Background : This study was performed to investigate by antioxidant activity, total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, and effective component of Astragalus membranaceus treated with different artificial light Sources (fluorescent lamp, red, blue, green, white, LEP). Methods and Results : We investigated the effects of various artificial light sources on the DPPH radical activity, total phenol and flavonoid contents, tyrosinase activity and main flavonoid compounds contents (formononetin and calycosin) and other biological activities in A. membranaceus. Antioxidant activities were 53.6% as the highest level of activity under LEP light. Growth under LEP light also produced the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents of 36.05 and 5.94 mg/ml, respectively. Extracts from plants grown under LEP light caused the highest inhibition of tyrosinase activity with inhibition of 35.37, 61.87, and 65.49%, respectively, for extract concentrations of 100 μg/ml, 500 μg/ml, and 1000 μg/ml compared with other artificial light treatments. Conclusion : Little information is available on the influence of LED and LEP light sources on antioxidant production or other biological activities in A. membranaceus. Our goal in this study was to determine the effects of LED and LEP artificial light sources on the production of new functional compounds in A. membranaceus.
Background : Medicinal crop has been used in the traditional Asian medicinal methods. From ancient times, various kinds of medicinal crop are being cultivated in East Aisa including Korea, China and Japan. In Korea, they used a variety of medicinal plants in folk medicine and oriental medicine since ancient times. Molecular markers can be widely used in a variety of settings such as effective-loci estimation, genetic-diversity characterization, allelic-effect studies, gene-flow studies, quantitative-trait locus (QTL) mapping, and evolutionary studies. The genetic analyses of crops require large numbers of useful molecular markers for genetic or QTL identification, comparative mapping and breeding. Studying the genetic diversity and genetic relationship of crops can assist breeders. Crop genetics within a breeding program enable the economic and effective cultivar development. We tried to develop a variety of molecular markers from Angelica gigas genomic sequences for genetic studies and breeding. Methods and Results : A. gigas resources cultivated in Republic of Korea were collected. Fresh leaves were ground with liquid nitrogen and gDNA was extracted using a DNeasy Plant Mini kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA). We sequenced the whole genomes of five A. gigas accessions using Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform and identified genomic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and InDel markers. DNA amplification was conducted using the PCR system (Bio-Rad T-100 Thermal Cycler). PCR products were separated by capillary electrophoresis on the ABI 3730 DNA analyzer (Applied Biosystems) and Fragment analyzer automated CE system (Advanced Analytical Technologies, Ankeny, IA, USA). Conclusion : We developed novel SSR and InDel markers from A. gigas genomic sequences for further genetic studies and breeding.
Background : This study was performed to investigate the morphological and growth characteristics of tetraploid Polygonum multiflorum L. with colchicine treatment, and to clarify its effective induction and time for the increase of rhizome hypertrophy and effective components. Methods and Results : The induction of tetraploid P. multiflorum were done with colchicine treatment of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0% conc. and the time was treated with 12, 24, and 48 hrs, respectively. DMSO 1% is treated for the effective penetration of colchicine with constant-temperature oven at 24C. Leaf explant was added the HR-A solution stained with HR-B solution, and then determined whether DNA contents of the doubles or not. Seed stand rate showed lower tendency as higher treatment concentration and as delayed the treatment time. When treated in DMSO 1% with 48 hr, seed stand was so small rate with 2%, and treated in 0.5% with 12 hr, seed stand was recorded higher rate with 33%. When treated in 0.5% colchicine with 24 hr, chimera and tetraploid induction rates were highest and obtained 29 individual chimera and 5 individual tetraploid. On overground growing, mean stem diameter of tetraploid (11.3 ㎜) is two times thicker than that of diploid (6.4 ㎜), with the vigorous growth. leaf length and width of tetraploid was 9.1 and 6.2 ㎝, respectively, and that of diploid was 6.8, and 5.1 ㎝, respectively. Stem diameter of a scape was also more thicker tendency in tetraploid than in diploid, chlorophyll contents over 29% existed in tetraploid. Investigated result from stoma no. and size of leaf with 400 magnification, stoma no. of diploid (26 individual) was four times higher than that of tetraploid (7 individuals), the size of tetraploid (38 ㎛) is twice longer in size of diploid (18 ㎛) and stoma area are broaden in four times. Seed length of tetraploid (3 ㎜) is longer than that of diploid (22 ㎜); but, seed width of tetraploid (22 ㎜) is widen than that of diploid (14 ㎜) in seed size comparison. That is, seed length is bigger in 1.4 times and seed width is bigger in 1.6 times, and seed surface area is broaden in two times. Conclusion : From above results, overground growing of tetraploid P. multiflorum is fairly better than that of native P. multiflorum. In the future, this tetraploid variety will promote to register when recognize the excellence than native species after tested the disease tolerance, underground growing characteristics, and key index component.
