full-time and 127 working housewives) during November 2009 to January 2010. The average age, height, and weight of the housewives were 45.8±7.6 yr, 161.0±8.4 cm, and 55.7±6.3 kg, respectively. The average monthly income of the households was 3 million to 5 million won (31.4% full-time and 37.0% working housewives), and their average food expense was 200,000 to 500,000 won (46.5% full-time and 48.1% working housewives). More than 90% of the studied homes were nuclear families and the most common number of children was 2 to 3 (79.1% full-time and 76.4% working housewives). The ratio of employed housewives who ate regular meals was 35.4%, but that of the full-time housewives was 48.2% (p〈0.05). Of the working housewives, 7.1% never ate breakfast and the primary reason for skipping breakfast was 'busy in the morning' (61.1%). The type of food that the housewives preferred when eating out was Korean food, both for the full-time and employed housewives (76.0%). All the housewives overate calories and the full-time housewives ate more protein, fat, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B6, niacin, vitamin C, vitamin E, folic acid, and cholesterol than the employed housewives (p〈0.05). Both the full-time and employed housewives were more satisfied with supper than with other meals. About 30.6% of the full-time and 33.9% of the working housewives had no interest in health, but answered that regular exercise was very important for health (33.3% full-time and 39.7% working housewives). In conclusion, working housewives have poor dietary habits and nutrient intakes, thus substantial measures to improve these problems are urgently needed.
A survey on the quality improvement and preference for green onion kimchi by Chinese and Japanese consumers was conducted by 30 Korean specialists in order to develop an improved green onion kimchi product. The long green onion shape, kimchi juice, seasonings, off-odor of fermented sea food, and stimulatory flavor of green onion were the main issues considered for the improvement of green onion product. Usage of the favorite ingredients of the Chinese and Japanese consumers was also suggested. The percentages of Chinese and Japanese who already knew green onion kimchi were 54.1% and 30.3%, respectively, whereas 46.8% of Chinese and 28.1% of Japanese have actually tried green onion kimchi in Korea. There was no significant difference in the preference for green onion kimchi between Chinese (3.25/5.0) and Japanese (3.17/5.0) consumers. For recommendations for improving the quality of green onion, Chinese consumers thought off-flavor, fibrous texture, and fermentation level were more significant while the Japanese considered red color, various taste, MSG content, and length of green onion. Seasoned tofu with green onion and rice were suggested as complementary foods to green onion kimchi by the Chinese and Japanese, respectively.
In this study investigation, 550 high school students attending school in Gyeonggi Area were surveyed for their knowledge of well-being perception. The major findings of the study were as follows: The boys found themselves in a better health compared to the girls. Students recognized the well-being food as all kinds of foods, which can improve their health although they had a significantly different opinion on the other things (p<0.001). The students acquired information on well-being through TV shows and the Internet. The students thought that physical and environmental well- being are the most important. In terms of physical well-being, they emphasized regular workout, balanced diet and enough sleep, while reduction of food waste and the use of disposables along with restriction of behavior not to generate environmental hormone were the important aspect for environmental well-being. In terms of eating-out habits, the girls choose healthy menus more often than the boys, and their menu choice was the most influenced by the information provided by TV and newspaper. Generally, the boys expressed more satisfaction with healthy menus than the girls, but the former didn't have a strong intention to reorder the same menu. Although the boys and girls did not have a same reason to select specific menu, both group choose menu to promote their health. The balance of taste and nutrition was identified as the top priority for their choice of well-being menus.
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of relationships between food service companies and their client companies by surveying employees working at cafeterias among a food service companies' client companies. For this purpose, previous research was reviewed, and confirmatory research was conducted using a questionnaire. In the questionnaire survey, the subjects were sampled through convenience sampling from the client companies of A Food Service Company, and 182 valid questionnaires were used in the analysis. The results of this study are summarized as follows. First, the characteristics of the relationship between the food service company and its client companies, which were reputation, communication, operation skill, and contact-point employees' service quality, had a significant effect on trust, and the effect was high in the order of contact-point employees' service quality, communication, operation skill, and reputation. Satisfaction was significantly affected by reputation, operation skill, and contact-point employee' service quality, but not by communication. The effect was high in the order of contact-point employees' service quality, reputation, and operation skill. In addition, reputation, communication, operation skill, and contact-point employees' service quality had a significant effect on long-term orientation, and the effects were high in the order of reputation, contact-point employees' service quality, communication, and operation skill. Second, with regard to the quality of relationships between a food service company and its client companies, trust had a significant effect on satisfaction. Third, among the factors related to the quality of relationships between the food service company and its client companies, trust and satisfaction had a significant effect on long-term orientation, and the effect of satisfaction was higher than that of trust. This study has scientific significance as one of only a few studies on factors affecting the long-term relationship between food service companies and their client companies, along with managerial implications that contact-point employees' capabilities are most important in service businesses, and thus efforts should be made at employing and educating them properly.
