Considering that the number of middle-aged single-person households is increasing, this study investigates dietary behaviors, nutrient intake, and mental health according to household type. Data were procured from the 2015-2019 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Totally, 5,466 participants aged 50-64 years were classified into 2 groups: a household with one member was defined as a single-person household, and households with two or more members were described as multi-person households. Single-person households comprised 10.63% of the total, with a higher average age, and lower income and economic levels than multi-person households. Compared to multiperson households, single-person households had a higher frequency of skipping breakfast, eating alone, and dining out, the moderately and severely food insecure group was more than 5 times, and nutrient intake and dietary quality were poorer. In the fully adjusted model, the odds ratios (ORs) of depressive symptoms were 2.35 times (95% CI: 1.39-3.96), and suicide ideation was 1.95 times (95% CI: 1.35-2.82) in single-person compared to multi-person households. Our results lead us to conclude that poor dietary intake in middle-aged single-person households affects the mental health, and the above factors should be considered when framing the dietary policy.
This study aimed to determine the association between household types and healthy dietary practices among Korean adults. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using nationwide data on 23,488 participants from the 2017-2021 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Based on self-reported data, the participant household types were classified into single- and multi-person households. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for healthy dietary practices according to household types were calculated by applying multivariable logistic regression analysis after adjusting for confounders. Of total, 11.21% and 88.79% were single- and multi-person households, respectively. Compared with individuals living in multi-person households, those in single-person households had lower odds of adhering to healthy dietary practices (AOR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98) and consuming adequate saturated fatty acids (<7% of energy) (AOR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.69-0.88). In addition, men and individuals aged 65 years living in single-person households exhibited lower odds of consuming adequate saturated fatty acids and 500 g of fruit and vegetables per day than those in multi-person households. Single-person households often find it a challenge to practice a healthy diet. Hence, nutritional policies and educational support that help individuals living alone consume healthier diets are warranted.
This study was a qualitative investigation into the food security and food variety among the rural elderly. For the qualitative data collection, nineteen elderly people who lived in Yangpyeong-gun were interviewed individually. Food security and variety was evaluated based on accessibility and affordability. The participants seemed to have difficulty preparing their own meals and eating with their families or others. The frequency of vegetable intake was found to be high, as vegetables were available through cultivation. However, in terms of diversity, the intake of meat and milk, which are sources of protein and calcium, was found to be significantly low. This has to do with very poor physical accessibility. A lack of nutrition education was identified as the biggest reason for not following dietary therapy despite having a pre-existing disease condition. Therefore, for the elderly in Yangpyeong-gun, it is suggested that a basic nutrition policy for food supply that can increase their actual intake is more essential than education on cooking and nutrients. Moreover, periodic nutrition education or a regular counseling system for dietary therapy through local public health centers may help improve the health of the elderly.
This study was to identify the effects of education on Korean foods preferred by elementary students and their sustainability. A survey was conducted on 5th-grade elementary school students. Korean food preferences were classified by exploratory factor analysis as creative, healthy, or considerate, and the effects of education on Korean dietary life were classified as cognitive or emotional. Dietary life sustainability was evaluated separately. Results showed that creative and considerate preferences had significant impacts on cognitive and emotional education effects and that a healthy preference type significantly impacted the emotional effect of education. Analysis showed that creative and considerate food preference types significantly influenced dietary life sustainability and that cognitive and emotional education effects mediated these relationships. Sex was not found to have a significant moderating effect. The study shows that Korean dietary life sustainability is influenced by education on topics that promote the value and excellence of Korean food and suggests that experiential education combining practice and theory should be used to increase interest in Korean food among elementary students. Additional studies are required to determine Korean food preferences to facilitate the development of a dietary life education program that enables students to understand and maintain healthy dietary practices.