Background : Glycosylation of natural compounds results in great diversity of secondary metabolites. Glycosylation steps are implicated not only in plants growth and development but also in plant defense responses to various environmental stresses. This process is mediated by members of a multigene superfamily glycosyltransferase (GT), which catalyze the transfer of single or multiple activated sugars to a wide range of substrates, thus influences their chemical property and bioactivity. Although its activity has been recognized for a long time and genes coding UGTs in several higher plants have been identified, specific function of GTs in detail still remains elusive. Methods and Results : Spatial and temporal expression patterns of a ginseng UDP-dependent glycosyltransferase, was analyzed by qRT-PCR. It was expressed highly in rhizome, upper root and youngest leaf compared that of other organs. Spacial expression was observed by GUS histochemical assay after generating promoter::GUS fusion. Noticeably, it expressed axillary branch as well as other organs tested by qRT-PCR. Overexpression of PgUGT in Arabidopsis resulted in fused organ in axillary branch. Stress responsiveness against various abiotic stresses and subcellular localization in Arabidopsis are also addressed. Conclusion : PgUGT phylogenetically closed to PgUGT71A27 involved in ginsenoside compound K (C-K) production. Considering that the C-K is not reported in raw ginseng material, further characterization of this gene may shed light on the biological function of C-K in ginseng growth and development. Organ fusion phenotype could be caused by defective growth of cells in boundary region, commonly regulated by phytohormones such as auxins or brassinosteroids, which in needs to be analyzed further.
Background : The Aralia cordata and Dendropanax morbifera, belonging to the family Araliacea, is a perennial herbaceous species. Although its beneficial effects for several chronic diseases are well-known, the role of its effects on chronic intestinal inflammation, colon carcinogenis are limited. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory disorders of gastrointestinal tract. It has been reported that IBD is associated with colon cancer which is one of the most common types of cancer diagnosed and a major cause of cancer-related mortality. Methods and Results : The present study hypothesized that Araliacea family would exert a protective effect on inflammation and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Effect of Aralia cordata extracts (ACE) and Dendropanax morbifera leaf extracts (DMLE) on pro-inflammatory markers, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling (MAPKs), activation of nuclear factor κB (NF- κB) in THP-1 human monocyte and HT-29 colon epithelial cell model were investigated. In addition, colon inflammation inhibitory effects of ACE and DMLE on the characteristics of in DSS-induced colitis model. Results showed that ACE, DMLE attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis, as assessed by disease activity index scores, shrinkage of colon length, and histopathologic changes and infirmatory cytokine concentration. Furthermore, ACE treatment significantly suppressed the colon carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS induced colon cancer model. The apoptosis induction abilities of the DMLE were studied by analyzing the expressions of Bcl2 family protein, caspase, Annexin V/PI staining and DNA fragmentation. According to our results, DMLE significantly induced cell death in SW-480 cells. Apoptosis was determined by cell morphology and electrophoresis of DNA fragmentations. Furthermore, treatment with DMLE also induced the increase in caspase activity, pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and Bad) and the decrease in anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL). In addition, DMLE induce cell cycle arrested at the G1/S phase in SW-480 cells and exhibited significant inhibition on the expressions of G1/S phase specific CDK, cyclin and up regulation of CDK inhibitors. Conclusion : Taken together, these results provide evidence that ACE and DMLE prevention colon cancer by regulating inflammation, colitis, and colon carcinogenesis which indicates its benefit for colon health.
