This study assessed the quality characteristics of cookies made with different amounts (0, 5, 10, 15%) of black carrot powder. The density and pH value of cookie dough were constant for all groups. Compared to the control group, the moisture content was higher in groups containing the black carrot powder. Increasing the amount of black carrot powder resulted in decreased L-value but increased a-value. Furthermore, the hardness of cookies increased with increasing amounts of black carrot powder. The consumer acceptance test revealed that up to 15% black carrot powder addition was desirable. Total phenol content of the control group was 24.0 mg GAE/100 g, while black carrot powder groups ranged from 45.5 to 103.5 mg GAE/100 g. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was also augmented with increasing volumes of black carrot powder. Taken together, we recommend that cookies with 15% black carrot powder are desirable in terms of overall acceptability and antioxidant activity.
This study evaluated the quality characteristics of rice cookies prepared with different amounts (0, 3, 6, 9%) of hibiscus powder. The pH of cookie dough decreased as the amount of hibiscus powder increased. Additionally, the moisture content and spread factor were higher in groups containing hibiscus powder than in the control groups. Furthermore, the L-value decreased with increasing hibiscus powder, while the a-value increased. The incorporation of hibiscus powder into cookies decreased hardness. Additionally, consumer acceptance testing revealed that the addition of up to 6% hibiscus powder was desirable in terms of overall acceptability. The total phenol content of the control groups was 12.32 mg GAE/100 g, while the levels in the groups containing hibiscus powder ranged from 23.32 to 59.86 mg GAE/100 g. Finally, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity increased with increasing hibiscus powder level. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that amending cookies with 6% hibiscus powder can improve antioxidant activities without affecting sensory quality.
본 연구에서는 헴프시드가루 첨가가 쌀쿠키의 품질특성에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위해 밀가루 사용량 대비 헴프시드가루를 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%로 첨가하여 쿠키를 제조하고, 밀도, pH, 수분함량, 퍼짐성 지수, 색도, 경도 및 항산화 활성을 측정하였다. 쿠키의 밀도는 1.15~1.20 g/mL, pH는 6.29~6.45로 시료 간 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 수분함량은 4.86~5.83%로 헴프시드가루 첨가량이 증가할수록 대체로 감소하였다. 쿠키의 퍼짐성 지수는 대조군이 가장 낮았고, 첨가량이 증가 할수록 높아지는 경향을 나타내었다. 쿠키의 명도(L)는 헴프시드가루 첨가량이 증가함에 따라 감소한 반면에, 황색도(b)와 적색도(a)는 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 소비자 기호도 조사결과. 색과 향은 10% 첨가군이 가장 높은 점수로 평가되었으며, 맛과 조직감은 시료 간 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 전체적인 기호도는 10% 첨가군과 15% 첨가군이 높게 평가되었다. 총 폴리페놀 함량은 대조군이 7.15 mg GAE/100 g으로 가장 낮았고. 첨가군이 12.36~17.17 mg GAE/100 g으로 대조군보다 유의적으로 높게 나타났으며, DPPH radical 소거능은 60.02~ 80.63%로 헴프시드가루 첨가량이 증가할수록 증가하는 경향이었다. 이상의 결과를 종합하여 볼 때 쿠키 제조 시 헴프시드가루를 15%까지 첨가한다면 관능성 및 기능성 측면에서 바람직할 것으로 사료된다.
This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics of Yanggaeng prepared with different concentrations of mealworm powder: 0, 1, 2, and 3%. Regarding the proximate composition, moisture, crude lipid and ash contents showed no significant differences among groups, while crude protein contents increased as the mealworm powder increased. The value of lightness (L) and yellowness (b) were higher in 3% added groups than those of control groups. Consumer acceptance test showed that no significant differences between the controls and added groups were observed in color, smell, taste and overall acceptability. The total polyphenol content ranged from 19.87 to 51.37 mg GAE/100 g, exhibiting the increase with increasing mealworm powder level. DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power increased as the amount of mealworm powder increased. In conclusion, it is suggested that mealworm powder can be incorporated into Yanggaeng up to 3% without affecting the sensory quality of Yanggaeng.
This study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of salad dressing prepared with acaiberry powder (0, 1, 3, and 5%). The pH and titratable acidity increased as the acaiberry powder increased. The sugar content showed no significant differences between samples. The viscosity was lowest in the controls and increased with increasing amounts of the acaiberry powder. The lightness and yellowness values decreased, while the redness values increased with increasing amounts of acaiberry powder. The total polyphenol content ranged from 10.26-45.19 mg GAE/100 g, increasing with increased acaiberry powder levels. The antioxidant activities measured via DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and FRAP also increased with increasing acaiberry powder concentrations. Finally, a consumer acceptance test revealed that up to 3% acaiberry powder could be added to salad dressing to provide high antioxidant activity without sacrificing sensory quality.
