This study was conducted to evaluate children’s purchase behavior (frequency of snack consumption and purchase) and preference for high protein snack products developed for weight control and nutritional balance. A total of 80 elementary school students (from the 3rd to 6th graders) in the Gyeonggi-do learning center were participated and 76 were used for the analysis. The most common response for liking snacks was taste (71.4%), and the most preferred types of snacks were chips (42.1%) and puff snacks (34.2%). The highest frequency of snack ingestion was 1-3 times per week (48; 63.2%), and the main purchasers were parents (65.8%). Cheese, corn and chili flavors were more preferred than the control, while yogurt taste was slightly less preferred than the control. The results of this study showed the possibility of commercialization of new protein snacks according to children’s seasoning preference and provide the insights into the snack preferences of children as main consumers.
Low sodium (1,300 mg) containing menu items and recipes applicable to institutional food services were developed while maintaining taste and nutrition contents. These developed recipes were used in a total of 258 dish items, including 39 onedish meals, 43 guk or jjigae (soups or pot stews), 59 meat or fish side-dishes, 94 vegetable side-dishes, 9 jeons (pan-fried dishes), and 14 kimchis or pickles. A total of 90 menu items using 258 dishes were categorized into one-dish menu items or Korean dining table-setting items. They were re-sorted to soup or pot stew containing or not containing items. The protein content was significantly higher in one-dish menus than in Korean dining table-setting menus (p<0.05), whereas the energy, carbohydrates, lipids, and sodium did not differ significantly between them. Menus including guk showed no significant differences in energy, carbohydrates, lipids, or sodium when compared with menus not including guk. For practical application of these developed low sodium menu items for institutional food services, education manuals for nutrition should be developed, and networks among governmental agencies, institutional food services and research institutions should be established.
This study assessed effective strategies to reduce the sodium intake among consumers using pork cutlet sauce as a model food system. Original pork cutlet sauce and sodium-reduced sauce (29% reduced by a salt substitute) were analyzed to characterize the sensory properties using descriptive analysis. The effects of sodium-reduction of the sauce, consumer type (nutrition teachers vs. general consumers), information related to the sodium content, serving method, and consumer’s health, taste and sodium-related attitudes on the consumer’s preference, perception, and intake of the sauce were analyzed using a consumer test. In descriptive analysis, the original and sodium-reduced sauce showed similar sensory characteristics but did not differ in saltiness. In the consumer test, there were no significant differences in the overall preference levels between the two sauces. On the other hand, there were significant differences in preference and perception between nutrition teachers and general consumer groups, which were due largely to their age as well as the health and sodium-related attitudes and nutritional knowledge differences. Sodium-reduced information decreased the perceived saltiness intensity. In addition, reducing sodium intake by serving pork cutlet sauce in a bottle can be an effective strategy because this serving method increased the acceptance and induced the smaller intake of sauce.
The standardization of food ingredients in the procurement system is essential to maintain the quality of food services. Currently, school food services in Korea do not have such a standardized system, which results in inconsistency of the procurement procedure of food ingredients. This study examined how school foodservice nutritionists perceive the standardization of food ingredients in the procurement system. In particular, this study investigated school foodservice nutritionists’ perception on the appropriateness, convenience, and necessity of newly proposed standardized procurement system consisting of a classification and attribute system. A total of 311 nutritionists from 123 elementary schools, 99 middle schools, and 84 high schools were surveyed via both online and offline from June 16-24, 2016. The major findings of the study are as follows. First, three quarters of the nutritionists perceived the newly proposed standardized procurement system to be necessary, while approximately sixty percent of the respondents reported that the newly proposed standardized procurement system is convenient. More than half of the respondents perceived the newly proposed standardized procurement system to be appropriate. The results suggest that the new standardized system directs a better way in terms of the classification and attribute systems of food ingredients. This study suggests that the standardization of food ingredients should be implemented at the operation of school food services.
This study was conducted to optimize the level of sugar added (20 (control), 15, 10, 5%) during the preparation of soy sauce-salted mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii) jangachi without affecting the degree of preference. The salinity and sugar content during storage of soy sauce-salted mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii) jangachi decreased significantly as the level of sugar added decreased. The moisture content was found to increase as the level of sugar added decreased. Additionally, the pH increased, while hardness decreased as the level of sugar added decreased during 3 weeks of storage. The L value (lightness) was not different from that of the control group until the addition of 10% sugar, while the a value (redness) and b value (yellowness) increased. The antioxidant activity of vitamin C content and DPPH radical scavenging activity increased as sugar content decreased. Upon sensory evaluation of mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii) jangachi, the highest value in appearance was observed for the 5 and 15% treatments, while 5% had the highest flavor value, 15 and 10% had the highest taste values, 10 and 15% had the highest texture values, the control and 5% had the greatest clarification values, and the 15 and 10% groups had the greatest overall acceptance. These results suggest that a sugar level of 15% can be used without significantly affecting the overall acceptance.
This study evaluated the quality characteristics of rice cookies prepared with different amounts (0, 3, 6, 9%) of hibiscus powder. The pH of cookie dough decreased as the amount of hibiscus powder increased. Additionally, the moisture content and spread factor were higher in groups containing hibiscus powder than in the control groups. Furthermore, the L-value decreased with increasing hibiscus powder, while the a-value increased. The incorporation of hibiscus powder into cookies decreased hardness. Additionally, consumer acceptance testing revealed that the addition of up to 6% hibiscus powder was desirable in terms of overall acceptability. The total phenol content of the control groups was 12.32 mg GAE/100 g, while the levels in the groups containing hibiscus powder ranged from 23.32 to 59.86 mg GAE/100 g. Finally, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity increased with increasing hibiscus powder level. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that amending cookies with 6% hibiscus powder can improve antioxidant activities without affecting sensory quality.
This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics of peach jelly following the addition of various gelling agents (locust bean gum, carrageenan, xanthan gum). The various gelling agents were added to peach jelly at five levels (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0%), after which their effects on physicochemical properties, textural properties and sensory qualities were investigated. The total titratable acidity (TTA) of peach jelly was decreased with increases in gelling agent. Additionally, the sweetness and pH of peach jelly increased significantly as the amount of various gelling agents increased. Moreover, the lightness (L-value), redness (a-value) and yellowness (b-value) of peach jelly was decreased as the amount of gelling agent. Furthermore, the hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the peach jelly increased as the amount of gelling agent increased. Finally, the overall acceptance was higher for jelly containing 2.0% added gelling agent than for other samples. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that mixed gelling agents be added to peach jelly at 2.0%.
Purpose: This study examined the effects of α-lipoic acid in diluted solvents on cell growth in 3T3-L1 cells according to the treated concentration and times. Methods: Adipocyte 3T3-L1 cell were cultured. Confluent cells underwent starvation with SFM for 1 day and then were cultured in a medium containing various concentrations 0, 100, 200, and 400 μmol/L of α-lipoic acid. The cell viability was measured using the EZ Cytox assay kit. In addition, the effect of α-lipoic acid of diluted solvents on the cell growth in 3T3-L1cells was examined according to the treated concentration and times. Results: The α- lipoic acid diluted ethanol inhibited cell proliferation in a dose and time dependent manner. The α-lipoic acid diluted ethanol induced adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells proliferation with an adipocyte inducer. In addition, α-lipoic acid inhibited adipocyte 3T3- L1 growth in a dose and time dependent manner (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that a treatment with α-lipoic acid diluted ethanol inhibits cell growth of, adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells induced with an adipocyte inducer, (200 μmol/L of α- lipoic acid) treated for 48 hr.