This investigation was undertaken for the purpose of studying the quality and acceptability during storage at room or refrigerator temperature of Yackwa containing waxy rice flour substituted for 0,10,30,50,70% of the wheat flour. The storage periods were 0,15,30 and 45 days. Chemical composition, composition of fatty acids, and value, and peroxide values of Yackwa were measured. Sensory evaluation was done by a panel of 5 judges majoring in food and nutrition. The evaluation was repeated 4 times. Objective evaluation was done by rheometer and color difference meter. Chemical composition of Yackwa were 5.9~6.8% for moisture, 3.43~4.09% for crude protein, 22.35~27.65% for crude fat, 0.27~0.31% for ash, 15.6~18.4% for fructose, 10.6~13.7% for glucose, 0.34~1.0% for sucrose, and 0.79~2.37% for maltose, respectively. Fatty acid contents of Yackwa were 10.54~10.73% for palmitic acid, 4.12~4.18% for stearic acid, 25.8~26.9% for oleic acid, 51.6~52.1% for linoleic acid, and 0.27~0.34% for linolenic acid, respectively. Acid value and peroxide value of Yackwa during storage showed little change. As a result of sensory evaluation for Yackwa made various levels of waxy rice flour, there were no significant differences in most of characteristics between the samples supplemented with waxy rice flour to 30% of wheat flour at 0.01% level. By the color difference meter, the value of L (lightness) and b (yellowness) were increased by increasing the amounts of waxy rice flour, however, there were no significant differences at 0.1% level between the samples supplemented with waxy rice flour to 30% of wheat flour, on the other hand, the value of a (redness) was decreased by increasing the amount of waxy rice flour. In the textural characteristics, brittleness, and chewiness were increased by increasing the amounts of waxy rice flour, and by lengthening the storage period, on the other hand, resilience and cohesiveness showed vice versa. In the correlation coefficient between sensory characteristics and mechanical characteristics, overall acceptability in sensory evaluation correlated significantly with cohesiveness, chewiness, and the values of L, a, and b in mechanical test in most of samples(p〈0.001).
1. There were 21 kinds foods and preservation of beef and the number of dishes were 346 in the literatures written before 1943. 2.Soup(羹) was appeared first, and followed by dried beef(肉脯), steamed(蒸), sliced of boiled beef(熟肉과 片肉), preservation(貯臟), pan broiled beef(濕熱炒), salted beef(肉醬), raw beef(膾), shish kebab(算炙), roasted with seasoning(炙), beef with vegetables cooked in pan(煎鐵), calf`s-hoof jelly(gelatin)(足片), jaban(佐飯), hardboiled beef(boiled in soy sauce), ravioli (饅頭), beef juice(肉汁), thick broth(heavy soup, 助致), grilled beef (煎油魚), mix with the season(muchim), sun(膳) and gruel(粥). 3.The total of 14 different names of soup were found in the literatures which are Yang tang(stomach soup), Dunggol tang(marrow soup), Dogol tang(medulla soup), Sungi kuk(ox-blood soup), Sogogi kuk(beef soup), Gom kuk(bone attached beef and organs soup), Jap tang(bone attached beef, organs and tough beef soup), Yukgaejang(fresh beef, organs and green onion soup), Joujeo tang(foot starched soup), Jok tang(foot soup), Kori tang(ox-tail soup), Kalbi tang(rib soup), Malgun jangkuk(clear soup), Wan ja tang(beef ball soup). 4.The number of staple ingredient were Tripe and fresh meat among 26 kinds of major ingredient, radish, wheat flour, egg among 21 kinds of miner ingredient black pepper, soy sauce and seasame among 22 kinds of seasonings, and Thin layer-fried egg among 9 kinds of decorating ingredient were used commonly in cooking for soup.
