The difference between self-evaluated obesity and obesity index of RBW and BMI as well as attitude toward weight control were studied among college students in Chungnam area. The subjects of 307 students were randomly selected and asked to categorize their body shape into 5 groups and to record their body weight and height. We found that average RBW and BMI of the students were 95.7% and 20.6, respectively. By RBW, 30.6% of students belonged to underweight and severe-underweight groups whereas 14.0% overweight and obesity ones. The female students showed lower obesity indice than the male. Self-evaluated obesity seemed likely to overestimate their body shapes above RBW and BMI, which lead to high unsatisfactioin toward their body shape. The overestimation was profound in normal weighted female students up to 20%. Misunderstanding about their obesity, especially among female college students, should be corrected necessarily by proper nutrition counseling and nutrition education, unless malnutrition could be serious in college students.
주부들의 채소 소비 형태를 조사한 결과는 다음과 같이 요약할 수 있다. 1. 조사대상자의 73.4%가 30, 40대로서 고졸이 57.6%를 차지하였고 서울거주자가 77.2%, 아파트에 거주하는 사람이 50.5%, 핵가족이 78.8%, 4~5인의 가족수를 가진 가정이 56%, 월 평균수입이 150~200만원 이하가 50%였으며 전업주부가 84.8%였다. 2. 채소의 구입비용은 일주일에 1~2만원, 구입빈도는 일주일에 2~3회, 신선한 채소는 주로 흙이 붙어 있는 손질되지 않은 상태를 구입하였다. 구입장소는 주로 시장의 채소가게와 농협을 포함한 슈퍼마켓이었고 백화점에서 채소를 구입하는 연령은 주로 30, 40대로 나타났다(p〈.05). 3. 채소구입시 연령, 교육수준, 수입에 따라 우선적 고려요인이 달랐으나, 모두 무공해에 비교적 관심이 많았으며, 수입이 적은 경우에 가격이 중요한 요인으로 나타났다. 4. 가족구성원 중 채소반찬을 가장 좋아하는 사람은 주부 자신이었으며 가장 싫어하는 사람은 자녀 특히 아들이었다. 5. 채소조리법 중 기본적으로 김치류가 가장 선호되었고 자주 이용되지 않는 조리법은 샐러드로 나타났다. 6. 응답자의 54.3%가 채소반찬의 구입경험이 있었으며 별미로 먹기 위한 이유가 가장 많았다. 서울 거주자가 자주 구입하였으며(p〈.01) 저소득층에서는 편리함 때문에(p〈.05), 가족수가 적을수록 핵가족일수록 소량 필요해서(p〈.01), 확대가족은 별미로 먹어보려고 (p〈.05) 채소 반찬을 구입하였다. 판매되는 채소반찬을 구입하지 않는 이유는 비위생적인 요인이 가장 컸고, 첨가물 함유 가능성 때문에 채소반찬을 구입하지 않는 경우는 서울보다 지방거주자가 더 많았으며(p〈.05) 교육수준에 관계없이 첨가물의 함유가능성을 염려하였다. 7. 김치의 구입경험이 있는 사람은 27.2%였으며 구입이유는 시간부족이 가장 많았다. 서울에 거주할수록 (p〈.05), 직업이 있는 주부일수록(p〈.05) 편리함 때문에 김치를 구입하였고 수입이 낮은 가정은 소량 필요해서 구입하였다(p〈.01). 김치를 구입하지 않는 이유로는 김치를 사먹는 것이 좋지 않게 생각되어서가 가장 많았다. 지방에 거주할수록(p〈.01) 김치구입 자체를 좋지않게 여겼고(연립주택에 거주하는 사람은 비위생적 요인으로 김치를 구입하지 않았고(p〈.05)), 학력이 높을수록 첨가물 함유 가능성 때문에 김치를 구입하지 않았으며(p〈.05), 시간적 여유가 비교적 있는 part time 일을 하는 주부는 맛이 없어서 김치를 구입하지 않는다고 하였다. 8. 채소에 함유된 영양소 3가지는 비타민, 무기질 및 섬유소로 응답하였고 응답자의 83.2%는 채소에는 cholesterol이 함유되어 있지 않으므로 채식이 건강에 좋다고 하였다. 또한 질병치료에 유효한 채소는 당근 등 42가지, 질병을 유발시키는 채소는 고사리 등 10종을 지적하였으며 이들은 과학적 증명이 가능하거나 민간요법으로 전해지고 있는 내용이다. 이상과 같이 덕성여자대학교 평생교육원에 다니는 주부의 채소 소비 형태에 대하여 살펴보았는데 가공된 채소반찬과 김치의 구입은 현재까지 일반화되지 않고 있음을 알 수 있으나 김치보다 채소반찬의 구입경험이 더 많은 것으로 나타났다. 본 논문은 덕성여자대학교 평생교육원에 다니는 주부를 대상으로 하였으나 앞으로 다양한 계층의 주부를 대상으로 하여 폭 넓은 채소소비에 관련된 연구가 이루어져야 한다고 사료된다.
