This study aimed to develop an optimal processing method for the production of apple-mango jelly for domestic suppliers, by analyzing the quality attributes of the jelly. According to the central composite design, a total of 11 experimental points were designed including the content of apple-mango juice (X1), and the sugar content (X2). The responses were analyzed including the color values (CIE Lab and color difference), physicochemical properties (water activity, sweetness, pH, and total acidity), and textural properties (hardness and gel strength). Regression analysis was conducted, except for total acidity, and showed no significant difference for all the experimental points (p<0.05). Quadratic model was derived for all responses with an R square value ranging from 0.8590 to 0.9978. Based on regression model, the appropriate mixing ratio of apple-mango jelly was found to be 31.11% of apple mango juice and 14.65% of sugar. Through this study, the possibility for developing jelly product using apple-mango was confirmed, and it is expected that these findings will contribute to the improvement of the agricultural industry.
In this study, the effect of osmotic drying conditions of mangoes on hot air drying was investigated. Four different osmotic agents of 60 Brix, such as S60, SM10, HF80, and SG25, were prepared. Mango slabs were osmotically dried with the agents at a ratio of 1:4 (w/w) for up to 8 hours. SG25 showed the lowest weight reduction and moisture loss during the process. As a result of hot-air drying, all samples showed a high correlation with the Page model (0.9761~0.9997), and the required drying time of all samples that were osmotically dried was reduced compared to the non-osmotically dried group. After hot-air drying, the pH value increased according to the drying temperature. The L, a, and b values and the total polyphenol content also decreased. Through this study, the possibility of osmotic drying was confirmed to increase the efficiency of hot air drying of mangoes, which is expected to contribute to the industrial use of domestic mangoes.
달래의 전처리 방법을 통해 미생물 저감과 품질 유지 효과를 알아보기 위해 물리적인 처리로는 손 세척 1분, 버블 세척, Ultrasonication 처리를 50oC와 60oC의 온도에서 각각 1분, 3분, 5분 동안 세척하였고, 화학적 처리에서는 유기산인 푸마르산과 아세트산 용액 1.5%와 2% 농도에서 각각 1분, 3분, 5분 동안 침지 처리하였다. 미생물과 품질 분석 결과 물리적 처리에서는 버블 세척 3분이 곰팡이 저감에 효과적이었으나 일반세균 저감 효과는 적었고, Ultrasonication 60oC, 5분 처리에서 미생물 저감 효과가 가장 높았으나 색도의 a값이 증가하는 경향을 보여 녹색이 약해졌다. 화학적 처리에서는 acetic acid에 비해서 fumaric acid에서 일반세균과 곰팡이의 저감 효과가 높았으며, fumaric acid 1.5% 용액에서 3분 처리의 저감효과가 가장 높았다. 달래의 미생물 저감 효과가 좋은 버블세척 3분 (B3), fumaric acid 1.5%, 3분 처리(F153), 두 가지 방법을 조합한 병합(BF) 처리를 실시하고 9일 동안 4oC에서 저장하며 품질 특성을 비교해 본 결과, 일반세균보다는 곰팡이 저감에 더 효과적이었으며, 일반세균은 BF가 곰팡이는 F153에서 미생물 감소 효과가 있었다. 색변화에 있어 BF 처리의 ΔE값이 가장 낮았으며, 유기산 처리에서 색변화를 보여 F153에서 녹색이 약해졌다. 최대응집력 변화 알뿌리 보다는 녹색 줄기에서 현격히 나타났는데 저장 9일 차에 F153처리에서 녹색 줄기의 경도가 가장 높게 유지되었고 (P<0.05), 알뿌리 부분은 물리적 방법인 버블 세척 시 6일 차부터 다른 처리에 비해 낮아졌다(P<0.05). 달래의 미생물 저감과 품질의 유지를 고려할 때 전처리 방법으로는 fumaric acid 1.5%용액으로 3분 처리 시 미생물 저감 효과와 색·최대응집력의 특성 유지가 우수하였고, 3일 이내 의 유통기간이라면 병합 처리도 효과적인 방법으로 적용 할 수 있음을 알 수 있었다.
