This study compared the nutrient intake of obese versus non-obese non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients for Diabetes Medical Nutrition Therapy. The study was conducted at medical hospitals in Gyeonggi and Seoul from April 2009 to November 2009. Fifty-six adult male NIDDM patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: 36 into an obese group (BMI ≥25) and 20 into a non-obese group (BMI〈25). To conduct this study, anthropometric measurements, and daily nutrient intake of obese and non-obese NIDDM patients were measured. Daily nutrient intake was estimated by 24hr-recall and analyzed by the CAN program. In the results, anthropometric measurements of the two groups showed significant differences in weight and BMI (p〈0.001). Daily nutrient intake of the two groups showed no significant differences, except for vitamin E intake (p〈0.05). The total energy intake of the non-obese and obese groups were 2,669.9±964 kcal and 2,555.4±803 kcal, respectively, which were both above 113% of the recommended Dietary Reference Intakes for Korean (KDRIs). Cholesterol and sodium intake were 378.1±215.6 mg and 6,478.9±2755.1 mg, respectively for the non-obese group. Cholesterol and sodium intake were 308.1±155.6 mg and 6,306.8±2788.9 mg, respectively, for the obese group. Both groups were above 150% of the recommended levels set by the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA). However, their antioxidant nutrient intake was appropriate. Meanwhile, their fiber intake was 10.7±5.1 g and 9.8±5.2 g, respectively, which was lower than 40% of the recommended intake set by the KDA. The results show that the nutritional education for obese and non-obese NIDDM male patients must aim to reduce total energy, cholesterol, and sodium intake, while increasing fiber intake. In addition, the factors related to a patient's glycosylated hemoglobin, serum lipids, blood pressure, and weight change must be calibrated for the appropriate energy, fat, cholesterol, sodium, and dietary fiber intake.
This study aimed to find oils that can replace high-priced sesame oil. The quality of baked Yackwa containing different types of oils (rice bran, olive, or sesame oils) and amount of oils (30, 35, 40%) were investigated. The hardness of the baked Yackwa depended on the amount of oil, as more oil led to a softer texture of baked Yackwa. According to sensory evaluations, baked Yackwa with rice bran oil received the highest score in taste quality, with sesame oil receiving the second highest score. The flavor of baked Yackwa containing the rice bran oil was also better than other samples. In contrast, there were no significant differences in taste between other samples, including baked Yackwa containing all ingredients, 40% sesame oil, and 40% olive oil. The overall acceptance showed the highest score in baked Yackwa with rice bran oil (35%). In conclusion, rice bran oil (35%) is recommended as an oil ingredient for baked Yackwa.
The optimal replaced percentage of brown rice Jeung-pyun was investigated in this study. A specific volume of brown rice Jeung-pyun resulted in no difference. The pH of Jeung-pyun (5.10-5.39) was higher than that of Jeung-pyun dough (4.96-5.17). The lightness darkened to 55.39-63.56, as the replaced amount of brown rice flour was increased. Furthermore, redness and yellowness increased to 3.24-4.15 and 4.45-10.12, respectively. The microstructure examined by scanning electron microscopy became enlarged and irregular as the amount of replaced rice increased. The gelatinization of 30-40% brown rice powder was approximately 1.93-2.20. The mechanical textures of hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and fracturability were high as additional ingredients and the storage period increased, whereas adhesiveness, springiness, and cohesiveness were low. The results of a sensory evaluation revealed that the 30% added brown rice Jeung-pyun was highly assessed as the most appropriate percentage of added brown rice Jeung-pyun.
The quality of baked Yackwa with rice bran oil varied with dipping temperature (80 and 25℃) and dipping time (5, 10, and 15 minutes at 80℃, and 60, 90, and 120 minutes at 25℃). The moisture content and hardness of baked Yackwa increased and decreased, respectively, with dipping time. The expansion ratio increased with time when baked Yackwa was dipped at 80℃, but decreased with time when dipped at 25℃. Flavor and color were optimal for product dipped at 80℃ for 15 minutes followed those dipped at 25℃ for 120 minutes; the dipping conditions produced no significant difference in the degree of expension, aroma, texture, and overall quality. Baked Yackwa showed better results than fried Yackwa in sensory evaluation.
