This study investigated the characteristics of main house food cultures in Gyeonggi-do using a case study on the head family. The subject of this study was selected through an advisory committee of experts; it incorporated intangible and tangible elements of the main family based on relevant data. Selected representative main house of Gyeonggi-do had 12 parts in total. The entire investigation was conducted in five parts; literature search, telephone survey, in-depth interviews, inheritance food research of the head family, and cuisine demonstrations. Twelve families within the researched family clan had members of high merit or scholarly reputation qualified enough to serve bulcheonwi, a form of important religious worship. Food in Gyeonggi-do, specifically, can be served for Bongjesa jeopbingaek, which is a combination of performance of ancestral rites and greeting guests. Meat ingredients were frequently used. Articles of clothing were colorful and vivid, with wootgi that needed lots of work. Soup and steamed dishes tended to favor simple but fresh tastes that come with their cultural and historical context.
Medicinal porridge (藥粥) is made by putting rice or grains into a pot and boiling with water until a semi-liquid texture is obtained. Porridge is digested fast and absorbed by the body. Children or elderly people with weak digestive ability can eat it without difficulty. The authors of this literature focused on utilization of mung bean porridge (Nokdu-juk) based on SeungjeongwonIlgi (承政院日記), which is the daily record of the Royal Secretariat of the Joseon Dynasty from 1623 to 1910. Four cases were found. The first case used mungbean for treating fever diseases (熱症), the second as a meal alternative, the third for wound recovery, and the last case described the culture of the joseon dynasty. According to the actual cases in SeungjeongwonIlgi (承政院日記), mung bean porridge (Nokdu-juk) was actively used to lower fever and strengthen the spleen and stomach. When suffering from the after effects of a malignant tumor or serious liver disease (肝 病), an infectious disease, or a serious physical wound, people ate mung bean porridge (Nokdu-juk). It is suggested that mung bean porridge (Nokdu-juk) can be used as an alternative food treatment for the current medical field due to the prevalence of pain-killers and psychotropic drug abuse.
This study is a comparative study on a cookbook published in 1900s titled「Jusikbangmun」, one of collections of the National Central Library, along with other cookery books in Joseon Dynasty in the late 1800s to early 1900s. 「Jusikbangmun」consists of 51 recipes, including 45 kinds of staple foods and six kinds of brews. More than 60% of the recipes deal with staple dishes and side-dishes, whereas the rest deal with ceremonial dishes and drinking. The 「Jusikbangmun」applies a composite method of cooking from boiling and steaming to seasoning with oil spices. The ingredients are largely meats rather than vegetables, which is distinguished other cookery books in the Joseon Dynasty. Only 「Jusikbangmun」deals with such peculiar recipes as ‘Kanmagitang’, ‘Bookyengsumyentang’, ‘Jeryukpyen’, ‘Yangsopyen’, and ‘Dalgihye’. It is estimated that 「Jusikbangmun」was published around the 1900s based on findings that 「Jusikbangmun」is more similar with「Buinpilgi」and「Joseonyorijebeop」in the early 1900s than with「Kyuhapchongseo」, 「Siyijenseo」and「Jusiksieui」in 1800s. Therefore,「Jusikbangmun」is a valuable resource, we can use understand the food culture of the late Joseon period.
The present study was conducted on 200 food handlers employed at restaurants with open-kitchens in Seoul to evaluate their food sanitation knowledge levels and practices. A majority of participants (88%) replied that open-kitchens are more hygienic than common kitchens due to the sanitary cooking process. The correct answer rate was 94.3% for sanitation of instruments and utensils and environmental sanitation, whereas food handling sanitation (66.8%) was ranked at the bottom among food sanitation knowledge. Total scores of food sanitation knowledge were significantly influenced by education level and ages of food handlers (p<0.001). Personal hygiene knowledge level of food handlers regarding institutional food service was higher than that of food handlers at restaurants and bakeries (p<0.001). Food sanitation practices scores showed significant differences in personal hygiene (p<0.001) and environmental sanitation (p<0.05) according to certificate possession. As the result of correlation analysis between food sanitation knowledge and practices, there was no significantly positive correlation, whereas a significant positive correlation was observed between knowledge of food handling and personal hygiene practices (p<0.05). The results show need for improvement in both knowledge and practice levels of open-kitchen food handlers. Consistent and customized food sanitation education program should be developed to protect against food poisoning at open-kitchen restaurants.
The purpose of this study was to determine health consciousness and eating habits of workers at Deluxe hotels in Seoul and Gyonggi-do. To determine health levels, this study focused on quality of sleep, current state of health, smoking, drinking, regular exercise, dietary behavior patterns, dietary habits, and food intake patterns. Out of 228 subjects, 145 (63.6%) were males and 83 (36.4%) were females. Majority of workers (86.9%) graduated from university. A majority (57.0%) worked more than 10 years. Average health condition was ‘little tired’, whereas 18.4% of subjects were ‘always tired’. Male percentages for smoking and drinking were higher than those for females. A total of 44.3% of workers ate twice a day. Regular physical activity was high, but regular exercise rate was slightly low. Male average eating speed was faster than that of females and had lower scores for desirable eating habits. Shift workers ate night meals more than non- shift workers. This study shows that workers at Deluxe hotels need to take better care of their health.
