The empirical research was conducted to investigate women's consumption pattern of Korean rice cakes and to analyze the preference of them by their demographic backgrounds. The results of this study provide useful informations for a systematic development of Korean rice cake. A self-completed questionnaire survey of 281 women in Seoul was undertaken and detailed information was collected from each. A questionnaire consisted of three parts including demographic backgrounds, consumption pattern and preference of Korean rice cakes, and the need assessment. Demographic variables of respondents included age, marital status, education, family style, monthly income etc. Most of them(82.6%) were married with the average age of 36.3±8.4 year old. The results of eating frequency rate showed that about half of women(49.1%) had Korean rice cake once or twice a month followed by once a week(23.1%), once per two months(13.9%), once per six months(8.2%), and once per three months(3.9%). Average preference score of 14 Korean rice cakes was 3.08±1.49 out of 5, indicating 'so-and-so'. Ingeolmi received the highest score of 4.02, whereas Duteopteok had the lowest score of 0.18. The preference score of Korean rice cake and the respondents' knowledge of them showed significantly strong positive correlation. The need-assessment score for improving the quality of Korean rice cake was 3.72±1.35 out of 5, showing moderate willingness for improvement of Korean rice cake.
In order to establish the processing condition of salt-fermented liquefaction of sardine (Sardinops melanoslicta), effect of temperature, pH value, and concentration of salinity on crude enzyme activity of sardine viscera were investigated. The optimum temperature range of crude enzyme activity in sardine viscera was 45~50℃ and the optimum pH value of it was 9.8. According to the concentration of salinity increased the crude enzyme activity in sardine viscera decreased. The relationship between concentration of salinity (X) and the crude enzyme activity (Y) in sardine viscera is shown as follows; Y=-0.01363X+0.7676 (r=-0.88). For the purpose of processing conditions of rapid- and low salt-fermented liquefaction of sardine, changes of viable cell count, histamine content, and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) in the chopped whole sardine with 8% NaCl during preheating process at 40˚, 45˚ and 50℃ for 48 hrs were analyzed. During preheating, initial viable cell counts of chopped whole sardine were 104-7/g, but they decreased 101-5/g after 48 hrs. Histamine contents during preheating process at 40˚ and 45℃ were gradually increased, whereas at 50℃ were almost the same level after 48 hrs. VBN contents were continuously increased during preheating, but preheating at 50℃ samples were lower level than that of 40˚ and 45℃ ones. For the purpose to accelerate the fermentation and liquefaction of chopped whole sardine, preheating at optimum temperature of crude enzyme activity for 48 hrs was useful processing method and the contents of viable cell count, histamine, and VBN were safety level for food sanitation.
As a part of investigation to use sardine(Sardinops melanoslicta) more effectively as a food source, this study was undertaken the processing condition of rapid- and low salt-fermented liquefaction of sardine. To prepare rapid fermented products, the chopped whole sardine was added 8% NaCl and then preheating treatment at 40℃, 45℃ and 50℃ in the manufactured fermenter(180L) for 9 hrs, and then fermentation at 33℃ for 90 days. The chemical changes such as amino nitrogen(amino-N), volatile basic nitrogen(VBN), and histamine in the hydrolysates of fermented sardine were analyzed as well as viable cell count and organoleptic evaluation during fermentation to compare the quality between control and preheating samples. During fermenting, the amino-N in the hydrolysates increased rapidly during the first 30 days and slowly thereafter. The highest content of amino-N appeared at 75 days in control sample and 60~75 days in preheating samples. The changes of VBN in the hydrolysates increased rapidly during first 15 days in control samples and 30 days in preheating samples. However they were generally low level in preheating samples. Histamine content in the hydrolysates of the control samples increased markedly after 15 days, but preheating samples were generally low level, and then 75~90 days of fermentation reached to the maximum which was about 2.0~3.0 times lower than that of control samples. As for the organoleptic flavor evaluation, the control and preheating at 40℃ samples were unpleasant odor after 15 and 60 days, respectively. But preheating at 45˚ and 50˚ samples were fresh odor after 90 days fermentation.
We studied to improve the functional properties of soybean protein isolate by dimethylglutarylation and acetylation. Soybean protein isolate was acylated rapidly up to 80% modification and more of 80% modification was proceed slowly. Electrophoretic analysis showed that more changes in modified protein. Also, modification of soybean protein produced more ionizable tyrosines and exposed more hydrophobic groups, while modified protein exhibited a loss of reactive sulfhydryl groups. Spectrophoretic studies demonstrated that the shift was occurred at the UV 278nm and fluorescence 333nm, respectively, and the intensity decreased as the degree of modification was increased.