This study aims to analyze the sensory characteristic of cooked rice made with 10 types of rice varieties produced in South Korea using descriptive analysis. Twelve subjects who cook rice regularly, at least once a week, were recruited for the study and participated as descriptive panelists. A total of 29 descriptive terms were developed to describe the sensory characteristics of cooked rice. The findings showed that there were significant differences in the sensory attributes, specifically the appearance and texture attributes among the rice varieties. Among the varieties, Haedeul, Ilpum, and Koshihikari were observed to have a large quantity of rice germ and a relatively yellowish appearance. In contrast, Samkwang, Chamdream, and Yeonghojinmi were relatively whiter than the other samples. Odae, Saecheongmoo, and Sindongjin were rated high in the attributes of roughness, hardness, and chewiness, and Jinsang was rated high in moisture, bitterness, stickiness, and wholeness of rice grains. The differences in the appearance and texture of these rice varieties are likely to significantly impact consumer preferences. Furthermore, the development of customized menus based on the sensory characteristics of the different varieties of rice could encourage consumers to purchase these varieties.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica powder on the quality characteristics and storage stability of goat meat Tteokgalbi. The goat meat Tteokgalbi samples were prepared with four different quantities (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5%) of Centella asiatica powder. The moisture content of the samples containing Centella asiatica powder was significantly lower than that of the control (p<0.05). The protein content of the samples containing Centella asiatica powder was significantly higher than that of the control (p<0.05). As the proportion of Centella asiatica powder increased, the pH, L*, and a* values of the uncooked and cooked samples decreased (p<0.05). The water holding capacity and the cooking yield of the uncooked and cooked samples were higher in the samples containing Centella asiatica powder than in the control (p<0.05). Also, with the increasing amounts of the Centella asiatica powder, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels decreased. The 1-1.5% Centella asiatica powder group showed lower levels of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) than the other groups as per the assay (p<0.05). The results indicate that Centella asiatica powder could enhance the quality characteristics and storage stability of goat meat Tteokgabi.
This study was conducted on four types of laver soup prepared using recipes from Gangwon-do (GW), Gyeongsangnamdo (GN), Jeollanam-do (JN), and the media (MD). Salinities, soluble solids, free amino acids, color values, turbidities, and pH values of soups were measured, and sensory evaluations were done. pH values were significantly higher for GW and GN recipes than the JN and MD recipes (p<0.05). The salinities of JN and MD were significantly higher than those of the other soups (p<0.05). Regarding soluble solids, JN had the highest at 2.64oBrix, whereas GW had the lowest at 0.86 °Brix (p<0.05). GW and JN had higher concentrations of valine, phenylalanine, and glutamic acid (p<0.05). JN had significantly higher redness (a) than the other soups but significantly lower lightness (L) and yellowness (b) (p<0.05). Regarding transmittance, GW had a significantly higher value (67.67%T) than the other soups. JN and MD had higher acceptability results than GW or GN in terms of flavor, mouthfeel, and overall acceptability. Sensory intensity evaluations revealed that JN and MD had higher “soy sauce aroma” and “saltiness” and a greater “broth turbidity” than the other soups. These results indicate that the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of regional laver soups differ.
This study compared the physicochemical properties of soybean curd residue and black soybean curd residue produced by hot air-drying and freeze-drying. Regardless of drying method, the crude protein, crude ash, crude fiber contents, pH, L, a, b color values and water soluble index were higher in soybean curd residue, whereas total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity were higher in black soybean curd residue. Significant differences in water absorption index, oil absorption capacity and emulsion activity were observed between soybean curd residue and black soybean curd residue in freeze-drying. On the other hand, the emulsion stability was not significant difference in both hot-air drying and freezedrying. The crude protein and crude fiber contents of soybean curd residue were not significant difference between hot-air drying and freeze-drying. Freeze-drying resulted in higher crude ash contents, pH, water absorption index, water soluble index, oil absorption capacity, emulsion activity and emulsion stability than hot-air drying. Hot-air drying have caused significantly higher water contents, water activity, total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity in soybean curd residue than freeze-drying. In conclusion, soybean type and drying methods affect the physicochemical and quality characteristics of soybean curd residue, which could be important factors in the manufacture of processed foods.
Ipomoea aquatic is a leafy vegetable of the Convolvulaceae family, and is a tropical plant widely inhabiting southern China and Southeast Asia, and is widely known as Morning Glory in the West. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl acetate extract from Ipomoea aquatic extracts (IAE) were tested against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation microglia BV2 cells. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and cell viability were measured using the Griess reagent and MTT assay, respectively. Inflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and interleukin-1 (IL-1)] were detected qPCR in LPS induced BV-2 cells. Subsequently, nuclear factor (NF)-B, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were analyzed through western blot analyses and immunofluorescence. Ipomoea aquatic down-regulated of inflammatory markers and up-regulated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidants in BV2 cells.