Background : In this study, we investigated the renoprotective effects of serotonin and its derivatives, on the renal function and expression of inflammation and apoptosis in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity mice. Methods and Results : Serotonin and its derivatives were orally administered at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg body weight for 5 days before the intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin 20 mg/kg body weight, and the effects were compared with those of vehicle-treated nephrotoxicity control and normal groups. In the serum and kidney, renal function parameters, reactive oxygen species and expression of protein related to pro-oxidant, antioxidant, inflammation and apoptosis were examined. As a result, serotonin and its derivatives administrations to nephrotoxicity mice lowered serum BUN and creatinine concentrations. These results were derived, at least in part, from attenuation the expression of antioxidant enzymes-related proteins, SOD and GPx. In the cisplatin-induced renal condition, augmented p-p38, p-ERK and p-JNK (mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway) were reduced with a increase in antioxidant enzymes on serotonin and its derivatives treatment. Moreover, in the serotonin and its derivatives-treated groups, NF- κB-induced inflammatory factors and apoptotic protein expressions were regulated in the kidney. Conclusion : The present study indicates that serotonin and its derivatives exerts a renoprotective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through the recovery of kidney function deterioration and attenuation of renal inflammation and apoptosis by regulating oxidative stress condition.
Background : Korean mountain ginseng(Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) are difficult to clinically apply because of its scarcity and high cost. Advances in plant biotechnology have made it possible to produce mountain ginseng extracts on a large scale using adventitious root cultures in bio-reactors. This study investigated the variations of ginsenoside compounds composition and biological activities of wild ginseng adventitious roots by fermentation process. Methods and Results : Wild ginseng adventitious roots with five days fermentation using four strain of bacteria(Leuconostoc mesenteroides(KACC 15744), Bacillus circulans(KACC 15822), Bacillus licheniformis(KACC 15823), Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum(KACC 17047)). Ginsenoside contents was analysed by using HPLC. To examine the antioxidant activity associated with biological functions, radical scavenging analyses DPPH, ABTS and SOD-like activity analyses were conducted. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated to determine the antioxidant activity increment. The result showed increased total ginsenoside contents by fermentation process. In particular, B. licheniformis showed the highest ginsenoside contents. Regarding ginseng fermented with B. licheniformis, values of 70.6 ± 1.4%, 44.3 ± 1.7%, and 88.4 ± 1.3% were measured using DPPH, ABTS, and SOD-like antioxdiant activity analyses, respectively. The total phenolic contents in ginseng fermented with B. licheniformis was 184.5 ± 0.9 ㎍·GAE/㎖, and the total flavonoid contents was 108.5 ± 1.8 ㎍·QE/㎖ in ginseng fermented with L. mesenteroides. Conclusion : The high activity of β-glucosidase was selected bacteria. The four types of lactic acid bacteria examined, the use of B. licheniformis to ferment ginseng resulted in greatest increase in biological activities and ginsenoside contents.
Background : ROS produced by oxidative stress damaged endothelial cells, and cause a variety of vascular complications. In diabetic hyperglycemia state, ROS increase. The polyol pathway occur in diabetic complications, the excess glucose is absorbed into the polyol pathway when aldose reductase increased, NADPH changes it to sorbitol. Glutathione (GSH) removes ROS. GSH level is reduced by glutathione reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor. Activation of the polyol pathway decrease NADPH, and GSH also reduced. As a result, ROS is increased. In diabetic hyperglycemia state, Glycolysis increases. Effects of increased glycolysis, protein kinase C (PKC) is increased. NAD(P)H oxidase, stimulated by PKC-dependent pathway, increases ROS in the cell. In this study, we measured the ROS scavenging activity of 5 natural products (Lycii fructus, Astragalus membranaceus, Cassia Tora, Polygonatum odoratum, Rubus Coreanus), to confirm the efficacy as diabetic antioxidants. Methods and Results : We extracted 5 natural product by distilled water and ethanol. DPPH radical scavenging activity was significantly higher in Lycii fructus, Rubus coreanus. ABTS radical scavenging activity was better Rubus coreanus, Lycii fructus, Cassia Tora. In addition to, Rubus coreanus, Cassia Tora, Lycii fructus was comparatively higher reducing power activity than other natural products. And total phenolic and flavonoid contents were much higher in Rubus coreanus compared with other extracts. Conclusion : These results suggest that Lycii fructus, Rubus coreanus can be applied as diabetic antioxidant that prevent vascular complications caused by ROS.