This study was carried out to investigate the differences of the dietary behavior of the college students by the type of the residence, that is, home-living, dormitory-living, and self-cooking. The responses of 307 students to the questionaire were analyzed. The average meal frequency of the students was 2.4 times a day. Breakfast was skipped most frequently, especially in dormitory-living and self-cooking students compared to home-living ones. Forty-three percent of the students were found to eat breakfast less than twice a week. Such a poor eating habit was mainly due to insufficient time or idleness. When the quality of the meal was evaluated, dormitory-living and self-cooking students had worse scores than home-living ones. The formers had poor dietary habit in terms of balanced breakfast and food diversity of each meal compared to the latter. Fast foods and coffee were consumed more frequently by dormitory-living and self-cooking students than home-living ones. The main food they eat was rice. However, female dormitory-living students had a higher tendency to enjoy bread for breakfast and noodle for dinner compared to the other groups. Home-living and self-cooking students had snack more frequently than dormitory-living ones, and female than male. In terms of snack time, most of the respondents had snack between lunch and dinner or after dinner. The percentage of those who had snack after dinner was greater in dormitory-living and self-cooking students than home-living students. Results of the food preference test showed that their favorite dishes were fruit salad, Bulgogi, uncurdled Tofu stew, Kimbab, and boiled rice. We observed that dormitory-living and self-cooking students had more problems in their dietary behavior. Therefore, they need to learn how to manage their own meals. This study might be helpful to develop nutrition education materials for the dietary improvement of the college students.
This research was designed to see the relationship among nutrient intake, food intake frequency and psychosocial stress in ordinary life. The subjects were 190 males and 263 females of university students in urban areas. There were significant correlations between nutrient intake and stress value, and between food intake frequency and stress value. In male, the more they consumed energy, protein and carbohydrate, the higher they had stress in several categories. But in female the results were reversed. Their stress values were lower when they have consumed protein source food frequently. And in general, stress values of female were higher than those of male. From these results, we conclude that nutrient intake tends to be decresed with increase stress in less stressful condition, but to be increased in more stressful condition.
General views of 1,436 housewives respondents through the country on commercial kochujang (fermented hot pepper-soybean paste) were surveyed by questionnaires. The 65.0% of total respondents had experience of purchasing commercial kochujang on the market, mostly super market (43.0%) of respondents, and the respondents who has job and live in apartment purchased the commercial products more often than the others (80.5%). The reason for purchasing commercial products were convenience (36.1%) and short of time (13.0%). The critera for purchasing commercial product were previous experience (40.1%) and well known trademark (20.6%) and not for purchasing were concerning of noxiousness (29.2%) and inferior taste (25.0%). Respondents prefered glass packing (44.3%) and plastic bottle (20.2%) of 500 g pack for single usage (42.3%). The most important standards for kochujang taste were pungency (59.1%) and savory taste (28.6%). The problems indicated to commercial products were inferior taste (32.2%), especially too sweet (52.6%), and safety (20.6%).
The preparation method for traditional kochujang (fermented hot pepper-soybean paste) at home were surveyed by 1,436 housewives through the country by premade questionnaires. The kochujang meju (Korean style soybean Koji for kochujang) were made by solely soybean (45.3% of respondents) or soybean with rice (26.3%) from September to November (52.2%) or December to February (32.7%). The shape of meju was either doughnut (28.4%) or brick (25.6%) type. Kochujang making seasons were either from March to May (56.6%) or December to February (25.0%) and it was prepared in proportion of mostly 6~10% meju powder (32%) with over 20% of red pepper powder (57.2%) prepared by seed removed dry red pepper. Subsidiary ingredients for kochujang making were boiled waxy rice (73.5%), malt (33.3%), corn syrup (18.9%) or corn syrup with malt (21.9%). After mixing all ingredients, kochujang in clay pot were occasionally exposed to the sun for fermentation for 3~4 months (35.0%) or 1~2 months (34.7%).
도시지역(대구, 구미, 영천, 창원)에 거주하는 직장남성 420명을 대상으로 식생활에 영향을 주는 요인들과 식습관에 대하여 조사하였다. 인구통계학적 변인들과 식습관의 관계에서 직업(p<0.001)과 연령(p<0.01)이 높은 유의성을 나타내었다. 전문직, 관리직, 판매직 등의 직업은 식습관이 "좋다"라는 반응이 많이 나타났으나 사무직에서 "나쁘다"라는 반응이 많이 나타났다. 연령에 있어서 청년층보다 장년층이 식습관에 대한 관심도가 높았으며 주거형태, 배우자의 직업 유무, 월수입도 상당한 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 식생활 태도 및 건강상태를 나타내는 변인들과 식습관과의 연관성은 하루 평균 식사횟수, 평소 운동상태, 수면상태, 피로감과 생활리듬, 식사 후 소화상태, 건강상태 등에서 상호 높은 유의성(p<0.001)을 나타내어 식생활 태도와 건강상태가 식습관에 깊은 영향을 준다는 것을 알 수 있었다.
