Rice alcoholic beverages, cheongju and beopju, which are recorded in "Koryodokyung", "Koryosageolyo", and "Koryosa", were used in national and royal ceremonies, and yakju was used in the Palgwanhoi ritual. In the late 11thcentury, King Munjong imported hwaju and haenginjabeopju from the royal family of the Song Dynasty. Alcoholic beverages in the early 12thcentury included the medical use for kings, such as gyehyangeoju, which the Emperor of the Song Dynasty sent to King Yejong, baekjainju, which was sent to King Myeongjong for his health, and yangju, which is goat milk fermented alcohol from the nomads in the northern regions. In the early13th century there was also dongrak, which is a horse-milk fermented alcohol, grape wine sent from Yuan to King Chungryeol in the late 13th century, and sangjonju, a type of special cheongju sent from Yuan in the early 14th century. Baekju from Yuan was recorded in oral traditions, which suggests that soju, which is distilled cheongju, was consumed in the late 14th century. Gold and silver wares for alcoholic beverages had important political, social, and economic meanings as national gifts to other countries and internally as the king's royal gift to his subjects. In the late 14th century, soju was prohibited, and the use of gold and silver wares for alcoholic beverages was banned at the same time. This study examined the historical characteristics of the use of traditional rice alcoholic beverages, the emotional preference for foreign alcoholic beverages, and the gold and silver wares used for alcoholic beverages Koryo Dynasty.
This study was conducted to examine purchasing behavior and satisfaction for imported processed snacks of mothers with preschool children and to provide nutrition education information for mothers. 81.4% of the respondents often purchased imported processed snacks and the main reason (51.0%) for purchasing imported processed snacks was preference of children. A total of 58.0% of the respondents purchased imported processed snacks at a large-scale discount store. 41.9% of the respondents purchased imported dairy products everyday, and 24.8% of them purchased the products once per week. The percentage of not purchasing at all was very high for imported confectionary, jelly and candy, nuts, and drinks. The food additive checking score was very high when purchasing imported processed snacks. The graduate school group and unemployed mothers checked significantly more often for food additives (p<0.05). The taste satisfaction score was very high, and employed mothers were satisfied with taste significantly more than unemployed mothers. Nutrition education using imported processed food labeling should be performed, and quality management before importing processed food should be carried out.
As the public is already aware, baby food has a significant effect on a baby's physical and mental health. It is also very important because choice of baby food forms proper eating habits, which will affect health in the future. In particular, recognition of appropriate baby food by the mother or the primary care provider is even more important. Although many studies have been conducted on this matter for domestic housewives, no studies have been conducted on married immigrant housewives whose numbers are increasing every year. A survey was conducted on the recognition and current situation of baby food preparation by mothers living in Gangwon Province with children 6 to 36-months-old. The purpose of the study was to research the level of understanding of baby food by immigrant housewives given that they were raised in different environments with different eating habits and child raising norms. And additional purpose was to provide proper educational material and direction for choosing appropriate baby food. The results showed significant differences depending on the nationality and age of the mother. Moreover, the results showed an insufficient understanding of baby food but a high desire for education, as mothers did not receive enough support from society. Therefore, necessary education should be provided systematically after mothers fully learn to communicate in Korean. These mothers need continuous attention and support, so they can settle in this country as wives, daughters-in-law, and mothers. Moreover, the needed professional education should be provided so that the mothers can learn traditional Korean eating habits and understand differences in the culture and environment between countries. As the selection of baby food forms the basis of future eating habits and the foundation for good health, proper education should be available to establish healthy intercultural families.