This study addresses the development of a soy hamburger patty containing enzyme-treated textured soy protein (TSP) as a meat analogue. In order to reduce the beany flavor and enhance the texture, TSP was treated with 0.3% Flavourzyme for 5, 10, 20, or 30 min. The degree of hydrolysis and the water holding capacity of the TSP increased with increasing hydrolysis time. The oil binding capacity of the TSP also increased with increasing hydrolysis time, approaching the maximal value, 175.82%, at 30 min, whereas that of pork scored with the lowest value of 128.67%. The volume of pork was reduced to 81.5% as the result of heat treatment, whereas that of the TSP increased to 140.57%. The values of 'L', 'b', and 'δE' differed significantly (p〈0.001) with heat treatment, but the 'a' values did not differ significantly. With regard to texture, the hardness values were highest in the pork hamburger patty (PHP), and were lowest in the soy hamburger patty (SHP) containing untreated TSP. The hardness of the SHP containing TSP treated for 20 min did not differ significantly from that of the PHP. The cohesiveness and gumminess of the SHP treated for 20 min were highest, whereas those treated for 10 min were the lowest. The gumminess of the SHP treated for 20 min did not differ significantly from that of pork. The chewiness of the PHP was the highest, whereas that of the SHP treated for 5 min was the lowest. In our sensory evaluation, PHP evidenced the highest scores, followed by the SHP treated for 30 min, as color, texture, beany flavor, and overall quality all improved as the consequence of increasing enzyme treatment duration. In conclusion, it is believed that SHP has great potential as a substitute for meat, in that the flavor, texture, and beany flavor of SHP did not differ significantly from those of PHP.
The development of soy cutlets containing textured soy protein (TSP) as a meat analog was studied. In order to decrease the beany flavor and to increase the texture, TSP was treated with 0.3% Flavourzyme or 0.1% Protamex for 10 or 20 min, respectively. The degree of hydrolysis for TSP treated with Protamex was higher than that treated with Flavourzyme. Hydrolysis was observed to increase as the reaction time was increased for both Flavourzyme and Protamex. The water holding capacity of TSP treated with Protamex for 10 min was the highest, and that treated with Flavourzyme for 20 min was similar to that of Protamex treatment for 20 min. The oil binding capacity of TSP treated with Protamex for 20 min was the highest. The hardness of the soy cutlets using TSP treated with Flavourzyme for 10 min was higher than that treated for 20 min, while that of Protamex treated for 20 min was higher than that treated for 10 min. The cohesiveness of the soy cutlets using TSP treated with Flavourzyme or Protamex for 10 min was higher than those treated for 20 min. The chewiness of the soy cutlets treated with Flavourzyme for 10 min was higher than for those treated for 20 min, while those treated with Protamex for 20 min was higher than those treated for 10 min. The springiness of TSP treated with Flavourzyme for 20 min was higher than those treated for 10 min, and higher than those treated with Protamex for 10 or 20 min. For sensory evaluation, the beany flavor of the soy cutlets treated with Protamex for 20 min was the weakest. The flavor and chewiness of both a pork cutlet and a soy cutlet treated with Protamex for 20 min were the best. In the overall quality, soy cutlets treated with Protamex for 20 min was the most desirable. In conclusion, soy cutlets treated with 0.1% Protamex for 20 min could be a reasonable substitute of pork cutlets.
Yackwa is used as one of foods prepared for traditional rituals and holidays and enjoyed as snacks. Since Yackwas are fried, they contain oil, which can cause rancidity and undermines the freshness of Yackwas during distribution to retailers, not to mention a high level of calories. The study aims to develop baked Yackwas and analyze the quality in terms of calorie levels and characteristics by baking Yackwas in oven. Calorie level was 4.65 kcal/g in fried Yackwa, 3.96 kcal/g in baked Yackwa, and 2.95 kcal/g in baked peanut Yackwa prior to dip coating of grain syrup. baked Yackwa showed hardness of 13476.33 g/cm2 before dipping in grain syrup, which was harder than 1912.56 g/cm2 of fried Yackwa. After grain syrup coating, hardness of baked Yackwa reduced more significantly, compared with that of fried Yackwa, as grain syrup permeated through texture of Yackwa. And less hardness makes baked Yackwa tastier. Sensory evaluation was measured in a 5-point scale. Scores for texture and taste of baked Yackwa outpaced those of fried Yackwa. Score for the overall quality was 3.65 in baked Yackwa and 3.25 in baked peanut Yackwa, compared to 2.85 of fried Yackwa, indicating a higher potential of commercializing(p〈0.05).