This study was conducted to improve the functional properties of soybean protein isolate by dimethylglutarylation and acetylation. Amino acid composition and solubility of modified soybean protein by dimethylglutarylation were not changed, but lysine and trypsin inhibitor activity was decreased an isoelectric point was moved from pH5 to pH4 as a result of modification. Emulsification capacity and stability, foaming capacity and thermal stability were increased by the modification. In that 91% dimethylglutarylated protein did not coagulate when heating at 100℃ for 20 min. while its foaming stability was decreased. Whereas specific gravity was decreased by the modification of the soybean protein, relative viscosity and whiteness were improved. Generally, dimethylglutarylation produced more conformational changes in protein system than did in acetylation.
The objectives of this study were to analyze customer satisfaction by operational characteristics in business & industry foodservice operated by contracted foodservice management company. The instruments were developed by reviewing literatures on customer satisfaction and by intervewing with managers, employers and customers. A total of 1000 questionnaires were hand delivered at the ten contracted foodservice operations by designated coordinators. A total of 833 questionnaires were usable; resulting in an 83.3% response rate. Statistical data analysis was completed using the SAS 6.04 for description, T-test, ANOVA. Overall customer satisfaction score for office building foodservice was significantly higher than those for manufacturing company foodservice. As for the type of management contracts, overall customer satisfaction score for management fee contracts was significantly higher than those for profit and loss contracts. With regard to payment method, overall customer satisfaction score for meal card was higher than those for POS system. Concerning the categories of service, overall customer satisfaction for combo-tray service was higher than those for cafeteria-tray service and partially self-service. As for types of menus, the score of overall customer satisfaction was not significantly different between cafeteria menu and double choice menu.
본 연구는 우리나라 가계의 식생활비 지출행태에 관한 이해를 꾀하고자 식료품비와 외식비로 나뉘어 각각에 관한 결정요인을 비교, 분석하였다. 연구를 위하여 통계청에서 조사한 1994년 도시가계연보의 원자료를 사용하였으며, 식료품비와 외식비 지출에 대한 관련요인들의 영향력을 고찰하기 위하여 다중회귀분석이 사용되었다. 연구결과에 의하면 식료품비와 외식비 지출 모두 가계소득과 정적 상관관계를 보였으며, 주부가 취업한 경우 식료품비 지출은 비취업주부가계에 비해 적은 반면, 외식비 지출은 도리어 많은 것으로 분석되었다. 가구원수, 교육수준, 계절, 자녀의 존재 변수 등이 식료품과 외식비지출에 대해 유의한 영향력을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 가구주 나이는 식료품비에 유의한 영향을 미쳤으며, 가구주 직업은 외식비지출에 영향을 미치는 것으로 분석되었다.
A survey was carried out to investigate relation between stress and nutrient intake in adults. There was a positive correlation between stress and food intake in adults statistically. It seems that women was significantly influenced by physical, psychological and nuerosensational stress than men(p〈0.05). The average calorie intake of men was 1721.25Kcal(68.85% of RDA), the women was 1568.79kcal(78.44% of RDA). Intake of protein, calcuim, Vit B1, Vit B2, Niacin were quite less than the RDA in men, wherase intake of calcuim, iron, Vit B1 were quite less than the RDA in women. In changes of nutrient intake by stress, men was increased as higher stress amount, but women was decreased as higher stress amount(p〈0.05). It was lower level of nutrient intake in the below 60 scores of food attitude group that was needed improve of food intake and counseling of professional nutritionist.
The health, anthropometry, food habits, food intake frequency and nutrition intake of 747(219 men and 528 women) elderly people living in Inchon were investigated. Mean BMI, WHR, triceps skinfold thickness, BIA, blood pressure of the subjects were 23.4, 1.0, 15.6mm, 28.6%, 137.5/78.8mmHg in men and 24.9, 0.87, 22.6mm, 36.2%, 130.8/73.8mmHg in women respectively. Over the half of the subjects perceived themselves unhealthy and 86.2% of the elderly suffered from one or more illness. Ratios of the smoking and the drinking elderly were 40%, 43% in men and 12%, 11% in women. The major reason to stop smoking or drinking was the concern about their health. Food habit score of the subjects was relatively high (14.45/18.0) but food intake frequency score were relatively low (21.18/33.0) except the food groups of cereal & grain, white vegetable and sweets. The foods consumed by the elderly were very limited in quality and also in quantity. The daily intakes of calorie, protein, iron, vit. B1, niacin and vit. C were less than 2/3 of RDA and the amounts of calcium, vit. A and vit. B2 consumption were less than 1/2 of RDA.