The elderly is a target group for health functional foods (HFFs). We surveyed 825 Korean elderly (71.4- years-of-age) for HFF use and significant variables for HFF use including demographic characteristics, health related variables, and nutritional beliefs. The prevalence of HFF use was 48.7%, and among all types of HFF, red ginseng products were eaten most frequently, followed by ginseng products, nutritional supplements, and mushroom products. The mean age of users of HFFs was lower than nonusers (p<.01). HFFs were eaten more frequently by subjects from families living with a spouse or unmarried children (p<.01) and those with higher levels of monthly pocket money (p<.001). HFFs were also eaten more frequently by subjects or their spouses with a higher education level (p<.001). The social activity participation ratio (p<.01) of subjects and the HFF usage ratio by the spouse (p<.001) were higher in users of HFF than in nonusers. Dietary assessment scores were not different between the two groups, and users had a more positive view concerning the potential health benefits of HFFs than did nonusers (p<.001). Most users of HFF ate HFFs "when they were healthy" (52.2%) and experienced some effect through HFF use (45.8%). Most users of HFFs received information on HFFs through their families or relatives (38.1%) and most purchased HFFs at the pharmacy or oriental medicine clinic (44.8%). HFF users preferred multivitamin- and Ca-supplements most among the vitamin and mineral supplements belonged to HFFs. The above results show that HFF use is widely spread among subjects, and that use of HFF is influenced by various factors. Thus, practical guidelines for HFF use should be provided for the elderly through elderly focused-nutrition education based upon significant variables and consumption behaviors for their HFF use of present study.
This study examined the types and cooking methods for dasik (traditional pressed sweet), as recorded in 16 old Joseon dynasty (1392-1909) studies. The ingredients used in dasik during the Joseon dynasty were categorized into cereal powders, tree fruits, flower powders, root clods, dry-fish beef powders, and vegetables. In the early, middle, and late eras of the Joseon dynasty, 1st set (two, five, and 70 kinds of dasik), 2nd set (two, four, and 16 kinds of dasik) were prepared using cereal powders, and during the middle and late eras of the Joseon dynasty one and 22 kinds of dasik were prepared using tree fruits. During the late eras of the Joseon dynasty, seven kinds of dasik were prepared using flower powders, 11 kinds of dasik were prepared using root clods, 12 kinds of dasik were prepared using dry-fish beef powders, and two kinds of dasik were prepared using vegetables. The frequency of the ingredients were in the order of Huek-im (黑荏), Hwang-yul (黃栗), Jin-mal (眞末), Song-wha (松花), and Nok-mal (菉末) during the Joseon dynasty. To prepare dasik, the ingredients were mixed with honey, soy sauce, sesame oil, pepper, and water or ground and shredded to prepare for pressing and for abstract dasik, respectively. The appearance and taste of dasik varied, thereby resulting in nutrient supplementation, as the types of ingredients increased throughout the Joseon dynasty. This observation may be associated with the commercial industrial development that prevailed during the late Joseon dynasty. Further investigation will be conducted on the recipes and ingredients recorded in these old studies to develop a standardized recipe for the globalization of dasik.
The middle school subjects were 65.8% girls and 34.2% boys. Seniors were most abundant at 56.3%. The most abundant location was Gyeonggi-do (54.7%), and 69.3% of subjects were living with 4?5 family members. Approximately 56% of the mothers had graduated from high school, and 58.1% were unemployed. The mother most often prepared the food (78.4%), fish was eaten mostly in the home, and taste was the most important factor (62.6%). The preferred home food menu was fish because it is healthy, and the main cause for disliking the school meal service was poor quality dishes compared to a home cooked meal. The acceptance and type of fish were proportional. Rice was the most favored dish to eat with fish and scored 3.97, the highest rank. Approximately 50% answered that fish was nutritious, and a significant difference was observed regarding the mother's educational background (p<0.05). Students who never had a lecture about fish answered that fish was not nutritious, which showed a significant difference with education (p<0.05). Approximately 44% of students ate fish 2?3 times per week, and male students showed a significantly higher intake of fish than female students (p<0.05). The poorly educated disliked fish the most, and the higher frequency intake of fish resulted in a significantly higher percentile (p<0.001).