This study was conducted to assess the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of Yanggaeng prepared with different concentrations of blackcurrant powder (0, 1.5, 3, and 4.5%). The moisture content ranged from 41.95% to 45.38%, exhibiting no significant differences between the groups. The pH gradually decreased with increasing levels of blackcurrant powder. The lightness (L) value decreased while redness (a) value increased with an increasing amount of blackcurrant powder. Hardness of the control group was lower than those of the treatment groups. Consumer acceptance test revealed no significant differences in surface color, smell, taste, and overall acceptability scores between the control and 3% added groups. The total polyphenol contents and total anthocyanin contents were 7.58~54.88 mg GAE/100 g and 0.00~4.20 mg C3G/100 g), respectively, which increased proportionally with increasing levels of blackcurrant powder. The antioxidant activity measured based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were significantly higher in treatment groups than the control and increased as the concentration of blackcurrant powder increased. From the above results, blackcurrant powder up to 3% can be incorporated into Yanggaeng to satisfy taste and functional needs for consumers.
The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of seven (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) commercial ketchups marketed in Korea. The 70% ethanol extracts were prepared and evaluated for total phenolic content, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and metal chelating effect. pH ranged from 3.64 to 3.94, and soluble solid and reducing sugar contents of samples were 2.21~3.51oBrix and 4.78~13.45%, respectively. Salinity of samples was in the range of 1.79 to 3.21%, and sample G showed the lowest salinity. The lightness, redness, and yellowness of the Hunter color system of samples were 15.42~19.94, 18.55~23.98, and 20.87~24.34, respectively. The phenolic contents ranged from 1.37 to 2.60 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g, with samples F and G exhibiting the highest contents. Antioxidant activity determined based on DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and metal chelating effects were 45.10~90.87, 55.35~92.53, and 71.10~92.20%, respectively, at a concentration of 200 mg/mL. Samples A and G showed higher antioxidant activity than other samples. There were positive correlations between phenolic contents and antioxidant activity, suggesting that phenolic compounds are the major contributors to antioxidant activity.
This study was to conducted to investigate the antioxidative activity of 70% ethanol extracts of kiwi of three different colors (gold, green and red) by measuring DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity, tyrosinase inhibitory effect, metal chelating effect, reducing power, and nitrite scavenging activity. Total polyphenol contents were: gold kiwi, 3.09 mg GAE/g, green kiwi 2.71 mg GAE/g, and red kiwi 4.59 mg GAE/g, respectively. Red kiwi showed higher antioxdidant activity than gold and green kiwi. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and nitrite scavenging activity of red kiwi exhibited 94.83, 99.57, and 97.88%, respectively, at a concentration of 20 mg/mL, which were equal to those of ascorbic acid (positive control). Metal chelating effect of red kiwi was superior to that of ascorbic acid. Therefore, the availability of red kiwi will be increased in the field of functional material for food additives and value added products.
This study assessed the quality characteristics of Yanggaeng prepared with different ratios of Citrus mandarin powder: 0, 2, 4, and 6%. The moisture content was lowest in the controls, while there were no significant differences among the groups supplemented with Citrus mandarin powder. The pH significantly decreased as the amount of Citrus mandarin powder increased. The lightness (L), redness (a), and yellowness (b) were lower in control groups compared to Citrus mandarin powder groups. Texture profile analysis showed that the hardness of the Citrus mandarin powder groups were lower than the control (which was the highest). The total polyphenol and flavonoid content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity increased as the amount of Citrus mandarin powder increased. The result of a sensory evaluation test revealed no significant differences between the controls and groups with 2% Citrus mandarin powder added in color, smell, taste, texture, and overall acceptability.
This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical and sensory changes of 6 kinds of commercial Makgeolli (A, B, C, D, E, and F) during storage at 4±1℃ for 30 days. The initial pH was 3.50~4.23, but it increased to 3.65~4.37 by the end of the storage period (p〈0.05) There were no significant differences in titratable acidity between the beginning and end of the storage period. The reducing sugar content of A and B increased, whereas C, D, E, and F decreased with increasing storage time. A decrease in lightness (L values) was observed in all samples with increasing storage time (p〈0.05). The alcohol content increased from beginning values of 5.90~6.10% to ending values of 6.30~7.35% at the end of storage, of which sample B exhibited the highest value. A sensory evaluation test revealed that the overall acceptability of samples A, B, D, and E were still within acceptable limits, but samples C and F showed undesirable changes during 30 days of storage at 4℃.