Korean fresh elephant-foot (Amorphophalus konjak K. Koch) and its powder were analyzed and compared with foreign samples to investigate the physico-chemical characteristics of Korean konjak. The Korean fresh konjak contained 80.6% of moisture content and most of the solid component comprises much of sugar, protein and trace of fat and fibre. The mannan content of Korean konjak powder is far smaller than those of Japanese and Chinese konjak powder. The analysis of the Korean konjak revealed that glutamic acid, aspartic acid and arginine included 45% of total amount, and other amino acid was incresaed with the order of valine, serine, leucine and glycine. The Korean konjak contained a moderate amount of K component and other inorganic component was larger with the order of P, Na and Ca. The yield of refined powder obtained from dried chip of Konjak was 61.0% in Korean one and 57.5% in Chinese one. The degree of lightness of Chinese konjak powder was slightly higher than that of Korean product, but the difference could not be recognized by naked eye.
This study was undertaken to investigate dietary status, food habits, and nutritional knowledge of university students majoring in judo (n=239) and to evaluate the effect of dietary behavior on their athletic activities. Mean daily dietary intakes (3,854.0 kcal) were similar to mean daily energy consumptions (3,975.5 kcal). Average daily intakes of most vitamins and minerals were higher than Korean Recommended Dietary Allowances except for the intake of vitamin A. Self-confidence on judo affected dietary behavior of the subjects: Subjects who had more self-confidence on judo showed more interest in good nutrition and concerned more about foods which could promote their athletic activities. Many side effects were manifested after sudden weight control for judo competition during school days. Therefore, it is suggested that good education on nutrition is necessary not only for athletic students, but also for coaches and trainers of the students. Ten weeks of education on nutrition significantly improved both food habits and nutritional knowledge of the subjects. Food habits were positively correlated with self-confidence on judo. Therefore, it is suggested that improvement of food habits through good education on nutrition would be helpful to improve athletic activities of the students.
This study was undertaken to investigate the knowledge and the use of Korea traditional basic side dishes, Jangachies, by housewives. Among the 58 kinds Jangachies, the most well-known Jangachies (above 80% of subjects) turned out to be Perilla leaf, Red pepper leaf, Garlic, Young stem of garlic, Green red leaf, Cucumber and dried Radish Jangachi in the order. In cooking experience of Jangachi, 40% of subjects in Perilla leaf, 28.0% in Green red pepper, 24.8% in Garlic and 24.1% in Red pepper leaf Jangachi have cooked frequently. The proportion of subjests who has bought the marketed Jangachi products were 51.6%. Major problem of that products was pointed out for a sanitary condition, high price and poor taste. If marketed Jangachies were improved over the aspects, the proportion of subjects who would buy the products was 76.2%. The frequency of Jangachi intake was very low on a average due to too salty taste and the difficulty in preparation. The older in age, the more in interest level for Jangachi (p<0.05). 39.6% of subject have had preparation ability of Jangachies. With increasing age (p<0.01), decreasing education level (p<0.01) and those who live in rural area (p<0.05), preparation ability of Jangachi tended to be higher.
The purpose of this paper was to grasp some aspects of use of imported foods at the rural homes with the growing generation. So we put some questions to the 399 middle school and high school students. The results were as follows: (1) The number of the homes using the imported foods, which marks 56.9% of the whole, was higher than the number of the homes not using the ones. (2) Even though the use of imported foods had no relation with the occupations of the student's mothers, the degree of living quality, the situations of food consumption, and so on, however the use ratio was high at the homes of middle class. (3) The students of the home of using imported foods favored the traditional diets, and marked 63% of the objective students of investigation. The students who like the western style of diets marked the high frequency of the use of the imported foods. On the other hand, the students who like the Chinese foods used the meat and fishes and processed foodstuffs among the imported foods. (4) The frequency of instant foods for the carried lunches showed the meaningful relation with frequency of use of imported foods. (5) In the view of use of instant foods for the lunches, the group of people who carried the lunches 3 or 5 times per week used the imported meat foods, the other group who carried the lunches 1 or 2 times per week marked the high frequency of having coffee and tea.
This study was undertaken to determine factors associated with infant feeding practices among highly educated Korean mothers living in Texas, USA and local populations. In both groups, infant's birth order, maternal age, prenatal education, husband's attitude, mother's attitude and infant's taking a bottle to bed were not associated with infant's feeding patterns significantly. However, there was a significant difference in initiating time for introduction of supplementary foods between Koreans and Americans. Thus Korean mothers introduced supplementary foods earlier than American counterparts. Furthermore the infant's feeding method among all participants affected the time for introducing supplementary foods significantly. Though attitude of Korean mothers toward breastfeeding was slightly more positive than that of American mothers, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Koreans was much lower than that in Americans. It might be suggested that effective nutrition education program for Korean subjects should be developed to practice breastfeeding from positive attitude and knowledge. It might be also suggested that participation of prenatal nutrition education involving fathers should be encouraged for promotion of rates of initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding of mothers.