Background : Ginseng root rot caused by soil-borne pathogens, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Fusarium solani, is a major factors of replanting failure in ginseng cultivation. Some of the phenolic compounds detected in the soil of commercially cultivated American ginseng could inhibit the seed germination and seedling growth of American ginseng. Our study is to investigate the causes of replanting failure of ginseng by overhead flooding treatment and soil incorporation of ginseng fine root in soil infected with root rot pathogens. Methods and Results : To make soil occurring continuous cropping injury, 2-year-old ginseng infected with Cylindrocarpon destructans replanted in soil cultivated ginseng for 5 years. Treatment are as follows: 1) control, 2) water of 2ℓ was irrigate infected soil of 20ℓ, 3) ginseng fine root of 20g was mixed with infected soil of 20ℓ. Soil pH was increased, while other inorganic components were significantly reduced by overhead flooding treatment. Soil incorporation of ginseng fine root decreased soil pH, but increased EC, NO3, P2O5 and K, meanwhile, did not affected changes in organic matter, calcium, magnesium, sodium. Irrigation treatment in soil occurring replanted failure promoted distinctly above-ground growth of ginseng, and inhibited the occurrence of root rot because inorganic nutrient like NO3, P2O5 and K were decreased to optimal levels, and the density of soil pathogens could be reduced. Growth of ginseng was not inhibited, while root rot was promoted by soil incorporation of ginseng fine root. Conclusion : Irrigation treatment was effective in promoting the growth of ginseng and inhibited root rot distinctly. Ginseng fine root remaining in the soil after ginseng harvest did not affect the above-ground growth of ginseng, while promoted the occurrence of root rot.
Background : This study was carried out to survey the effect of IBA (indole-3-butric acid) concentration on root development characteristics in Viburnum dilatatum cuttings. Methods and Results : The cuttings were collected on July 28, 2016 from plants growing in Korea National Arboretum. Cuttings were treated with different IBA concentrations [0 (control), 10, 100, 1000, 2000 ㎎⋅L-¹] for 10 seconds. Rooting parameters (root number, the longest root length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, rooting percentage, and survival rate) were observed at 8 weeks after cuttings. Rooting percentage was 43, 33, 17, 47, and 40 % at 0, 10, 100, 1000, and 2000 ㎎⋅L-¹ of IBA, respectively. Root number (13.4) was highest under 1000 ㎎⋅L-¹ IBA. Root length (9.4 ㎝) and Root weight (fresh and dry) were highest under 1000 ㎎⋅L-¹ IBA. Conclusion : According to the results, 1000 ㎎⋅L-¹ IBA was the best treatment for increasing percentage rooting percentage and other root development characteristics of V. dilatatum cuttings.