This study was conducted to investigate the physiological activity of acai berry (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) extracts from three different solvents (water, methanol, and ethanol). We measured total polyphenol and total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, nitrite scavenging activity, metal chelating effect, and reducing power. The extraction yield from water, methanol, and ethanol was 17.10, 9.50, and 37.51%, respectively. The highest total polyphenol content (10.54 mg/100 g) and total flavonoid contents (1.88 mg/100 g) was observed in water extract. DPPH radical scavenging activity was the highest in both water extract (72.03%) and methanol extract (74.79%) at levels of 5 mg/mL, which was similar to that of BHT (78.90%). Water extract yielded the highest metal chelating effect (92.54%) and reducing power (1.09) at levels of 5 mg/mL. Taken together, these findings suggest that extracts of acai berry can be used as functional food materials with antioxidative and nitrite scavenging activities.
본 연구에서는 아마씨 가루를 밀가루 중량기준 0%, 6%, 12%, 18%의 비율로 첨가한 쿠키를 제조한 다음, 반죽의 밀도, pH, 수분 함량, 쿠키의 퍼짐성, 손실률, 팽창률, 경도, 색도, 관능평가, 과산화물가, 산가 등을 측정하였다. 반죽의 밀도는 대조군과 실험군 간에 유의적인 차이가 없었고 pH는 첨가군이 대조군보다 높게 나타났으며 수분 함량은 낮게 나타났다. 퍼짐성은 아마씨 가루 첨가량이 증가할수록 증가하였고(p<0.05) 손실률은 대조군과 6% 첨가군 간에 유의적인 차이가 없었고 12% 첨가군이 가장 높았으며 18% 첨가군이 가장 낮았다. 팽창률은 대조군과 6%, 12% 첨가군 간에 차이가 없는 반면, 18% 첨가군은 대조군보다 감소하였다. 경도는 아마씨 가루 첨가군이 대조군보다 유의적으로 낮았고(p<0.05) 명도와 황색도는 아마씨 가루 첨가량이 증가할수록 감소하였다. 관능검사결과 아마씨 가루 첨가량이 증가할수록 쿠키의 표면색, 고소한 맛이 강하게 평가되었고 전반적인 기호도는 12% 첨가군이 대조군보다 높은 점수로 평가되었다(p<0.05). 저장 기간에 따른 산화 안정성을 측정한 결과 과산화물가는 모든 시료에서 저장 30일까지 증가하다가 감소하였고 산가는 저장기간 동안 지속적으로 증가하였으며 각 시료 간에 유의적인 차이는 없었다.
The objective of this study was to examine the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of yogurt containing hot water extract from maca. Four different levels (0, 4, 8, 12%) of maca extract were added to milk followed by fermentation with lactic acid bacteria at 37℃ for 12 hrs, and then the physicochemical properties of the samples were investigated. During 7 days of storage at 4±1℃, the acid production (pH and titratable acidity) of the yogurt increased with the addition of maca extract. The Hunter L value (lightness) decreased, while the b value (yellowness) increased as the maca extract level in the yogurt increased. Viable cell counts were not significantly different among the samples. The results of consumer acceptance tests showed that no significant differences in overall acceptability were observed between the yogurts containing 4% and 8% of maca extract and a control yogurt. The yogurt containing maca extract exhibited higher DPPH radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities than the control yogurt over the storage period.
The objective of this study was to assess the quality characteristics of almond Dasik prepared with the addition of purple sweet potato powder (PSPP). Five different levels (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) of PSPP were added and the physicochemical properties of the Dasik were examined. Crude protein and crude fat contents decreased as the level of PSPP increased (p<0.05). The Hunter L-value decreased while the a-value increased as the PSPP level increased. Texture measurements showed that the addition of PSPP increased hardness, cohesiveness, and brittleness. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were assessed in terms of estimating the functionality of the Dasik. The results showed that incorporating PSPP into the Dasik provided higher polyphenol content and antioxidant activity compared to the control Dasik (p<0.05). The results of a consumer acceptance test revealed that the Dasik sample made with 15% PSPP was most preferred and the 20% sample was the least preferred. Therefore, it is suggested that purple sweet potato powder can be incorporated into Dasik up to 15% without reducing its quality.
