The aim of this study was to establish the identity of Korean traditional food based on the recorded food preferences during the period of the Chosun Dynasty. Our primary source in this regard was the invaluable, historical document called the "Miam's diary." This important document reveals details of such food preferences from October 1567 to September 1568. By analyzing the income-expenditure trends of virtually every household, this diary was used to describe a vivid traditional food preference of the people during that period. A detailed analysis of the diary reveals the summary of families' characteristics in the 16th century. First, it records the fact that expenditure on food was mainly based on stipend and gifts received. The type of food preferred by the people was diverse in nature; for it included rice, bean, chicken, pheasant, and seafood. However, there were dried or pickled forms too so as to prevent them from undergoing decay. Second, it throws light on the fact that people expended food mainly as a salary for servants. People utilized the income from selling such food items to purchase goods and land. They also used the same either to donate for a funeral or wedding purpose. Third, it records the fact that day-to-day purchase of groceries was mostly based on gift(s) for someone close to them such as a neighbor, colleague, relative, or student. Further, such gifts included small groceries, food items, and clothes. Fourth, based on the data available in the diary, it seemed likely that the gentry families laid emphasis on the customary formalities of a family dating back to as early as the late 16th century. Finally, the document also records the fact that noblemen of the Chosun Dynasty had a notion that they had to extend warmth and affection by presenting generous gifts to their guests at home. Noblemen during that period were very particular in welcoming their guests as they believed that this approach alone would testify their status as noblemen.
During the Joseon Dynasty, medicinal foods derived from herbs were often more effective than traditional medicines. In addition, the royal family of the Joseon Dynasty believed that foods could be used as various disease treatments. Grain-based foods, especially medicinal porridges (藥粥), were most frequently used for diet therapy. We investigated various types of diet-related diseases suffered by King Injo (仁祖) as well as how the diseases were treated using medicinal porridges based on information in the SeungjeongwonIlgi (承政院日記), which is the daily record of the Royal Secretariat of the Joseon Dynasty. This study examined the SeungjeongwonIlgi of King Injo from his1st year (1623) to 27th year (1649) on a website database maintained by the National Institute of Korean History. According to the records, King Injo suffered from severe diarrhea several times due mainly to febrile disease (煩熱症) as well as abdominal dropsy (脹滿) throughout his entire life. Major diseases affecting King Injo were due to his unhealthy eating habits and psychological factors. For treatment, royal doctors prescribed around 15 medicinal porridges, including nelumbo (seed) porridge (Yeonja-juk), milk porridge (Tarak-juk), Chinese dioscorea porridge (Sanyak-juk), mungbean porridge (Nokdu-juk), perilla seed porridge (Imja-juk), adzuki-bean porridge (Pat-juk), soybean porridge (Kong-juk), Korean-leek porridge (Buchu-juk), and so on, in addition to other medical treatments. Diet therapy using medicinal porridges has been used throughout history since the Joseon Dynasty period. However, knowledge of traditional diet therapy and medicinal porridges used by monarchs in the Joseon Dynasty is insufficient. Therefore, in-depth study is needed to understand the theory of traditional medicinal foods as well as explore their application to patients in the context of modern medicine.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the literature in connection with the names and recipes of japgwabyung recorded between 1392 and 2000. The names of japgwabyung were classified into eight types, including japgwabyung, japgwapyun, japgwajumbyung, japgwago, and japgwadanja. The names of japgwatteoks, classified with recipes, were Jjjin-tteoks, Chin-ttoks, and Salmeun-tteoks. The main ingredients used for japgwabyung were glutinous rice, nonglutinous rice, and buckwheat. The subsidiary ingredients were fruits, spices, seeds, and sweeteners. This study classified the names of japgwabyung, depending on the recipes, as japgwabyung, japgwapyun, japgwadanja, and japgwainjulmi. In addition this study classified recipes, depending on names, as steamed rice cakes made of sedimentary rice, steamed valley rice cake, steamed rice ]cakes with stuffs filled in and with bean powder dredged after striking, and steamed or struck rice cake with bean powder dredged. The main ingredients were glutinous rice and nonglutinous rice. The subsidiary ingredients were chestnuts, jujubes and dried persimmons, with other fruits being added according to taste.