This study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of lotus root tea (LT) prepared with Gardenia jasminoides powder (GLT) and Rubus coreanus Miquel powder (RLT). The proximate compositions, physicochemical properties, mineral contents, and sensory evaluations of samples were measured. GLT sample showed higher contents of crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, and moisture (p<0.001) as well as pH (p<0.001) compared to LT and RLT. In terms of color, lightness (L) and yellowness (b) of GLT were the highest among the samples, whereas redness (a) of GLT was the lowest. The results of mineral analysis showed that the mineral contents of K, Ca, and Fe of LT were the highest, whereas the content of Mg of GLT was the highest. The results of browning color intensity of all samples showed that LT had the lowest. GLT showed higher contents of water soluble solids than LT and RLT. In the sensory evaluation, the scores of color, flavor, aftertaste, feeling of throat, and overall preference of LT and GLT were significantly higher than those of RLT. From the findings, this study suggests that addition of Gardenia jasminoides powder was effective for preparation of lotus root tea in the aspects of consumer acceptability.
The objective of this study was to prepare acorn bread added with soymilk in order to improve its quality and develop the best possible recipe. The loaf volume, color, texture and sensory evaluation of acorn bread added with soymilk 10~40% were measured during the storage period. The L-value significantly decreased upon addition of 40% soymilk. A-value increased, but b-value decreased. During the storage period, the L- and a- values increased except 2 days at room temperature and 7 days in a freezer, whereas b-value decreased. For textural measurement, hardness, springiness, gumminess and brittleness increased significantly upon addition of soymilk. However cohesiveness decreased for 2 days of storage, whereas gumminess and brittleness for 1 day of storage at room temperature. Freezer storage for 1 day reduced cohesiveness, and gumminess for 4 and 7 days, respectively, and brittleness after all storage periods. The sensory evaluation showed that acorn bread added with soymilk 20% produced the best results in color and taste. The bitter aftertaste increased according to addition of soymilk with lower scores. Softness, chewiness and overall preference decreased significantly. Therefore, 10% soymilk addition got the best scores in aftertaste, softness, chewiness and overall acceptances.
This study evaluated the quality characteristics of dried noodles prepared with doenjang powder (0, 3, 6, 9%) in order to determine the most preferred noodle recipe. The proximate composition of the composite doenjang powder-wheat flours was as follows: calories 365 kcal, carbohydrates 79 g, saccharides 3 g, protein 10 g, fat 0.8 g, and sodium 65 mg. As the level of doenjang powder increased, the content of total amino acids increased; aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine, and lysine contents increased, in particular. Water-binding capacity decreased as the level of doenjang powder increased. When viscosity of composite doenjang powder-wheat flours was measured by amylography, gelatinization point increased as the level of doenjang powder increased. As the level of doenjang powder increased, L value decreased, whereas a and b values increased. Weight, water absorption, and volume of cooked noodles decreased, whereas turbidity of soup increased. For textural properties, hardness decreased, whereas springiness increased as the level of doenjang powder increased. For overall preference according to the results of sensory evaluation, noodles added with 3% doenjang powder were the most preferred. According to the results, addition of doenjang powder positively affects the overall sensory evaluation of dried noodle, and 3% is the optimal level for addition.
This study identified the sensory properties of samples of pizza dough at three pizza companies and three masonry oven pizzerias from Seoul, Korea and compared consumer acceptability among panels of university students. Six pizza dough samples were prepared (pan pizzas from Pizza Hut, Mr.pizza, and Dominos pizza, masonry oven baked pizzas from Appleteen, Mr.Lee’s, and Pizza factory). Consumer tests were employed involving 97 Korean consumers. Consumers evaluated overall liking (OL), liking of appearance (APPL), odor (ODL), flavor (FLL), and texture (TXTL), willing to try (WT), and willing to recommend (WR) for the samples using a nine-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that HutP, MrP, and DomP samples had significantly (p<0.05) high scores for roughness, porosity, crust color, grain size, brownness, dairy food aroma, savory taste, and yeast aroma, which had the highest OL, ODL, and FLL scores. LeeP, ATeenP, and PFacP samples had high elasticity, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness. Consumers favored the appearance characteristics and color, dairy product flavor, and savory flavor of the pan pizza and preferred cohesiveness, toughness, and stickiness of masonry oven baked pizza.