재배방법을 달리한 3가지 더덕의 성분을 분석하였다. 총 아미노산 가운데 arginine함량이 가장 높았으며 glutamine이 두 번째를 차지하였고 alanine 및 proline의 순서로 나타났다. 유기재배더덕에 함유된 arginine은 15.48mg으로 자생더덕의 5.67mg보다 약 3배 많았으며, 일반재배더덕은 9.79mg으로 나타났다. 유리 아미노산에서도 가장 많이 함유된 아미노산은 arginine이었으며 유기재배더덕에서 32.6mg을 차지하여 자생더덕의 6.43mg과 일반재배의 6.40mg보다 약 5배 많았다. 따라서 활엽수와 볏짚이 포함된 퇴비를 사용한 유기재배더덕에 arginine함량이 가장 높게 나타났다. 무기질 가운데 K 함량이 가장 많았으며, 특히 유기재배더덕에는 1.03%, 일반재배 0.83% 및 자생더덕에 0.69%로 나타났는데 이는 유기질 퇴비로부터 더덕이 다량의 K을 흡수하였기 때문으로 여겨진다. Ca의 함량은 자생더덕에 3.988μg함유되어 일반재배의 803μg보다 5배정도, 유기재배더덕의 1,040μg보다 약 4배 많았다. 중금속 중 Pb이 자생더덕에 0.11μg으로 가장 낮았고, 유기재배더덕은 이보다 약 3배, 일반재배더덕은 약 4배정도 많았으나 식품에서 이러한 수준은 안전하다. 카드뮴은 자생더덕에서는 검출되지 않았으나 유기재배 및 일반재배더덕에서는 0.12μg, 0.41μg이 각각 함유되어 있었으며 안전한 수준으로 볼 수 있다. Se은 3가지 더덕 모두에서 검출되지 않았다. 껍질 벗긴 더덕의 색도 측정결과, 더덕의 고유한 색은 자생더덕이 가장 진하였고, 일반재배더덕이 가장 흐렸으며 유기재배더덕은 중간 정도로 판단할 수 있다.
The present study was conducted to investigate the relation of eating behavior and food intake to 534 adolescents' obesity indices. Group means of relative body weight (RBW) were 93.66 for males and 97.12 for females. Body mass index(BMI) were 20.39 for males and 20.41 for females. Respondents were divided into 3 groups on the basis of RBW as an obesity index. Astonishingly, 44.76% of total respondents were underweight and 12.92% overweight and obese. 64.54% of respondents usually skipped their breakfasts and 24.23% their dinners. More males did not have their breakfasts than females. In contrast, more females skipped their dinners than males. A significant difference was found between males and females in their eating habits(p<.001) that should be changed. As their undesirable eating habits, males pointed out 'skipping meals', while females stressed 'overeating'. There were more overeating respondents in the overweight group, while more respondents skipping their meals were found in the underweight group. Many females(72.79%) and males(52.78%) tended to alternate consistently overeating and fasting to lose weight. The most important reason for losing weight was to improve their appearance(61.12%). In addition, nutrient score indices of respondents were very low with a mean of 33.39. Only 42.13% of total respondents showed good nutrient score indices. More males ate meat, bean, white vegetables, potato and fat than females(p<.05), whereas more females ate bread, rice cake and fruit than males(p<.01). Among the 3 groups -overweight, normal weight and underweight groups, overweight group was the most eaters of meat, fish, egg and milk; underweight group was the least eaters of them.
This study was executed for 300 mothers bringing up a child below 3 years in the area of Kangnung to assess the current weaning practice of infants. 24.6% of mother surveyed were breast-fed, 57.8% were formula-fed and 17.5% were mixed-fed. The rate of breast feeding was lower and the rate of bottle feeding was higher in infants whose mothers had more income or higher educational period or full-time job. Most of the respondents knew the significance of supplementary food. 41.4% of the subjects started weaning of their infants at 3-4 months, and 84.1% of them set on weaning in less than 7 months after babies were born. And 39.4% of the subjects finished weaning of their infants in less than one year. The infants of this study preferred the fruits and fishes to meats, vegetables and beans that served to them as supplementary food. Mothers showed deep interest in recipe of weaning food(48.5%), adequate quantity of weaning food(36.3%), information on commercial food for infants(32.2%), and sequence in which semi-solid food are introduced(31.9%). From these results, it is suggested that education program in primary health center for improvement of weaning practice of infants should be implemented reflecting needs of mothers.