Beverages can vary in their appropriateness depending on the context of their different uses; therefore, an intention to consume a beverage is likely dependent on the context of its use. This study associated the consumer acceptability of commercial beverage products examined in a previous study (Kim and others, 2013) with its appropriateness under different use contexts. Consumers (n=360) were divided into two conditions: blind and brand. Consumers rated appropriateness for 13 use contexts for each beverage product. The results indicated that the contextual appropriateness were significantly different among the beverage samples and seemed to be positively influenced by the acceptability of beverages. The beverages with higher liking scores were more appropriate in a greater number of contexts, including "when tired", "refreshing", and "rest". However, there were inappropriate contexts (e.g., "while weight watching", "after exercise", "with a meal", and "health care") regardless of degree of acceptability. In the brand condition, some differences in contextual appropriateness were observed when comparing results from the blind condition (e.g., "with a meal", "health care").
This study identified the brand personality of domestic take-out coffee shops and examined its effects on customer satisfaction and brand loyalty. The research subjects were college students in Busan who visited a coffee house. Overall, four major empirical results were obtained. First, five factors of brand personality were identified: "energy", "competence", "familiarity", "reliability", and "sophistication". Second, all brand personality factors had significant effects on customer satisfaction, but "familiarity" (β=0.429) and "reliability" (β=0.381) appeared to have the greatest effects. Third, brand personality factors had significant effects on brand loyalty, with"reliability" (β=0.447) appearing to have the greatest effect on brand loyalty. Fourth, customer satisfaction had a significant effect on consumer brand loyalty. These results show that brand personality can be an important means of marketing differentiation in an intense competitive coffee market atmosphereto increase customer satisfaction and build brand equity.
This study is conducted to investigate to the consumption pattern of Kimchi and perception about the functional Kimchi of consumer. The survey was done between October 1 to October 15, 2011 among 294 male and female adults aged 19 and over in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do areas. The gender distribution of subjects was 33.3% males and 66.7% females. 64.3% of subjects prepared Kimchi by themselves, 23.5% of subjects received Kimchi from relatives and 12.2% of subjects purchased Kimchi from the market. In addition, the rate of preparing Kimchi at home is highest in those aged fifty or over. Only 41.8% of subjects knew how to make Kimchi. 72.1% of subjects responded that they ate Kimchi one or more a day. 46.6% of subjects have purchased commercial Chinese cabbage Kimchi. The amount of one-time purchase of commercial Kimchi were investigated; 45.2% of subjects have been buying 500-1 kg, 34.4% of the subjects bought less than 500 g, and 11.2% of subjects bought 1-3 kg. 28.2% of subjects buy Kimchi at the supermarket and warehouse market. With regard to the evaluation of Kimchi taste, most consumers were not satisfied with the sweetness of Kimchi. In this result, the perception about functional Kimchi was very low. Consumer's demands were as follows: nutrient enhancement, strengthening of biologically active substances, lactic acid bacteria enhancement in order. Small sales units were preferred by the consumers, and complementation of sweetness of kimchi was required. Various Kimchi including functional Kimchi must be developed to meet the needs of consumers.
This study assessed the quality characteristics of Yanggaeng prepared with different ratios of Citrus mandarin powder: 0, 2, 4, and 6%. The moisture content was lowest in the controls, while there were no significant differences among the groups supplemented with Citrus mandarin powder. The pH significantly decreased as the amount of Citrus mandarin powder increased. The lightness (L), redness (a), and yellowness (b) were lower in control groups compared to Citrus mandarin powder groups. Texture profile analysis showed that the hardness of the Citrus mandarin powder groups were lower than the control (which was the highest). The total polyphenol and flavonoid content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity increased as the amount of Citrus mandarin powder increased. The result of a sensory evaluation test revealed no significant differences between the controls and groups with 2% Citrus mandarin powder added in color, smell, taste, texture, and overall acceptability.