The objectives of this study were to characterize the quality of soy kefir made with soymilk in combination with fructose (5%, 10%) and one of the extracts from orange (10%, 15%) and grape (5%, 10%) with differently adjusted amounts as defendant variables. The lactic acid bacteria, yeast and total microbial counts of soy kefir were respectively 1.3×107 CFU/ml, 1.6×108 CFU/ml, 1.5×108 CFU/ml, soy kefir was propered to drink. pH of soy kefir mixed by orange and grape extracts was decreased significantly according to add fructose 5%. Acidity became significantly high when orange and grape extracts were added, which means acidity showed similar tendency in the opposite direction. The saccharinity of soy kefir was not significantly in orange extract, but soy kefir added fructose 10% was high more than fructose 5% in grape extract. In sensory evaluation, soy kefirs added orange extract 15%, fructose 5% and grape extract 10%, fructose 5% were estimated highly on color, astrigent taste, sour taste, mouth feel and overall quality.
Aspergillus niger CAD 1의 β-galactosidase를 알긴산나트륨에 고정화하여 갈락토올리고당을 생산하였다. 고정화 β-galactosidase의 열 안정성은 20∼45℃ 및 pH 안정성은 4.0∼5.5를 나타내었다. 고정화 효소의 활성화 에너지는 13, 400cal/mole이었다. 알긴산나트륨에 0.12unit/g의 β-galactosidase가 고정화 되었을 때 20%의 유당을 함유한 치즈 유청에 대한 갈락토올리고당의 수율은 45℃에서 반응 72시간 후 18%를 나타내었다. 10회 재사용하여도 고정화 β-galactosidase는 87%의 활성을 유지하였다.
교통사고로 인한 척추골절 환자 S75에서 손상부위에 따른 진단방사선학 및 보존적 치료 소견을 임상 문헌과 함께 고찰해 본 결과 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 1. 흉요추 좌측방 단순필름에서 L1 요추에 설상변형 정도가 약 10%인 쐐기형 압박골절이 확인되었다. 2. L1 요추의 CT 촬영 결과 추체부 전면에 궁형의 불규칙한 골 절편을 관찰할 수 있었으며, T12∼L1는 구조상 손상빈도가 높은 부위로 밝혀졌으며, Denis의 골절형태는 중간주와 후방주가 잘 보존된 전방주의 다발성 압박골절로 분류되었고, Cobb의 척추 만각증은 없었으며, Frankel의 신경손상 분류형태는 E형이었다. 3. 정형외과적 치료방법은 비수술 요법의 보존적 치료를 원칙으로 하였고, 수분·전해질, 영양 및 혈장제 대용으로 공급하는 수액과 함께 비스테로이드성 항염진통제, 근육 이완제를 투여하면서 철저한 침상안정을 유도하였다. 4. 수상후 3주째는 폴리에틸렌 back corset를 착용하고 조기재활을 시도하였으며, 수상 8주 후에도 경도의 불편감이 남아 있었으나, 추시 관찰한 결과 일정기간이 지나면서 점차 척추는 안정성을 찾게 되었다.
Nepal産인 Nepal pseudo ginseng(NPG)의 大根과 小根 2종에 있어서 물추출 성분과 ethanol 침전성분이 암독소(Toxohormone-L)가 유도하는 지방분해에 미치는 영향을 관찰하고자 본 연구를 시도하였다. 지방질 분해인자로 알려진 독소호르몬-L은 Sarcoma180痛생쥐의 복수증액으로부터 부분정제하여 이용하였다. 암독소가 유도하는 지방분해 저해능은 반응의 최종농도가 500 및 1, 000 dalton 일 때 大根의 NPG은 ethanol 침전성분(평균 55.5%)이 물추출 성분보다 평균 1.37배 더 높았으나 小根의 NPG는 반대로 물추출 성분(평균 55.5%)이 평균 1.14배 더 높았다. 한편 대근의 NPG의 ethanol 침전성분이 지방분해에 미치는 저해능(47.6%)을 최종 반응농도가 1, 000㎍/㎖일 때 고려홍삼의 ethanol 침전성분(79.8%)에 비교하면 약 60%에 불과하였다.
Background : Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a vegetable with pantropical distribution and contains the active ingredient, such as momordicine and charantin. Moreover, bitter gourd has been reported to exhibit antidiabetic, anticancer, cardiovascular-protective and antioxidant effects. But, the distinctive bitter taste of bitter gourd was not suitable for food preference. This study was conducted to evaluate the improvement effects of bitter taste of bitter gourd with natural fermentation and roasting process. Methods and Results : Bitter gourd fruits were obtained from Headeulnyeokae Co., Ltd.(Gang-Jin 59253, Repubilc Korea). Fruits of bitter gourd were prepared by natural fermentation process for 4h at 25℃. After natural fermentation, the fruits were dried in hot-air dryer for 15h at 49-55℃. The dried fruits were roasted in 500 g batches at 120℃ for 10 min in the electric rotisserie oven. After roasting, fruit pieces were extracted with hot water and cold water. One of them was cool-type, and the other was hot-type bitter gourd tea. In the sensory evaluation, hot tea and cold tea showed the high scores on color, flavor and overall acceptability. Conclusion : These mean that roasted bitter gourd had less bitter, and it could be utilized widely as drink and food material.