Background : This study was investigated the effect of organic fertilizer application and stem training methods on the growth and yield of Cynanchum willfordii. Methods and Results : Traditional species, C. willfordii conducted the test to the field in Chungbuk ARES, Korea. Two methods, non-supporting (custom) and I-shape supporting was used for stem training method. Planting spacing was adjusted to 30 (interrow spacing) x 20 cm (intrarow spacing) and other key management is the followed the cultivation manual for standard medicinal crops. Organic fertilizer application is conducted in mid-March before planting of C. willfordii. Registered organic agricultural materials such as fungal cultures (CC), mixed organic materials (MO), fermented and mixed expeller cake (EC), and fermented fowl dropping (FD) was used. Application rate is based on the nitrogen application rate after soil testing. Plant height was both good in all at I-shape supporting (266.7 ㎝) and all in non-supporting (160.8 ㎝); however, stem diameter was more thicker in custom (4.6 ㎜) of I-shape supporting and EC (4.8 mm) of non-supporting. Number of branched stem were good at EC from I-shape supporting and non-supporting, as well as leaf growth. SPAD value was evaluated in MO (52.7) of I-shape supporting and EC (52.3) of non-supporting. Number of branched root per organic fertilizer were showed 7.0 at MO from I-shape supporting, but 7.3 at FD from non-supporting. While length of main root were 27.0 cm in MO of I-shape supporting and 31.3 ㎝ in FD of non-supporting. Root weight also more heavier in EC (66.3 g) of I-shape supporting and FD (53.0 g) of non-supporting. When applied organic fertilizer, total density of soil microorganisms were changed into 38.4 ppm in custom; however, it more plentiful of 90.7 ppm in MO, it showed good effect on the replication of soil microbiota. Conclusion : From the investigated results, MO of I-shape supporting was good at overall growth, including good tendency of roots growth.
Background : Liriope platyphylla Wang et. Tang belongs to the Liliaceae and herbal medicinal plants. It is usually grown as ground cover plants. But the farm is cultivated medicinal plants in order to harvest its tuberous root. The cultivated area is 95ha and the production is 588 ton(2014). Miryang and Cheongyang are the main producing areas. This experiment was carried out to select a cultivar that are well adapted in middle regions in Korea. Methods and Results : It were investigated the tuber characteristics in four cultivars of Liriope platyphylla Wang et. Tang. The ratios of roots and tubers a plant was ranged 18.6 - 21.6%. Maekmundong 1 have more in tubers per a plant but lower in the rate of marketable tubers and 100-tubers weight than other 3 cultivars. Cheongshim was heavier and larger in tuberous root than 3 other cultivars. The tuber’s distributions in less than 10 ㎝ soil depth at the surface was 48.6% in Cheongshim, 58.4% in Seungsu 50.6% in Maekmundong 1 and 58.1% in Cheongyang native’s line. So, Seungsu and Cheongyang native’s line are believed to be suitable for harvesting by machines. The tuber’s yield was highest in Seungsu and was 5% higher than Cheongyang native’s line. The spicatoside A extracted with 80% MeOH was analyzed by 0.01 – 1.83 ㎎/g and Maekmundong 1 have been contained much more than other cultivars. Conclusion : Considering the yield and medicinal ingredients, Maekmundong 1 have good quality than Cheongshim, Seungsu and Cheongyang natives’s lines in middle regions in Korea.
Background : The production of healthy ginseng seedling is a critical part of growing 5-6-year-old fresh ginseng. Recently, for the problem of replant failure, it becomes more and more difficult to find first planted field for ginseng seedling cultivation. In this situation, This study was conducted to examine the possibility of seedling production practices of ginseng by utilizing the multi-beds cultivation system as a way to produce ginseng seedling stably. Methods and Results : This experiment was conducted by installing a 3-layed cultivation beds using 50㎜ sandwich panels. As the 1st and 2nd beds get insufficient amount of light, fluorescent lights were installed in 2 rows to further lighten up. And the 3rd bed used natural light. The bed soil used was formulated by mixing saprolite, yakto and peat moss. The control was cultivated under natural light on 1-layed bed with commercial bed soil for ginseng seedling. The commercial bed soil had pH 7.24, higher than the standard of permission, 6.5; and its calcium and sodium contents were 10.7, and 0.85 cmol+/㎏, respectively, higher than the standard. The available phosphate concentration was 34.0㎎/㎏, lower than the appropriate level of 100 ㎎/㎏. The mixing bed soil also had pH 7.69, higher than the standard but its nitrate and phosphate were within the appropriate range. The intra-facility light quantities of the 1st and 2nd beds were constant at around 100 μmol during days. But the light quantity of the 3rd bed was 51.4 μmol in average daily value. The roots of the 1st-3rd beds were found to weigh 0.58 – 0.73 g while those of the control group, about 0.47g to show heavier root weight of the multi-beds cultivation ginseng than that of the control. As for the yield, the control showed 145 ㎏/10a whereas the 1st-3rd beds showed higher levels between 183 – 228 ㎏/10a. Conclusion : In the multi-beds cultivation of ginseng seedling, fluorescent lamps seem to have provided sufficient light as an artificial light source. The soil for ginseng seedling production is different from ginseng cultivation field soil, additional study will be also necessary to set up the physiochemical range of bed soil for ginseng seedling.
