The purpose of this study was to analyse serving size, plate waste, and sensory evaluation on menu of university foodservice. This study was conducted in three restaurant of one university for 14 days, 1995. The serving size of food was measured by weighing machine. The plate waste of food was calculated by the aggregative selective plate waste measurement technique. Questionnaires of sensory evaluation were developed and hand-delivered at three restaurants. Rating criteria of sensory evaluation were appearance, taste, temperature, color, flavor, texture and overall quality. The plate waste of side dish were 35.5%, 42.5%, and 39.2% in A, B, and C restaurants. The plate waste of kimchi were 46.8%, 36.3%, and 55.9% in A, B, and C restaurants. So, university foodservice manager should concern quality of side dish and kimchi. The score of fried food in sensory evaluation was low. So, batch cooking was needed. The score of rice in sensory evaluation of C restaurants was very low. Therefore, steam ice cooker in C restaurants should be changed by gas automatic rice cooker.
This research was designed to develop a computer program and evaluate the nutritional balances especially the balance of fatty acids, amino acids and antioxidant vitamins for convenience foods. The Korean convenience food, Kimbab purchased from markets was evaluated by using the self-developed computer program. Contents of calories, protein and calcium were lower(1/3˚＋1/2) than the recommended levels of Korean adult woman, and the carbohydrate/ protein/ fat(CPF) energy ratio was 70: 13: 17. The mean P/ M/ S ratio was 2.2/ 1.4/ 1 and that of Ω6/ Ω3 fatty acids was 17.9/ 1, which was higher than the desirable ratio of 4~8/ 1. Average essential amino acid balance of market-Kimbab samples was within the desirable range even though the absolute amount of protein was lower than the recommended level. Contents of antioxidant vitamins (A, C &E) were lower than recommended levels. Two kinds of nutritionally adjusted Kimbab menu were established by self-developed computer program. Some of major changes was adding food ingredients such as tuna fish and perilla leaf cooked with sesame oil and soybean oil to increase Ω3 series fatty acids. Some fruits and milk were also added to the menu. The adjusted CPF ratios was 63: 15: 22 and the new values for P/ M/ S and Ω6/ Ω3 fatty acids ratios were 1.0/ 1.2/ 1/0 and 6.1/ 1 respectively. In sensory evaluation of two kinds of adjusted Kimbab, the taste and overall estimation scores were higher than unadjusted Kimbab. The computer program developed in this study might be used as a tool for the evaluation of nutritional balance of other convenience foods and menu planning.
This study was to investigate the consumption pattern, behaviors, and motivational attitudes related to fruit and vegetables. Data were collected from 344 mothers whose children were attending an elementary school and a middle school in Kimcheon. The average vegetable expenses were under 10,000 won per week. The frequency of purchasing vegetables was 2-3 times a week. Housewives usually bought the vegetables at local markets and grand shopping centers. As for buying vegetables, housewives considered the organic vegetables, preference, price, and nutrition in order. In the family, the vegetables were favored by husbands most and by sons least. The average fruit expenses were under 10,000 won per week. The frequency of purchasing fruit was 2-3 times a week. Housewives usually bought the fruit at local markets and grand shopping centers. As for buying fruit, housewives considered preference, price, and nutrition in order. The fruit were favored by all members most and by husbands least. Housewives identified barriers to increasing vegetables and fruit consumption, including preference for other foods, lack of availability, cost, and time and effort to prepare. Several implications for nutrition interventions were suggested. First, a key motivation for these women was eating healthy food when they are pregnant, suggesting a persuasive appeal to use in interventions. Second, review of the women's current behaviors led to an identification of four specific behaviors that had the most potential for increasing overall consumption. Finally, the findings suggested ways in which nutrition interventions could address each of the barriers identified.
Freshly squeezed juices were prepared using the domestic Chunggyun, Hanrabong, and imported oranges and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the juices were investigated. The Chunggyun had significantly the lowest pH value of 3.35, and imported and Hanrabong showed the pH values of 3.82 and 3.93, respectively(p〈0.05). The refractive index of Hanrabong showed significantly the highest values of 14.7˚Bx (p〈0.05), and the samples of imported and Chunggyun did not show significant differences with indices of 12.5 and 12.2, respectively. The quantitative descriptive analysis(QDA) showed imported sample had significantly the highest values of sweet and sour aroma with values of 11.57 and 11.08, respectively. However, Hanrabong showed significantly the highest value of sweet flavor with value of 12.31. Consumer acceptance test represented the Chunggyun was the most accepted one but did not show any great differences in overall, appearances, and flavor among the samples.