본 연구에서 도토리가루의 일반성분, pH, 총 폴리페놀함 량, 전자공여능, 호화도를 분석한 결과와 내냉동성 효모 및 비타민 C를 첨가하고 도토리가루의 첨가량을 달리한 반죽을 -18℃에서 4주간 냉동저장하면서 매주 꺼내어 해동 하여 발효시킨 현미증편반죽의 품질특성을 연구한 결과는 다음과 같다. 도토리가루의 총페놀함량, 전자공여능, 도토 리가루의 호화개시 온도(To)와 피크온도(Tp) 그리고 종료 온도(Tc)는 각각 3525.12 mg%, 16.71%, 68.41℃, 73.83℃, 82.96℃이었다. 도토리가루 첨가량 및 냉동저장기간에 따 른 도토리현미증편 냉동반죽의 효모수 변화에는 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 냉동저장기간에 따른 시료의 CO2 발생량은 도토리가루 6% 첨가군 에서만 냉동저장 1주일에 증가하였 다가 3주일 이상 냉동저장시에 약간 감소하였다. 이상의 결과를 종합하면, 냉동저장기간에 따른 도토리현미증편 냉 동반죽의 효모수 변화가 없었고 CO2 발생량도 도토리가루 6% 첨가군 에서만 3주일 이상 냉동저장시에 약간 감소하였 으므로, 내냉동성 효모의 사용은 도토리현미증편 냉동반죽 의 개발을 가능하게 하였다. 또한 냉동반죽의 제조 시에 항산화활성을 지니는 총 폴리페놀함량과 전자공여능이 높 은 도토리가루의 첨가가 바람직하다고 생각되었다.
rosmarinic acid 생산에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위하여 5계통의 strain (13333, 15834, R1000, R1200, R1601)을 이용하여 조사한 결과 A. rhizogenes R1601이 가장 높은 72.9%의 모상근 유도율을 보였다. 모상근 유도시 모상근 발생 수와 길이 신장에 미치는 영향을 조사한 결과도 A. rhizogenes R1601으로 감염시킨 잎 조직에서 평균 5.4개의 모상근이 발생하였으며, 평균 2.0 cm의 길이 신장으로 가장 좋은 결과를 나타냈다. 다섯 계통의 A. rhizogenes감염으로부터 유도된 각각의 모상근의 생육은 서러 다른 양상을 보였으나 경향은 모상근유도 결과와 유사하였다. A. rhizogenes R1601 감염으로 유도된 모상근의 생육은 배양 2주후 건물중을 조사한 결과 13.5 g/l로 다른 계통에서 유도된 모상근 보다 생육이 양호하였으며, Rosmarinic acid 생산량도 22.6 mg/g D.W.로 다른 계통에 비하여 가장 높게 나타났다. A. rhizogenes R1601이 배초향 모상근 유도, 생육과 rosmarinic acid 생산에 가장 좋은 적합한 계통이었음을 알 수 있었다.
Some studies of dandelion have been carried out on bioactivities, however, no comparative analysis on antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in the Korean dandelion (T. coreanum NAKAI.; KD) and dandelion (T. officinale WEB.) have been reported. In this study, the extracts of KD and dandelion analyzed relative phenolic contents and free radical scavenging, antioxidant enzyme and cytotoxic activities. The extract of Korean dandelion leaves (KDL) exhibited a higher phenolics content (368±11.5 mg/l00 g) and a strong free radical scavenging activity (RC50value;87.89 ug/ml) than other parts and BHT (120.12 ug/ml), synthetic antioxidant. At ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, the dandelion root (DR) had a greater (38.8 U/mg protein) antioxidant enzyme compare to the dandelion leaves (12.2 U/mg protein). The catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) followed higher enzyme activity in Korean dandelion root (KDR) than other parts. In a cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell, the extracts of KDR was found to be active against Calu-6, HCT-116, and SNU-601 cell lines, with IC50 values of 522.34, 532.74 and 614.85 ug/ml, respectively. These results suggest that KD and dandelion would be an alternative antioxidant source, based on natural plant resources.