Background : In recent years, as the ginseng cultivation area using vinyl house is increasing, the demand of farmhouses for the studies of appropriate direct sowing cultivation and ginseng varieties for vinyl house cultivation is increasing, and there is a necessity to produce high quality clean ginseng in vinyl house in tandem with the consumers’ demand for pesticide-free ginseng. Thus, the goal of this research is to determine appropriate ridge height and width when growing ginseng in the vinyl house using direct sowing cropping system. The research was also done to choose ginseng breed for direct sowing cultivation. Methods and Results : The ground part of 4 years old ginseng grown in the vinyl house using direct-sowing cropping pattern was the type that grew well in 100 ㎝ wide ridge rather than 90 ㎝ wide ridge. It also tended to grow well in 20 ㎝ or 30 ㎝ long ridge as opposed to 10 ㎝ long ones. The root weight of the underground part was superior under 90 ㎝ × 20 ㎝(ridge height×ridge width), 90 ㎝ × 30 ㎝, 110 ㎝ × 10 ㎝ and 110 ㎝ × 20 ㎝ cultivation area. The root diameter was longer, the longer the ridge height. The volume per 1.62 ㎡ was superior for 100cm, 120 ㎝ × 10 ㎝ cultivation area. The ginseng whose ground part was superior in the vinyl house were Chungsun and Seonweon. Seonweon and Gumpoong had superior root weight in underground parts. The root length was superior for Geumsun. The ginseng that were direct sowing in the vinyl house did not have rusty ginseng problem regardless of ridge height and kind. The root injury was greatest in the cultivation area with ridge width of 90 ㎝. Conclusion : According to the results above, the growth in vinyl house using direct sowing cropping pattern was best when ridge width was 100㎝ and 110cm in ridge height of 30 ㎝. The best selection was Chunpoong and Seonweon. The root weight of the underground part was superior in 110 ㎝ × 10 ㎝ cultivation area, the best variety was Seonweon and Gumpoong.
Background : Chrysanthemum indicum L. is used in medicine, for bee, ornamental as multivoltinism plant resources. The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods of rooting promotion to make high quality medicinal plants, thereby increasing farm income. This study investigated the effects of different cuttage period, extraction site, shading degree, nursery tray for promoting cutting slips rooting in Chrysanthemum indicum L. Methods and Results : It is used New variety "Gamkuk 1" that were forstered in Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research & Extension Services. Method of application with cuttage period were conducted under five condition; Around the middle of April, Toward the end of April, Early in May, Around the middle of May, Toward the end of May. Early in May plant length was longer than other cuttage period as 41.2%, 83.7% and are significant at significance level 0.05. Method of application with extraction site were conducted under three condition; 1 - 3 node, 4 - 6 node, 7 - 9 node. Leaf number in 1 - 3 node was more than other extration site as 19.4%, 33.6%. Also root length in 1 - 3 was more than other extration site as 10.5%, 23.2%. Method of application with shading degree were conducted under three condition; 50%, 70%, 90%. Plant length in 50 - 70% was longer than 90% shading degree as 23.8%, 24.2%. Also shading degree 50 - 70% had many root length and root number. Method of application with nursery tray were conducted under five condition; 72, 105, 128, 162, 200 tray. Plant length in 105, 128 tray was longer as 8.5 - 35.3% than other nursery tray and are significant at significance level 0.05. Conclusion : According to the results, Early in May, extraction site 1 - 3 node, shading degree 50 - 70%, nusery tray 105, 128 showed the highest growth on cutting slips root promotion in Chrysanthemum indicum L.
