Ipomoea aquatic is a leafy vegetable of the Convolvulaceae family, and is a tropical plant widely inhabiting southern China and Southeast Asia, and is widely known as Morning Glory in the West. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl acetate extract from Ipomoea aquatic extracts (IAE) were tested against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation microglia BV2 cells. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and cell viability were measured using the Griess reagent and MTT assay, respectively. Inflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and interleukin-1 (IL-1)] were detected qPCR in LPS induced BV-2 cells. Subsequently, nuclear factor (NF)-B, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were analyzed through western blot analyses and immunofluorescence. Ipomoea aquatic down-regulated of inflammatory markers and up-regulated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidants in BV2 cells.
식량 작물의 확보 및 생산량 예측은 국가 발전에 있어 필수적이며, 국가 경제뿐만 아니라 전 세계 식량 안보에 기여 한다. 최근 환경오염으로 인한 이상기후는 식량 작물 생산량에 직ㆍ간접적으로 부정적 영향을 끼치고 있어, 작물 수확량 예측 불확실성이 높아지고 있다. 특히, 노지 작물의 경우 생산량 감소와 품질 저하 문제가 화두 되고 있다. 이러한 문제는 농가들뿐만 아니라 소비자들에게도 큰 피해를 안겨주고 있다. 이러한 생산량 예측 이슈를 해결하기 위해 최근에는 인공지능 기술이 농업 분야에도 활발히 적용되고 있다. 작물 수확량의 정확한 예측을 위한 머신러닝 기반 연구가 집중적으로 수행되고 있다. 따라서, 본 연구에서는 이와 같은 인공지능 기반의 노지 작물 수확량 예측 기술(머신러닝, 딥러닝, 하이브리드 모델 등) 현황 및 작물 수확량에 가장 영향을 많이 끼치는 모델 파라미터 등을 조사하였다.
In this study, we investigated the effect of the extracts of Cyrtomium fortunei J.Sm. (CFJ) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation in mouse BV-2 microglial cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production and cell viability were measured using the Griess reagent and the (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) (MTT) assay. Inflammatory cytokines were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in BV-2 microglial cells with and without CFJ extracts. Subsequently, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and antioxidant markers were assessed by western blot analysis. It was found that the CFJ extract significantly decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-, and IL-1) and NO in BV-2 microglial cells that were stimulated with LPS. In addition, the expression levels of the phosphorylation of the MAPK family (p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases [JNK], and extracellularsignal regulated kinase [ERK]) were reduced by CFJ. Also, treatment with CFJ significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase type 1(SOD1) and Catalase in BV-2 microglial cells. Our results indicate that CFJ has a potent suppressive effect on the pro-inflammatory responses of activated BV-2 microglia. Therefore, CFJ has the potential to be an effective treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, as it can inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators in activated BV-2 microglial cells.
This study aims to promote the necessity for future research from the perspective of the indoor environment by analyzing the trend of domestic COVID-19 confirmed cases and examining previous quantitative research cases. The limitations of the qualitative management plan were identified by analyzing the trend of confirmed cases and deaths in Korea and the trend before and after the implementation of 'social distancing' and 'step-by-step daily recovery', which are actually being applied. The trend of initial and follow-up measures for the outbreak of infectious diseases in Korea is judged to be a case where the importance of qualitative and quantitative management should be confirmed to prepare absolute quarantine measures. The results suggest that examining previous research cases and preparing through advanced research for effective application.
본 연구는 새만금 농생명용지와 주변 지역의 간척 전후 생태계서비스를 평가하고 증진방안을 마련하기 위해 수행하 였다. 새만금 지역의 생태계서비스 기능은 토지 유형에 따라 다르게 나타났다. 간척 전 새만금은 공급, 조절, 문화, 지지서비스 기능이 모두 높았으나 간척 후에는 공급, 조절, 지지서비스 기능이 하락했다. 따라서 새만금 농생명 용지의 생태계서비스를 증진하려면 논 습지, 저수지 등의 반(半)자연생태계가 가지는 공급, 조절, 지지서비스를 강화하는 것이 필요하다. 현재 남아 있는 산림, 도서 지역 등의 자연생태계와 광활한 농경지를 농촌관광 및 생태관광을 특화하고, 농업과 관련된 교육․연구 위주의 문화서비스 기능을 강화할 필요가 있다. 이를 위해 넓은 농경지와 농업 기반을 활용하여 농업생산, 농촌관광 등을 활성화하고 고령화가 진행되고 있는 지역에 대한 정부의 지원이 필요하다.
Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive precursor which forms advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs and methylglyoxal are known to induce various diseases such as diabetes, vascular disorders, Diabetes Mellitus (DM), and neuronal disorders. Juglans regia L is an important food commonly used worldwide, having nutritious components, including phenolic compounds. Since ancient times, Juglans regia L have been differently applied by various countries for health and in diverse diseases, including arthritis, asthma, skin disorders, cancer, and diabetes mellitus. However, the effect of diabetes-induced renal damage against AGEs remains unclear. This study evaluates the anti-glycation and renal protective effects of ethanol extract of Juglans regia L against methylglyoxal-induced renal tubular epithelial cell death. Exposure to methylglyoxal resulted in reduced cell viability in NRK-52E cells, but co-treatment with Juglans regia L extracts significantly increased the cell viability. In addition, we examined the anti-glycation effect of Juglans regia L extracts. Compared to the positive control aminoguanidine and Alagebrium, treatment with Juglans regia L extracts significantly inhibited the formation of AGEs, collagen cross-linking, and breaking collagen cross-linking. Taken together, our results indicate that Juglans regia L is a potential therapeutic agent for regulating diabetic complications by exerting anti-glycation and renal protective activities.
To optimize initial cooling conditions, forced-air cooling was applied to freshly harvested oak mushrooms at 2 levels (0oC for 30 minutes, at 0oC for 1 hour) followed by room cooling at 3 levels (-3oC for 1 day, 0oC for 1 day, 3oC for 1 day). After initial cooling, the oak mushrooms were packaged with PVC film, then held in a storage room at 1oC for 6 weeks. Quality characteristics and percentage marketability were then investigated. As a control, Mushrooms were placed in storage with no initial cooling. The quality factors impacting marketability of fresh oak mushrooms were color change and appearance of decay. Off-odor did not occur or developed only slightly, so it did not affect oak mushroom quality within 6 weeks of low temperature storage. In all treatment groups, the shelf life in which 100% marketability was maintained was up to 3 weeks. At week 5, percent marketability of the 3 treatment groups 1 hour room cooling treatment at 0°C, 1 hour forced air cooling, and control was 100%. 80% In the group that underwent 30 min forced air cooling retained 80% marketability, and the group exposed to 1 day in room cooling at -3oC retained 86.7% marketability. At week 6 of 1oC storage, the marketability ratio was 80% in the 1 day room cooling at 0oC group, 66.7% in the 1 day room cooling at 3oC group, 46.7% in the 1 hour forced air cooling group, and 33% or less in all other treatment groups. Therefore, the most suitable initial cooling parameter to extend shelf-life of oak mushrooms is 1 day of in room cooling at 0oC immediately after harvest.
Scores from TEPS (Test of English Proficiency developed by Seoul National University) and TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication) are widely used in Korea for various purposes, including employment, admission, and certification. However, there is more than one score conversion relationship between these two tests, causing confusion among test takers. Moreover, the conversion relationships were established in 2004 and 2011 and have not been updated since then. With this background, a large-scale score comparability study was undertaken to develop a new score conversion table for TEPS and TOEIC. Data were collected from a total of 1,415 test takers using a single group design. Log-linear presmoothing and equipercentile methods were used for linking, with cross validation across subgroups. Results showed that the old conversions were disadvantageous to a certain test-taker group. A new conversion table between the two tests is then suggested.
큰느타리의 수출시 유통 기한 연장을 목적으로 수확시 품질 등급, 대와 자실체 사이를 잘라낸 손질 처리 유무, 그리고 관행 OPP 봉지에 끈묶음한 포장 방법을 개선시켜 트레이용기에 넣은 후 밀봉처리시 효과를 구명하고자 하였다. 수확시 품질 등급은 수확전 재배사의 온도를 9~11˚C 낮추어 적응시킨 버섯을 특품으로, 관행 13~15˚C로 적응시킨 버섯을 상품으로 설정하였다. 선별한 특품과 상품 버섯을 이용하여 손질 및 포장방법으로 3처리구를 두었다. 첫째는 절단 손질 후 OPP 봉지에 넣어 끈묶음한 포장(Cut & OPP), 둘째는 손질하지 않고 OPP 봉지에 넣어 끈묶음한 포장(Uncut & OPP), 마지막으로 개선포장방 법으로 절단 손질한 후 트레이용기에 넣고 밀봉한 포장 (Cut & Tray)이었다. 포장 완료한 버섯 처리구를 0℃ 저장고에 42일간 보관하면서 포장 내부의 기체 조성, 품질 요인의 변화, 신선 품질에 대한 관능평가를 실시하였다. 특품과 상품의 버섯 모두 Cut & Tray, Cut & OPP, 그리고 Uncut & OPP 처리 순으로 전반적으로 신선도가 높게 유지되었다. 특품 버섯의 유통 수명은 Cut & Tray 처리의 경우 30일, Cut & OPP 처리의 경우 28일, Uncut & OPP 처리의 경우 21일이었고, 상품 버섯의 유통 수명은 Cut & Tray 처리시 22일, Cut & OPP 처리시 17일, 그리고 Uncut & OPP 처리시 14 일이었다. 신선 버섯의 품질에 영향을 미치는 요인은 갓과 대의 갈변과 부패 지수였다. 특히, 버섯 대의 아랫부분의 갈변과 그에 연관된 표피색 a*값과 b*값의 변화가 품질 저하의 주요인이었다.