Off-flavor in foods and in raw materials is quite concerning, as it could signify deeper-rooted problems. Methods of reduction of "off-flavors" in traditional food such as Cheonggukjan and Kimchi, and in raw materials of soybean paste were studied by means of a literature review. It was found that the major components of "off-flavor" were due to butyric acid, valeric acid, alkylpyrazines, ammonia, and sulfides for Cheonggukjang, and for Kimchi were sulfur containing components such as methyl allylsulfide, dimethyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, methyl allyl trisulfide, methyl 2-propenyldisulfide, dipropenyldisulfide. There is a demand for a scientific and systematic approach in overcoming the "off-flavor" problem. Nutritional aspects and safety should be considered. Several methods have been attempted, such as masking, binding, improving cooking process, inhibiting rancidity, and controlling the growth of micro-organism. Methods of masking were the most frequently ones used for the reduction of "off-flavor", and in some cases, othertechniques were additionally applied. The masking method would be useful in the reduction of "off-flavor" in traditional Korean foods, i.e. Cheonggukjang, Kimchi, as well as in new product development.
The objective of this study was to examine the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of yogurt containing hot water extract from maca. Four different levels (0, 4, 8, 12%) of maca extract were added to milk followed by fermentation with lactic acid bacteria at 37℃ for 12 hrs, and then the physicochemical properties of the samples were investigated. During 7 days of storage at 4±1℃, the acid production (pH and titratable acidity) of the yogurt increased with the addition of maca extract. The Hunter L value (lightness) decreased, while the b value (yellowness) increased as the maca extract level in the yogurt increased. Viable cell counts were not significantly different among the samples. The results of consumer acceptance tests showed that no significant differences in overall acceptability were observed between the yogurts containing 4% and 8% of maca extract and a control yogurt. The yogurt containing maca extract exhibited higher DPPH radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities than the control yogurt over the storage period.
This study evaluated the quality and sensory characteristics of sulgidduk added with yam powder (5~20%) during 4 days storage. The moisture content of samples initially decreased as the yam powder content increased, but subsequently increased during storage. The pH values also increased during storage, although there was no significant difference. L values decreased and both a and b values increased as yam powder content increased. The decreased L values during storage were not significantly different from control group. The hardness of samples decreased with increasing yam powder content, while hardness of control group markedly increased during storage. Cohesiveness increased as yam powder content increased, and tended to decrease during the storage. Springiness also initially increased as yam powder content increased. No change was apparent during storage in control group or samples added with up to 10% yam powder, while springiness was decreased insignificantly in samples with over 10% yam powder. Lightness, yam odor and savory taste of sulgidduk tended to increase as yam powder content increased, while chewiness decreased. The savory odor was the highest in sulgidduk added with 10% yam powder. Sulgidduk added with 10% yam powder was the most preferred in appearance, taste, texture and overall preference.
DPPH 라디칼 소거 활성 측정 결과 발효장뇌삼엽차의 추출물이 장뇌삼엽차의 추출물보다 활성이 더 높은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 장뇌삼과 발효장뇌삼이 장뇌삼엽차와 발효장 뇌삼엽차보다 항산화 활성이 높은 결과를 얻었다. 장뇌삼과 발효장뇌삼의 항산화 활성은 비슷하였다. SOD 유사활성도 측정에서는 대조군인 vitamin C와 비교할 때 모든 군이 SOD 유사활성도가 약한 것으로 분석되었다. 아질산염 소거능은 pH 1.2, 3.0의 조건에서 1 mg/mL의 농도로 처리 하였을 때 아질산염 소거능이 장뇌삼엽차, 발효장뇌삼, 장뇌삼, 발효장뇌삼의 순으로 높은 것으로 나타났고, pH 6.0의 조건에서는 모든 군이 아질산염 소거능이 약한 것으로 분석되었다. HeLa cell에서 시료 중 장뇌삼과 발효장뇌삼엽차의 추출물이 1 mg/mL의 농도에서 30% 이상의 암세포 증식 억제율을 나타내었다. 발효장뇌삼과 장뇌삼엽차는 각각 약 24%, 22%로 분석되었다. MCF-7 cell 발효장뇌삼과 장뇌삼엽차의 추출물이 1 mg/mL의 농도에서 27% 이상의 암세포 증식 억제율을 나타내어 비슷하였고, 장뇌삼 추출액이 21%로 가장 낮았으며, 발효장뇌삼엽차 추출액이 70% 이상으로 나타나 암세포 증식 억제율이 각 시료 중 가장 높은 것으로 분석되었다.