Background : Adenophora triphylla var. japonica Hara. is used to cure respiratory/ lung diseases, which makes it an important oriental medicinal herb. It is one of the five Sam (ginseng), which includes Panax ginseng, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Sophora flavescens, and Scrophularia buergeriana. In 2015, Korea imported 24 tons of medicinal herbs worth US$95,000. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of several mulching materials on the growth and root yield of A. triphylla var. japonica using organic fertilizer. Methods and Result : Seeds of A. triphylla var. japonica were collected at the nursery of the Department of Herbal Crop Research, NIHHS, RDA in 2015. Mulching materials used are black plastic, black woven fabric, and biodegradable plastic. Hand weeding was done to serve as control. The soil was fertilized two months before planting. Seeds of A. triphylla var. japonica were sowed in tray in early March and were allowed to grow for two months. It was planted in early May with planting density of 30 ㎝ x 15 ㎝ and was covered with various mulching materials. Parameters investigated are survival rate, aerial part and root growth characteristics, and yield at harvest time. Results showed that biodegradable plastic is most favorable for plant growth with height of 17.2cm, leaf length of 13.4cm and leaf width of 5.6 ㎝. Dry plant weight was heaviest in biodegradable plastic treatment at 2.8 g, and lightest at 2.5 g when planted without mulch. Biodegradable plastic has the highest dry root weight of 19.3 g, followed by black vinyl (18.4 g), woven fabric (18.3 g) and without mulch (17.9 g). The yield obtained per 10 a was highest in biodegradable plastic treatment at 174 ㎏, while black vinyl and woven fabric treatments produced 169 ㎏ and 160 ㎏, respectively. Plants without mulch had the lowest yield of 157 ㎏. Conclusion : In the above results, biodegradable plastic and woven fabric are considered suitable mulching materials for the cultivation of A. triphylla var. japonica.
Background : Adenophora triphylla var. japonica Hara. is one of the important oriental medicinal herbs being used to cure lung/respiratory diseases. It belongs to the five Sam (ginseng) including Panax ginseng, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Sophora flavescens, and Scrophularia buergeriana. In 2015, Korea produced 72 tons of medicinal herbs in a 14-hectare area and imported 24 tons valued at US$95,000. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of several biopesticides to control leaf spot of A. triphylla var. japonica Hara. Methods and Results : One year plants at the Department of Herbal Crop Research, NIHHS, RDA were used. The treatments used biopesticides such as plant extracts (BP), microbial agent (DM), microbial agent (PJ), sulfur powder (HS), and controlled chemicals (ST), while non treatment (NT) was used as control. After the early part of disease outbreak, the plants were treated four times with 7 days interval. The incidence of leaf spot, efficacy, phytotoxicity and control value were investigated. Based on the efficacy test, incidence of leaf spot is lowest at 15.6% in plant extracts (BP). Other biopesticides showed higher incidence - 16.7% for microbial agent (DM), 17.8% for microbial agent (PJ), 18.9% for sulfur powder (HS) and 71.1% for non treatment (NT), compared with 11.1% in controlled chemicals (ST). The microbial agent (PJ), sulfur powder (HS), plant extracts (BP) and microbial agent (DM) were not damaged in the phytotoxicity test. In the test of application dose, time and methods, the control value was highest in plant extracts (BP) at 78.1%, followed by microbial agent (DM) at 76.6%, microbial agent (PJ) at 75.0%, and sulfur powder (HS) at 73.4% , compared with controlled chemicals (ST) at 84.4%. Conclusion : It is possible to use biopesticides at the proper time to prevent leaf spot in Adenophora triphylla var. japonica Hara.