This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics of low- fat pork patties containing fat replacers. Carrageenan(CA) in combination with pectin(PE) or potato starch(PO) was added as fat replacers and physicochemical properties were evaluated in low-fat pork patties cooked by oven-roasting or pan-frying. Uncooked and cooked pork patties formulated with fat replacers were higher in moisture and ash content and lower in fat content than those of control. The cooking yield and reduction in diameter of pork patties were significantly improved by the addition of fat replacers(p<0.05). Pork patties formulated with CA had the highest fat retention, while CA+PE had the highest water holding capacity. Hunter s L(lightness) value was not different from among patties and a(redness) and b(yellowness) values were higher in carrageenan-based patties than those of control patties. Hardness was higher in carrageenan-based patties than that of control and cohesiveness and springiness showed no difference among patties. Sensory analysis showed that flavor, juiciness and palatability of carrageenan-based patties were superior to control patties and combined use of CA with PE or PO provided improved acceptability of low-fat pork patties over that from using single carrageenan.
This study was conducted to develop functional muffin in which grape seed extract(GSE) was added at 0, 0.5, 1 or 2% levels and to evaluate the quality characteristics. The volume of muffin decreased with the increasing GSE content, but no significant differences were observed. The weight and height of muffins increased with the increasing GSE content. The incorporation of GSE in the product lowered lightness (L value) and increased redness(a value). The mechanical texture parameters including hardness, springiness, gumminess and brittleness increased with the increasing GSE levels. Sensory analysis showed that muffin prepared with 0.5% GSE was considered to be as acceptable as control, based on hedonic scale ratings given by untrained taste panel.
This study was divised to observe the inhibitory effect of growth rate of human colon cancer cells by Eucommial leaf extract, in vitro. Three species of human colon cancer cells, HRT-18, HCT-48 and HT-29, were used for the experiment. Each extract of Ecommial leaf was prepared by extraction with water, 95% alcohol, acetone, chloroform and petroleum ether, and then the inhibitory effect of each extract on the growth rate of cells was compared with control group and each other. The expermental results obtained are summarized as follows ; 1. Inhibitory effects on growth rate of human colon cancer cells were strongest in the petroleum ether extract and next in the chloroform extract. 2. Inhibitory effects on the growth rate of the cancer cells by extracts of water, 95% alcohol and acetone were weaker than that of petroleum ether and chloroform. 3. Inhibitory effect of each extract on the cancer cell growth was shown most strong activity in HT-29, and was in order of HRT-18 and HCT-48. In view of the results, it could be suggested that inhibitory effects of non-polar solvent`s extracts against the cancer cell growth were more stronger than that of polar solvents and the effects were indicated defference according to the species of the cells.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Lentinus edodes powder on the quality characteristics and antioxidant of rice cookies. The cookies for this experiment was made by 3 main ingredients including rice powder, flour, Lentinus edodes powder. The proportion of rice powder was fixed to 50% for the total amount of ingredients. The amount of reminded 2 ingredients (flour and Lentinus edodes powder) were varied. The amount of flour was decreased up to 38%, and the addition of Lentinus edodes powder was increased to 4%, 8% and 12%. Density of the dough, hardness, total polyphenol content, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, and reducing power increased with increasing Lentinus edodes powder content. Moisture content, pH of the dough, spread factor, loss rate, leavening rate, and L values of the cookies were decreased with increasing Lentinus edodes powder content. The result of consumer acceptance test revealed that there were no significant differences in smell, taste and overall acceptability, while the preference of color decreased as the amount of Lentinus edodes powder increased. To sum up, the cookies with 12% Lentinus edodes powder can produced the best results in terms of quality and antioxidant potential.
본 연구에서는 수입산 열대·아열대 과일의 항산화 효과를 비교하기 위하여 총 폴리페놀 함량, DPPH radical 소거능, ABTS radical 소거능, superoxide anion radical 소거능, FRAP 활성, tyrosinase 저해효과, 환원력 등을 측정하였다. 총 폴리페놀 함량은 석류가 12.22 mg GAE/g으로 가장 높았고 그 다음 순으로 파인애플이 3.77 mg GAE/g이었으며, 용과, 그린키위, 파파야, 옐로우망고가 2.45~2.99 mg GAE/g의 범위로 나타났다. 석류는 DPPH, ABTS, superoxide anion radical 소거능, 환원력에서 다른 과일보다 높은 활성을 보여주었고 그 다음으로 파인애플이 높은 활성을 보였다. 특히 석류는 추출물의 농도가 증가함에 따라 전반적으로 활성이 증가하는 경향을 보였고 시료 농도 5 mg/mL에서는 DPPH radical 소거능과 ABTS radical 소거능 및 환원력이 양성대조군으로 사용한 ascorbic acid와 대등한 효과를 보였다. 반면에, 용과와 파파야는 대부분의 항산화 효과 실험에서 낮은 활성을 나타내었다.