We report the synthesis and gas sensing properties of bare and ZnO decorated TeO2 nanowires (NWs). A catalyst assisted-vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth method was used to synthesize TeO2 NWs and ZnO decoration was performed using an Au-catalyst assisted-VLS growth method followed by a subsequent heat treatment. Structural and morphological analyses using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning/transmission electron microscopies, respectively, demonstrated the formation of bare and ZnO decorated TeO2 NWs with desired phase and morphology. NO2 gas sensing studies were performed at different temperatures ranging from 50 to 400 oC towards 50 ppm NO2 gas. The results obtained showed that both sensors had their best optimal sensing temperature at 350 oC, while ZnO decorated TeO2 NWs sensor showed much better sensitivity towards NO2 relative to a bare TeO2 NWs gas sensor. The reason for the enhanced sensing performance of the ZnO decorated TeO2 NWs sensor was attributed to the formation of ZnO (n)/ TeO2 (p) heterojunctions and the high intrinsic gas sensing properties of ZnO.
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The development of soy cutlets containing textured soy protein (TSP) as a meat analog was studied. In order to decrease the beany flavor and to increase the texture, TSP was treated with 0.3% Flavourzyme or 0.1% Protamex for 10 or 20 min, respectively. The degree of hydrolysis for TSP treated with Protamex was higher than that treated with Flavourzyme. Hydrolysis was observed to increase as the reaction time was increased for both Flavourzyme and Protamex. The water holding capacity of TSP treated with Protamex for 10 min was the highest, and that treated with Flavourzyme for 20 min was similar to that of Protamex treatment for 20 min. The oil binding capacity of TSP treated with Protamex for 20 min was the highest. The hardness of the soy cutlets using TSP treated with Flavourzyme for 10 min was higher than that treated for 20 min, while that of Protamex treated for 20 min was higher than that treated for 10 min. The cohesiveness of the soy cutlets using TSP treated with Flavourzyme or Protamex for 10 min was higher than those treated for 20 min. The chewiness of the soy cutlets treated with Flavourzyme for 10 min was higher than for those treated for 20 min, while those treated with Protamex for 20 min was higher than those treated for 10 min. The springiness of TSP treated with Flavourzyme for 20 min was higher than those treated for 10 min, and higher than those treated with Protamex for 10 or 20 min. For sensory evaluation, the beany flavor of the soy cutlets treated with Protamex for 20 min was the weakest. The flavor and chewiness of both a pork cutlet and a soy cutlet treated with Protamex for 20 min were the best. In the overall quality, soy cutlets treated with Protamex for 20 min was the most desirable. In conclusion, soy cutlets treated with 0.1% Protamex for 20 min could be a reasonable substitute of pork cutlets.