Chinese cabbage is produced and consumed as a main material for kimchi and as a staple vegetable in Korea throughout the year. However, due to environmental changes unbalance between supply and demand is repeated annually, requiring development of long-term storage technologies. Chinese cabbages, were harvested, put in plastic boxes, and precooled at 2oC for 24 hours using forced air precooler. After precooling, Chinese cabbages were MAP-treated with 0.02 mm HDPE film and functional film and stored at low temperature (1±0.5oC). The weight-loss rates after 9-weeks of storage were 8.47% in the control group, 4.07% in the HDPE film-treated group, and 3.07% in the functional film-treated group, respectively, suppressing weight loss. Trimming loss rate after 6-weeks of storage was 6.86% in the functional film MAP-treated group and lower than 7.50% in the control group. In the sensory test with 7 points as the limit of commodity, the control group lost it after 6-weeks of storage while the MAP-treated groups retained over 7 points. The functional film MAP-treated group showed over 6 points for processing as kimchi until 9-weeks of storage, proving that Pallet-type MAP storage is effective for extending storage life of spring Chinese cabbage.
This study was investigated the difference in the quality characteristics of the fermented soybean roasted with different conditions for making chungyukjang. Roasted condition of soybean was decided by pre-test, which was on 140oC for 21 min, 180oC 9.5 min, and 220oC 6 min. Fermented soybean with different roasted condition and conventionally made cheonggukjang were measured for proximate composition, color, pH, amino nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, free sugar and amino acids. The lightness and yellowness of soybean fermented by conventional method was higher than those of the fermented soybean with roasted soybean. The contents of free sugar of fermented soybean roasted on 220oC for 6 min (FS220) was the highest among the group and followed by fermented soybean roasted on 180oC for 9.5 min (FS180), 140oC 21 min (FS140) and conventional cheonggukjang (FS0). The contents of total free amino acid was highest on fermented soybean roasted on 140oC for 21 min (FS140) and followed by fermented soybean roasted on 180oC for 9.5 min (FS180), 220oC 6 min (FS220) and conventional cheonggukjang (FS0).
This study was performed to investigate the nutrition knowledge, dietary attitudes, and dietary behaviors among high school students by gender. The subjects were 275 students (127 male, 148 female) in Incheon metropolitan area. Selfadministered questionnaires consisted of general characteristics and anthropometric data, nutrition knowledge, dietary attitudes, and dietary behaviors. The average score of nutrition knowledge was significantly higher in female subjects (9.4) compared to male subjects (8.2) (p<0.01). Male subjects had a higher score for dietary attitudes than female subjects (p<0.001). Frequency of meals was significantly higher in male subjects compared to female subjects (p<0.05). Duration of meal time in male subjects was significantly higher (‘5-10 minutes’) compared to female subjects (p<0.001). Unbalanced diet was significantly higher in female subjects (66.3%) compared to male subjects (48.9%) (p<0.01). Male subjects showed significantly higher consumption frequency of ‘dairy’ (p<0.001) and ‘beans’ (p<0.001) compared to female subjects. For snack consumption, male subjects showed higher consumption frequency of ‘nuts’ (p<0.001), ‘soda’ (p<0.05), ‘fast foods’ (p<0.001), and ‘ramyeon’ (p<0.01), but lower consumption frequency of ‘biscuits and bakery’ (p<0.01) compared to female subjects. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a systemic nutrition education program for high school students by gender.
We analyzed information provided by diet-related programs of comprehensive programming channels and the relationship between composition of professional panelists and quality of provided information. We selected 82 items among eight programs by MBN, JTBC, and TV chosun. All 82 items provided information about food & nutrition and health & disease, but only 32 items (39.0%) and 35 items (42.7%) provided information on food culture and food safety, respectively. Among the food ingredients, phytochemicals (81.7%) were the most frequently mentioned, and the contents of functional ingredients occupied a large part. The inappropriate information on programs were broadcast on an average of 1.2 episodes per program, and the most pointed out item was information that could confuse viewers with drugs (29.3%). Among the professional panelists, medical doctors (38.9%) and Oriental medicine doctors (16.6%) had the highest number of appearances, and professors of food & nutrition constituted only 7.1%. However, the increase in the number of appearances of professors showed a positive effect on the quality of program information. Contents focused on balanced nutrient intake and dietary culture of Korea should be increased rather than focusing on the function of each nutrient in comprehensive programming channels.
The purpose of this study was to investigate perception of the Food Allergy Labeling System (FALS) of school foodservice in female middle school students. The subjects were 148 female middle school students in the Incheon metropolitan area. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Only 20.9% of subjects had experience of food allergy education. There was no significant difference in food allergy knowledge by grade. The scores of perception of food allergy labeling by school foodservice were significantly higher in lower grade students (p<0.001). In all grades, highest scores were observed for ‘food allergy labeling is necessary’, whereas the lowest scores were for ‘I check the food allergy labeling’. The percentages of subjects who wanted to participate in food allergy education were significantly different (p<0.01); 73.8% in 1st grade, 50.0% in 2nd grade, and 35.7% in 3rd grade. For desired education contents to enhance perception of FALS, 57.5% of subjects answered ‘emergency management’ and 23.0% said ‘information of food allergy causing food’. Therefore, it is necessary to increase food allergy education and educate female middle school students according to grade in order to enhance perception of FALS.