The quality characteristics of tofu added Ligularia fischeri powder (LFP) were investigated. The proximate composition of LFP used was as follows: moisture, 7.7%; crude protein, 12.0%; crude lipid, 5.9%; crude ash, 14.1%; and carbohydrate, 60.3%. The yield of tofu added LFP increased with the addition of LFP. However, there was a significant decrease in pH (from 6.03±0.11 in the control to 5.78±0.11 when 0.4% LFP was added) and a significant increase (from 2.60±0.01 in the control to 2.85±0.10 when 0.4% LFP was added) in total acidity. In addition, the L, a, and b values of tofu decreased with the increasing addition of LFP. In terms of textural properties, the hardness, cohesiveness, and brittleness increased, whereas springiness decreased, with the increasing addition of LFP. In the sensory evaluation, the overall preference for tofu added 0.3% LFP was the highest. According to the results, the addition of LFP positively affects the overall sensory evaluation of tofu, and 0.3% is the optimal level for addition.
This study evaluated the composition two popular species of edible bamboo shoots in Korea (Phyllostachyspubescens and Sinoarundinarianigra) and the effect of their abundant dietary fiber on intestinal microorganisms in healthy young women. The ranges of total moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, crude ash, and dietary fiber content were 87.190.8, 2.943.5, 0.150.39, 0.411.05, and 4.206.15% (wet weight basis), respectively. Moisture and crude ash content increased after heat treatment; however, crude protein, crude lipid, and dietary fiber content were reduced after heating. The major minerals found in bamboo shoots were potassium, phosphorous, sulfur, magnesium, and calcium. In addition, glucose and fructose were abundant free sugars, while asparagine and tyrosine were the most abundant free amino acids. Approximately 70% of the total free fatty acids found in bamboo shoots were linoleic acid and linolenic acid. The ascorbic acid content was 6.60~17.56 mg/100 g (wet weight basis), and one phenolic compound, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, was 0.10.2% (wet weight basis) and detected by HPLC analysis. The intake of bamboo shoots for seven days significantly increased viable cell counts of Lactobacillus spp. and reduced viable cell counts of Bacteriodes spp. in feces (p<0.05). In our data, bamboo shoots may be useful in the food industry as high dietary fiber ingredients.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidative effects of Mori Cortex Radicis powder and to determine the optimal mixing ratio of Mori Cortex Radicis powder and water in the preparation of bread. The optimal sensory composite recipe was determined by producing bread with different levels of Mori Cortex Radicis powder and water. The analysis was performed using response surface methodology and a sensory evaluation was performed with the data. Ten experimental recipes, including two with reference points in the composition, were selected. In terms of the antioxidative effects of Mori Cortex Radicis powder, the IC50 for total phenolic content and DPPH free radical scavenging activity were 149.56 GAE/g dry powder and 137.77 /mL respectively. Measurement results of the mechanical properties showed differences in volume (p〈0.05), baking loss (p〈0.05), yellowness (p〈0.01), lightness (p〈0.01), redness (p〈0.01), hardness (p〈0.01) and springiness (p〈0.05). The sensory measurements showed significant values for color (p〈0.05), appearance (p〈0.05), flavor (p〈0.01), taste (p〈0.01), and overall quality (p〈0.01). Overall, based on numerical and graphical methods, the optimal formulation was determined to be 21.16 g of Mori Cortex Radicis powder and 372.47 g of water.
This study aimed to find oils that can replace high-priced sesame oil. The quality of baked Yackwa containing different types of oils (rice bran, olive, or sesame oils) and amount of oils (30, 35, 40%) were investigated. The hardness of the baked Yackwa depended on the amount of oil, as more oil led to a softer texture of baked Yackwa. According to sensory evaluations, baked Yackwa with rice bran oil received the highest score in taste quality, with sesame oil receiving the second highest score. The flavor of baked Yackwa containing the rice bran oil was also better than other samples. In contrast, there were no significant differences in taste between other samples, including baked Yackwa containing all ingredients, 40% sesame oil, and 40% olive oil. The overall acceptance showed the highest score in baked Yackwa with rice bran oil (35%). In conclusion, rice bran oil (35%) is recommended as an oil ingredient for baked Yackwa.