Varied levels of mannitol at 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% were added to the commercial orange juice and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the juice were investigated. Refractive index of control had 11.3˚Bx and the index was significantly increased to that of the 18.4˚Bx as the addition was increased to the 9% level(p〈0.05). The values of pH and the acidity did not show significant differences among varied levels of mannitol added samples. However, sensory characteristics of aroma and sweet flavor were significantly increased as the addition levels were increased showing the values of aroma, from 7.5 to 11.3, and those of sweet flavor from 5.0 to 11.9, respectively (p〈0.05). The 9% added level sample had significantly the lowest sour and astringent flavor values of 4.0 and 2.3, respectively.
The aim of this study is to survey the eating habits and nutritional knowledge of children in Pusan, with a view to uncovering problems and their underlying causes and cultivating desirable dietary habit and nutrition for children. Three hundred and fifty six elementary school students were asked questions about their eating habits and nutritional knowledge as well as general information about their personal characteristics. The results showed: 1. Only 53.5% of the subjects had breakfast every day. Seventy-six percent of the subjects had dinner every day. Only 40% of the children took meals and talked with family at both breakfast and dinner. Thus there was little opportunity for dietary guidance by parents. 2. About half of the subjects answered that their appetite decreased after eating snack foods between meals. A third of the subjects liked the baked goods as snacks. Because of their high sugar and fat content, they can damage children's health, resulting in child diabetes and tooth decay. For this reason, careful education is necessary to allow children to be able to select snack foods that are appropriate in kind and quantity. 3. About 85% of the subjects had an unbalanced diet. Therefore systematic nutrition education at school is necessary to instill in children the value of balanced diet. 4. Children preferred rice to other cereals as a staple food. They disliked kimchi, seasoned and blanched foods and salads as subsidiary foods. It is therefore necessary to teach children systematically the nutritional advantage of cereals and vegetables and to heighten their awareness of Korean food culture. 5. Children had a low level of nutritional knowledge. The knowledge of specific nutrients was lower than that of foods. In conclusion, systematical educational programs need to be developed at elementary school. These should include information about achieving a balanced diet, good eating habit, meal management and Korean dietary culture. Nutritional education at home must be emphasized.
To investigate the perception and preference of foreign visitors to Korean traditional foods, 206 visitors(male 142, female 61) were surveyed with questionnaires translating in English, Chinese and Japanese. Subjects had various nationality such as China(77.4%), America(20.9%), Japan(16.0%), Canada(6.5%), Southeast Asia(2.5%) and Europe(2.5%). The 70.2% of the respondents had been tried Korean dishes before visiting Korea on the recommendation of friends or acquaintances(59.9%) or by the advertisement, articles, and travel agency. Bulgogi and Kimchi were the most popular menu that they had been tried in their country and Bibimbop, Kalbi, Korean dumpling, Samgaetang and Chapchae were following. 29.8% of the respondents had never tried Korean dishes because of they didn't have a chance to try(43.1%) or there were no Korean restaurant near their place(25.5%) or they had no interest in Korean dishes(23.5%). As expected, Kimchi and Bulgogi were well known food, showing rank of highest recognition. Chun and Dduck were the dishes that they had heard or saw but not eaten and Goojeolpan and Shinsunro were the dishes that they had not heard or saw. Preference to Korean dishes shows the same tendency as perception, Bulgogi, Bibimbop, Kalbi and Kimchi were the highly preferred group and Samgaetang, Bindaedduck, Chapchae, Dumpling and Raengmyon were mildly preferred one and Cucumber Kimchi, Kalbitang, Chun, Namul, Dduck were lower group of preference and Shinsunro and Goojeolpan were rarely preferred. These result shows that it is needed to advertise Korean dishes and to make events for globalization of Korean food.
The Purpose of this study was to understand the China Yunnan Baizu food. This study was performed a visit market based on in- depth interview with food experts those who lived in Baizu province. The results were summarized as follows. The main food of Baizu were Bab, Dduk(BaBa), Nuddle(Mi xian) made from rice. They ate all kind of food from vegetables, fish, and pork, but the remarkable thing was that there were practical limit to select the ingredient. They would use some fermented products such as Pao-chai, Yan-chai, Zha. Pao-chai was fermented vegetables like Kimchi, Yan-chai was similar with Changachi in Korea, and Zha was prepared from meat and fish. Menus for Banquets were included 8 kinds of cold appetizer, 8 kinds of hot dishes, and 2 kinds of sweet desserts. The ingredients were local products and they considered hot, sour, cold taste importantly. The method of cooking was simple and Rusan, Sengpi was the most traditional Baizu food. Ru san is one of dishes prepared from the milk, and milk pedimented product. Sengpi was uncooked pork.