본 연구에서는 전처리 방법별 건조 단호박의 이화학적 특성을 비교 분석하고 반응표면분석법을 이용하여 단호박 말랭이의 최적 건조 조건을 설정하였다. 단호박의 이취 제거와 가공적성을 위한 건열(굽기), 습열(증자), 마이크로웨 이브 처리의 전처리 방법을 비교하고자 호화 점도를 측정 하여 전처리 시간을 설정하였다. 각 전처리 방법별 열풍 건조 전후의 단호박 품질특성을 비교한 결과, 마이크로웨이브 처리에서 가용성 고형분, 과당, 포도당, 자당 함량이 건열과 습열 처리보다 높았고, 수분 함량, 강도 및 경도가 낮게 나타나 마이크로웨이브 처리를 단호박 열풍 건조를 위한 최적의 전처리 방법으로 설정하였고 반응표면분석법을 이용하여 최적의 열풍 건조 조건을 확인하였다. 반응표면분석은 중심합성 계획법으로 실험을 디자인하여 독립변수로서 건조 온도(30, 40, 50oC, X1)와 건조 시간(4, 6, 8 h, X2)을 설정하고, 종속변수로는 건조 단호박의 수분 함량, 수분활성도, 가용성 고형분, 강도, 경도, 과당, 포도당, 자당 함량, 색도(L*, a*, b*)를 측정하여 건조 조건을 최적화하였다. 최적화 변수로는 적합성 결여 검증에서 Pr> F 값이 0.05 이상인 수분 함량, 수분활성도, 가용성 고형분을 최적화 변수로 설정하였으며, 최적화 결과 43oC의 온도와 7.2시간이 최적 건조 조건으로 확인되었고, 예측값과 실험 값을 비교한 결과 90% 이상의 최적 비율을 보였으며, 해당하는 값이 95% 신뢰구간과 예측구간 범위에 들어 실험 디자인과 모델의 적합성 또한 검증되었다.
This study evaluated the effects of acidulant treatment on the quality and storage period of Topokkidduck. Two samples of Topokkidduck were prepared, one soaked in 10% acidulant (10SAT) and the other without soaking in the acidulant (NSAT). During the storage period, the two samples were tested for presence of microorganisms (aerobic bacteria, E.coli, and mold) and physicochemical properties (color value, texture profile analysis (TPA)). The 10SAT could be stored for 49 days without detection of E.coli and a mold level of 1.0 log CFU/g. NSAT could be stored for only 21 days. NSAT had an aerobic count of 2.27 log CFU/g as early as 7 days, and E.coli was detected at 21 days at a level of 4.15 log CFU/g. The presence of E.coli is not permitted according to the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS). The hardness of the 10SAT increased during the storage period but to a much lesser extent compared to the NSAT. Thus the preparation of Topokkidduck by soaking in the acidulant controlled microbial growth for up to 49 days which is a much longer period compared to the control. Also, Topokkidduck soaked in the acidulant had a softer texture than the control during the storage period.
A total of 87 kinds of dried sweet potato products from Korea, China, and Japan were collected to compare dried sweet potatoes' quality characteristics for preparing CODEX. The characteristics of Aw, moisture, and reliable soluble content, color, and hardness were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis. The moisture content varied from country to country in order of Korea (21%), China (20%), and Japan (25%). In terms of color, Chinese products were dark and red compare to Korean and Japanese. Chinese products had a wide distribution of quality characteristics in common, so the product quality was not uniform. As a result of the PCA analysis, 67.2% of the total variance was explained. The first component evaluated the degree of the drying progress and the second component evaluated the appearance of the product, how it was bright and yellow. Based on the first component, Japanese, Korean and Chinese products were placed from the left, so the drying degree varied from country to country. Japanese products were the softest, Chinese products were hard, and Korean products were moderately hard. In conclusion, the moisture and reliable soluble content, color, and hardness of the dried sweet potato are essential quality factors, and they are expected to help identify the primary quality elements of sweet potato in neighboring countries.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of storage temperature and pressure plate treatment on chemical composition in Prunus mume sugar extracts (PSEs). Green Prunus mume fruit was mixed with an equal amount of commercial sugar and stored at 4 or 25oC for 9 mon with or without a pressure plate. The alcohol contents in PSEs stored at 4oC were lower than those stored at 25oC. The amygdalin contents in PSEs stored at 25oC with pressure plate were significantly low. The sucrose in PSEs was converted into glucose and fructose during storage. The glucose, fructose and total phenol contents in PSEs stored at 25oC were higher compared with those at 4oC. The total soluble solid and polyphenol contents in PSEs were increased at 25oC until 90 d and 4oC until 150 d and then the contents were constant. The total acidity in PSEs stored at 4oC were higher than those at 25oC. These results indicate that storage temperature plays an important role in controlling the alcohol, amygdalin and sucrose contents in Prunus mume sugar extracts (PSEs).