The side effects, such as belching and headache, after Makgeolli intake are an obstacle to the development of the Makgeolli industry. The side effects of drinking Makgeolli have many causes. The possibility of BA production by incorrect storage conditions cannot be excluded. This study analyzed the BA contents produced in non-sterilized Makgeolli after 5 days storage at 4 and 20℃. BA was not detected in Makgeolli stored at 4℃, but putrescine and tyramine were detected in 20℃. A drinking test was performed to determine the relevance of the BA contents and hangover symptoms. The results revealed no significant difference in the taste score and symptoms score between 4 and 20℃ storage. Therefore, the results suggest that the presence of BA in Makgeolli produced during room temperature storage for 5 days does not induce or strengthen hangover symptoms. On the other hand, the alcohol and BA dose may be insufficient to represent the normal symptoms of a hangover.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sleep duration on dietary habits and body composition of university students. Sleep duration has recently been added to the list of risk factors for obesity. However, studies on this topic are fairly limited particularly in Korea. We studied the relationship between the duration of sleep and obesity principally based on body mass index and %body fat in university students. For this purpose, a survey was conducted on a total of 312 university students. The subjects enrolled for this study were divided into two groups: (1) those with sleep duration of 〈7 hours (148 students) and (2) those with sleep duration of 〉7 hours (164 students). Based on a self-reporting method, the participants filled up the questionnaires for more than 20 minutes. Based on the overall data obtained, we observed that most students (52.88%) skipped breakfast. This was mainly due to shortage of time (60.58%). We also observed that self-reporting dietary preferences included eating irregular meals (49.04%), overeating (19.55%), imbalanced diet (16.35%), and skipping meals (9.94%). It was found that cookies were the favorite snacks in the majority of the participants (50%). Our data reveal that the body mass index, fat mass, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat, respectively of the shorter sleep duration group (〈7 h/day) were 23.78 kg/m2, 19.13 kg, 2.23 kg, and 11.15 kg. In contrast, in those of the control group (7 h/day), these values were found to be 21.84 kg/m2, 13.88 kg, 1.56 kg, and 12.11 kg. We also observed that there were significant correlations of sleep duration with body mass index (p〈0.05), fat mass (p〈0.01), visceral fat (p〈0.01), and beck depression score (p〈0.01). Our data suggest that the body mass index in the shorter sleep duration group was higher than that of the control group; however, %fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat in the shorter sleep duration group were found to be higher than those of the control group. The data obtained through our study suggest that short sleep duration is clearly associated with a modest increase in general and abdominal obesity particularly in university students.
This study compared the nutrient intake of obese versus non-obese non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients for Diabetes Medical Nutrition Therapy. The study was conducted at medical hospitals in Gyeonggi and Seoul from April 2009 to November 2009. Fifty-six adult male NIDDM patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: 36 into an obese group (BMI ≥25) and 20 into a non-obese group (BMI〈25). To conduct this study, anthropometric measurements, and daily nutrient intake of obese and non-obese NIDDM patients were measured. Daily nutrient intake was estimated by 24hr-recall and analyzed by the CAN program. In the results, anthropometric measurements of the two groups showed significant differences in weight and BMI (p〈0.001). Daily nutrient intake of the two groups showed no significant differences, except for vitamin E intake (p〈0.05). The total energy intake of the non-obese and obese groups were 2,669.9±964 kcal and 2,555.4±803 kcal, respectively, which were both above 113% of the recommended Dietary Reference Intakes for Korean (KDRIs). Cholesterol and sodium intake were 378.1±215.6 mg and 6,478.9±2755.1 mg, respectively for the non-obese group. Cholesterol and sodium intake were 308.1±155.6 mg and 6,306.8±2788.9 mg, respectively, for the obese group. Both groups were above 150% of the recommended levels set by the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA). However, their antioxidant nutrient intake was appropriate. Meanwhile, their fiber intake was 10.7±5.1 g and 9.8±5.2 g, respectively, which was lower than 40% of the recommended intake set by the KDA. The results show that the nutritional education for obese and non-obese NIDDM male patients must aim to reduce total energy, cholesterol, and sodium intake, while increasing fiber intake. In addition, the factors related to a patient's glycosylated hemoglobin, serum lipids, blood pressure, and weight change must be calibrated for the appropriate energy, fat, cholesterol, sodium, and dietary fiber intake.