The purpose of this study was to establish different levels of learning satisfaction concerning bakery and confectionery institute students in relation to their educational environment as well as to determine the relationships between variables. A questionnaire was distributed to 260 students enrolled in the bakery and confectionery institute at Gyeongju in the Pohang and Ulsan area, and 242 were used in the final analysis. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 12.0 Windows. Results of this study can be summarized as follows. The students were mostly satisfied with the learning environment and teaching methods of the institute. A significant difference was observed between male and female students for recognizing teaching methods and major recognition. Furthermore, the educational environment and major recognition of students were positively related with learning satisfaction. Therefore, the staff at the bakery and confectionary institute should provide the proper curriculum and facilities for the students.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the fermentation characteristics of Yakju using fresh sprouts from common buckwheat, a Daisan cultivar, and a tartary buckwheat Daikwan 3-3 cultivar to develop a functional Yakju, which is a traditional Korean liquor. As fermentation time increased, alcohol concentration and total sugar content (expressed as Brix degrees) increased, whereas reducing sugar content decreased. In particular, alcohol formation capability was maximized from the fourth to the seventh days of the second mashing stage during the fermentation procedure, which corresponded to the abrupt rise in mashing body temperature. The pH increased slightly when the titratable acidity was kept from increasing as fermentation proceeded. Quercetin and rutin were not present in the control group but their presence in Yakju with added buckwheat sprouts continuously increased with an increase in the fermentation period. Quercetin and rutin contents were higher in the Yakju with added Daikwan3-3 buckwheat sprouts than Yakju with added Daisan buckwheat sprouts. In conclusion, adding buckwheat sprouts improved Yakju quality during fermentation. Particularly, Yakju with added Daikwan3-3 buckwheat sprouts had superior fermentation characteristics and quality.
This study analyzed consumer attitude, habit strength, subjective norm, a pros evaluation, and intention to consume to estimate perceptible variables that affect apple consumption. Data were collected from 207 men and women through a selfadministrated questionnaire. A partial least squares regression was conducted as one of structural equation models to estimate and test hypotheses. The results showed that attitude, habit strength, and the pros evaluation affected the intention to consume apples, and that the intention increased apple consumption. The results also showed that some marketing strategies are needed to promote apple consumption and to make consumers change their intention, to develop habits for eating apples by changing their diets, and to impress upon them that apples are good for health. This can be interpreted as meaning that it is most important to understand consumer behavior, particularly consumer psychology, which is reflected in the recent trend of marketing that concentrates on meeting the consumer's needs rather than the producer's.
The optimal replaced percentage of brown rice Jeung-pyun was investigated in this study. A specific volume of brown rice Jeung-pyun resulted in no difference. The pH of Jeung-pyun (5.10-5.39) was higher than that of Jeung-pyun dough (4.96-5.17). The lightness darkened to 55.39-63.56, as the replaced amount of brown rice flour was increased. Furthermore, redness and yellowness increased to 3.24-4.15 and 4.45-10.12, respectively. The microstructure examined by scanning electron microscopy became enlarged and irregular as the amount of replaced rice increased. The gelatinization of 30-40% brown rice powder was approximately 1.93-2.20. The mechanical textures of hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and fracturability were high as additional ingredients and the storage period increased, whereas adhesiveness, springiness, and cohesiveness were low. The results of a sensory evaluation revealed that the 30% added brown rice Jeung-pyun was highly assessed as the most appropriate percentage of added brown rice Jeung-pyun.
We examined the relationship between breakfast eating, nutrient intake, and health outcomes using dietary intake, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements in Korean adults. Data from the 2007 National Health and Nutrition Survey were obtained, and 2,514 adults aged 20 to 64 years were analyzed. The prevalence of skipping breakfast, using a 24-hour diet recall, was 54.5% in the 20-29 age group, 31.2% in the 30-49 age group, and 19.2% in the 50-64 age group. In the 20-29 age group, waist circumstance and serum cholesterol were significantly higher in breakfast skippers than in breakfast eaters. In the 30-49 age group, breakfast skippers had higher triglyceride levels than breakfast eaters. Energy intake of breakfast skippers in every age group was significantly lower than that of breakfast eaters. Furthermore, in the 20-29 and 30-49 age groups, the percent of energy from carbohydrates in breakfast skippers was significantly lower than that of breakfast eaters, whereas the percent of energy from lipids in breakfast skippers was significantly higher than that of breakfast eaters. Additionally, in the 20-29 and 30-49 age groups, breakfast eaters showed higher carbohydrate and iron intake per 1,000 kcal than breakfast skippers and lower lipid intake per 1,000 kcal than that of breakfast skippers. Breakfast skippers showed intakes of less nutrients than EAR was higher than breakfast eaters except vitamin B2 and calcium intake in males of the 20-29 age group. In conclusion, nutrition education, and policy should be implemented to teach the importance of breakfast, appropriate dietary intake, and proper food choice for each age group.