The purpose of this study is to optimize the rice starch and rice protein content ratio for the replacement of fish paste in eomuk using a response surface methodology. The experiment was designed based on the independent variables. The rice starch content (X1: 10, 20, 30%) and rice protein content (X2: 1, 3, 5%) were examined, along with the viscosity (Y1), color (Y2: L, Y3: a, Y4: b), and sensory evaluation of the dough (Y5: Color, Y6: Flavor, Y7: Off flavor, Y8: Taste, Y9: Hardness, Y10: Cohesiveness, Y11: Springiness, Y12: Chewiness, Y13: Overall acceptance), with the results being set as dependent variables. The p value of Y1, Y2, Y5, Y7, Y9, Y10, Y11, Y12, and Y13 showed a level of <0.05 excluding Y6 and Y8. R2 value was high at 0.80-0.95 so that these rice starch and rice protein contents were significantly affected in terms of the quality and sensory preference of eomuk; therefore, the optimal conditions of X1 and X2 were 19.99% and 2.91%, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted values of acceptance were Y5 (5.44), Y7 (5.36), Y9 (5.22), Y10 (5.46), and Y13 (6.11). These results will be the basis for building a method for obtaining a rice material. Also, they are expected to promote rice consumption through the development of processed foods using rice material.
This study was conducted to investigate changes on the quality characteristics of Prunus davidiana sugar extracts (PSEs) by processing conditions. The PSEs were prepared by extraction with commercial sucrose at 4°C or 25°C for 9 months with or without a pressure plate. The quality characteristics of PSEs were analyzed for Bxo, pH, total acidity, Hunter color value, alcohol content, polyphenol content, DPPH radical scaveging activity, and free sugar content. Bxo increased significantly while pH decreased with increased storage period (p<0.05). The PSEs stored at 4oC scored lower than those stored at 25oC for total acidity, alcohol content, and polyphenol contents. The PSEs with pressure plate possessed lower alcohol content and higher polyphenol content and DPPH free radical scavenging activity than those without pressure plate. The sucrose content in PSEs decreased with increased storage period, while glucose and fructose contents increased. These results indicate that by increasing storage period, sucrose in PSEs is decomposed into glucose and fructose, and the quality characteristics of PSEs such as total acidity, alcohol, and polyphenol content depend on processing conditions.
This study was conducted to find out the change in nutritional components and antioxidant activities of salted Chinese cabbage according to storage temperature and duration using supercooling. Salted Chinese cabbage was investigated every 2 weeks while it was stored at -2℃ and 2℃ for 8 weeks. This was followed by an analysis of freeze dried samples. The analyzed contents were free sugar and free amino acid contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and TPC and TFC. Free sugar content of salted Chinese cabbage decreased with longer storage duration, while free amino acid did not change significantly. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities did not change significantly with storage duration whereas the TPC and TFC of salted Chinese cabbage stored at -2℃ was higher than that stored at 2℃ for 6 weeks. Therefore, the quality of salted Chinese cabbage was maintained in direct refrigerator storage for a long duration, showing economic and industrial values as a new storage technology.
The purpose of this study was to optimize the rice protein extracted using a response surface methodology. The experiment was designed based on a CCD (Central Composite Design), and the independent variables were the high pressure (X1, 0-400 MPa) and processing time (X2, 0-10 minutes). The results of the extraction content (Y1), residue content (Y2), and recovery yield (Y3) were fitted to a response surface methodology model (R2= 0.92, 0.92, and 0.93, respectively). Increasing the pressure and processing time has a positive effect on the extraction content (Y1), residue content (Y2), and recovery yield (Y3). Therefore, these high-pressure conditions (independent variables) can significantly affect the improvement in rice protein extraction efficiency. Thus, the optimal conditions of X1 and X2 were 400 MPa and 10 min., respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted values of Y1, Y2, and Y3 were 62.93, 57.53 mg/g, and 91.76%, respectively.
The purpose of this study was to optimize the mandarin dry chip manufacturing using a response surface methodology. The experiment was designed based on a CCD (Central Composite Design), and the independent variables were the drying temperature (X1, 50-90oC), drying time (X2, 12-36 hours), and microwave pretreat time (X3, 0-4 minutes). The results of appearance (Y5), color (Y6), taste (Y8) and overall acceptance (Y10) were fitted to the response surface methodology model (R2=0.86, 0.88, 0.89, and 0.84, respectively). Increasing the drying temperature and microwave treatment time were negatively evaluated for consumer acceptance. On the other hand, a high value of consumer acceptance was evaluated when the drying time was more than 24 hr. Therefore, the optimal conditions of X1, X2, and X3 were 52.989oC, 24 hr, and 1 min, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted values of Y5, Y6, Y8, and Y10 were 5.066, 5.338, 5.063, and 5.339, respectively.