To develop quality-improved muffins, the influence of the partial replacement of wheat flour with lemon balm powder (LBP) on their quality characteristics was analyzed. Studies were carried out to examine the supplementation of different percentages of LBP (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) on the quality characteristics of LBP muffins. The incorporation of LBP significantly affected the physicochemical parameters of muffins. Such incorporation at different levels significantly decreased pH, moisture content, baking loss, hardness, and color parameters, including L*, a*, and b* values of muffins (p<0.05). No significant effect of LBP substitution was found in height changes (p>0.05). Finally, the consumer acceptance test indicated that the highest levels of LBP incorporation (i.e., 8%) had a considerably adverse effect on consumer preferences in all attributes. In contrast, muffins with moderate levels of LBP (4%) showed a good and satisfactory sensorial acceptance in general. Thus, LBP was successfully employed in muffins, improving quality and broadening its potential applications in other bakery products.
Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is caused by rabies virus and transmitted only in mammals. Domestic dogs are the most common reservoir of the virus, which is associated with more than 99% human deaths caused by dog-mediated rabies in the world. Rabies is one of the most fatal diseases, but it is fully preventable in animals by vaccination. Serological test of rabies virus antibody for samples collected from dogs and cats in Seoul during 2017–2019 was carried out in this study. To investigate antibody seroprevalence of rabies virus for dogs and cats, 2,769 serum samples were taken from 2,408 dogs and 361 cats in various regions of Seoul during 2017– 2019. Antibodies to rabies virus were detected by an indirect ELISA. Of 2,769 tested animal sera, 934 (33.7%) were positive; 886 (36.8%) of 2408 dogs and 48 (13.3%) of 361 cats. Of 990 companion animals, 547 (55.3%) was positive and 387 (21.8%) of 1779 stray animals was positive. These results indicate that antibody seroprevalence to rabies virus is still not enough to prevent rabies and rabies vaccination is required to enhance the antibody seroprevalence for rabies. To improve the situation, much public awareness and policy is needed to prevent the rabies. In addition, reducing stray animals and keeping companion animals from contact with wild animals are indispensable for the prevention of rabies.
This study was conducted at the National Institute of Animal Science from 2010 to 2017. As a variety that is sufficiently productive in the southern regions to replace imported varieties and sufficiently cold-resistant to be cultivated in the central-northern regions, "IR605" was developed and submitted to the Korea Seed & Variety Service in an application for protection. The novel Italian ryegrass variety "IR605" is a diploid with green leaves, a semi-erect growth habit before wintering, and an erect growth habit in the spring. "IR605" was a medium maturing variety with a heading date of around May 15th. "IR605" had a flag leaf width of 9.9 mm, flag leaf length of 26.7 cm, and plant length on the heading date of 100 cm, which was approximately 5 cm longer than "Kowinearly." The stem thickness and ear length of "IR605" are 0.08 mm thicker and 0.5 cm longer than those of "Kowinearly", respectively. The cold-resistance of "IR605" was weaker than that of "Kowinearly", but strong enough to be cultivated in Pyeongchang, Gangwon province. The dry matter yield of "IR605" (9,308 kg/hectare) was 20% higher than that of "Kowinearly", which was further pronounced in the southern region of Haenam, where there was a 52% increased (p < 0.05). The in vitro dry matter digestibility of "IR605" was 68.4% at which was slightly higher than that of "Kowinearly", The total digestible nutrients was 58.5%, which was slightly lower than "Kowinearly". Overall, the feed quality characteristics of "IR605" were similar to those of "Kowinearly".
2016년 3월 6.67톤 어선이 크레인 작업을 하던 중 복원성 상실로 인한 전복 사고가 발생하였다. 전복은 충돌, 접촉, 좌초, 화재 및 폭발의 결과로 발생한 사고는 제외하고 선박이 뒤집힌 것을 말한다. 지난 9년동안(2010-2018), 전복 사고는 전체 해양사고의 2.34%를 차 지하고 있으며 증가와 감소를 반복하고 있다. 10톤 미만 소형어선의 주된 전복사고 원인은 부적절한 선적에 따른 복원성 상실이다. 어선 법에 따르면 소형 어선은 복원성과 1톤 미만 제한 하중 크레인에 대해서 복원성과 예비검사를 면제해 주고 있다. 본 연구는 고성에서 발 생한 소형 어선의 전복 사고 재결서의 원인으로 언급된 사항 중 크레인 증량에 따른 복원 모멘트 감소에 대해 실제 제원이 비슷한 어선 을 모델링하여 이를 통해 사고 전·후의 어선 상태를 가상하여 복원성을 비교하였다. 그 결과 기존 보다 무거운 크레인으로의 교체 시에는 복원 모멘트 감소와 현단몰입각의 감소로 전복의 위험성이 증가되었다. 표준재화 상태에서는 입·출항시 보다는 어로 활동을 하고 있는 상황에서의 복원 모멘트가 감소되는 것을 확인하였다.
Salicylic acid (SA) is an essential plant growth regulator that functions as a signaling molecule in plants. The purpose of this study was to clarify how the exogenous application of SA counteracts aluminum stress-induced growth and biomass yield reduction in alfalfa exposed to aluminum (Al) stress. Two-week-old alfalfa seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (0 μM, 50 μM and 100 μM, respectively) and SA (0.1 mM) for 72 hours. We observed, Al stress-induced plant growth inhibition and forage yield reduction are Al stress-dependent manner. A significant reduction of plant height (42.0-52.9%), leaf relative water content (13.0-21.4%), root length (35.4-48.7%), shoot fresh weight (31.2-25.9%), root fresh weight (15.4-23.3%), shoot dry weight (12.7-22.2%), roots dry weight (47.3 -53.5%), were observed in alfalfa. In contrast, SA alleviated the Al-stress and enhanced growth and biomass yield in alfalfa. This study provides useful information concerning the role of SA that counteracts aluminum stress-induced growth and yield reduction in alfalfa.
The wakes behind a square cylinder were simulated using two-equation turbulence models, k-ε and RNG k-ε models. For comparisons between the model predictions and analytical solutions, we employed three skill assessments:, the correlation coefficient for the similarity of the wake shape, the error of maximum velocity difference (EMVD) of the accuracy of wake velocity, and the ratio of drag coefficient (RDC) for the flow patterns as in the authors’ previous study. On the basis of the calculated results, we discussed the feasibility of each model for wake simulation and suggested a suitable value for an eddy viscosity related constant in each turbulence model. The k-ε model underestimated the drag coefficient by over 40 %, and its performance was worse than that in the previous study with one-equation and mixing length models, resulting from the empirical constants in the ε-equation. In the RNG k-ε model experiments, when an eddy viscosity related constant was six times higher than the suggested value, the model results were yielded good predictions compared with the analytical solutions. Then, the values of EMVD and RDC were 3.8 % and 3.2 %, respectively. The results of the turbulence model simulations indicated that the RNG k-ε model results successfully represented wakes behind the square cylinder, and the mean error for all skill assessments was less than 4 %.