1943년 이전의 문헌을 통하여 우리나라 쇠고기 「포(脯)」의 종류와 조리법, 조리법의 변천에 대하여 고찰하였다. 쇠고기포는 조리법의 빈도 면에서 42회(12.2%)로 1위이고, 연대적으로도 가장 오래된 조리법이다. 옛 문헌에 기록된 쇠고기포의 종류는 산포(散脯), 편포(片脯), 약포(藥脯), 장포(醬脯) 등이 있었다. 조리법과 모양에 따라 세분하면 9종류로 산포, 편포에는 다식모양, 네모진 모양, 대추모양의 작은 모양의 편포와 참기(塹機)모양, 반원주(半圓株)모양의 큰 덩어리 모양의 편포가 있고 약포에는 다져서 만든 약포와 얇게 저며서 만든 약포, 장포 등이 있다. 기록된 빈도면에서는 편포가 가장 많고 다음이 약포이며 산포, 장포의 순이다. 16세기 후반 처음에는 "고기 말리고 오래 두는 법"으로 기록되었으나 18C말부터는 포(脯)로 표현되어 일관성있게 19세기까지 포(脯)로 기록되어 있다. 17-18세기의 기록된 조리법이 거의 19세기까지 큰 변화 없이 같은 내용으로 이어지고는 있으나 더러는 만드는 과정에서 시간과 정성이 많이 드는 옛 것은 사라지고, 현대로 오면서 간편화되고 있다. 쇠고기포에 사용한 주재료는 모두 힘줄과 기름기를 없이한 쇠고기이고 부재료로 꿩을 19C중엽까지 4 문헌에서만 이용하였다. 양념은 19종이며 그 중 많이 이용된 것은 소금, 참기름, 후추, 간장의 순이고, 보통 육류에 사용하는 갖은 양념(간장, 후추, 참기름, 설탕, 깨소금, 파, 마늘)중에서 가장 적게 쓰인 것은 마늘이다. 고명은 3종이며 주로 잣가루를 이용하였고, 찍어 먹는 양념장은 진장과 초장이었다.
The purpose of the study was to develop computer-based menu planning program for day-care centers maximizing food preference score among children and satisfying such constraints as expense, nutrients, and season. Children's preference about 142 menu items was surveyed among 382 children of day-care centers. A 16-bit personal computer compatible with IBM-PC/AT was used. The data base files were created by dBASE III Plus, and processing programs were created by using FORTRAN language. Children preferred bread or a la carte menu items to cooked rice in main dish category. Deep fat fried or stir-fried menu items were more preferred than kimchi or cooked vegetables in side dish category. Preference scores for menu items were influenced by cooking methods or main ingredients. The contents of the computerized system show that when the program runs, the user should type inputs of cycle, season, and menu pattern, then the computer lists a series of menu satisfying the criteria of constraints. The user can examine and select a set of menu from the menu lists. Menus are generated seasonally. Menu lists are generated weekly and monthly basis with the contents of menu items, preference scores and price. Nutrient reports are also generated on a weekly and monthly basis with the contents of calories, 12 nutrients and price. Recipes for each menu items are also generated.
국민소득과 문화수준의 향상에 따라 식생활 양식이 변화되어 가정에서의 안동식혜제조는 점차 사라져 가고 있다. 그러므로 전통안동식혜의 제조법을 계승보존하고 제조공정 및 상품성을 높여 보다 우수한 가공식품으로 개발할 목적으로 안동식혜로부터 분리 선발한 균주와 종균협회에서 분양받은 젖산균들을 첨가하여 안동식혜를 제조하였다. 안동식혜의 숙성과정 중 성분분석 및 관능검사를 실시하여 가장 우수한 L. delbreuckii를 선발하였다. 안동식혜에서 분리한 균은 초기에는 Lactobacillus의 간균이 많았으나 시간이 지남에 따라서 Streptococcus의 구균이 많았다. 숙성기간동안 일반성분의 변화는 조단백질의 함량은 주발효 기간인 4일까지는 증가하였으나 그 이후로는 차차 감소하였고 pH는 급격히 감소하여 2일째 4.20이었으며 총산은 2일째 0.38이었으며 그 후 조금씩 증가하였다. 총당은 시간이 경과함에 따라 점차 증가하였다. 유리당의 조성은 maltose를 포함하여 6종류였으며 또한 미확인 물질도 1개 검출되었다. Maltose의 함량은 4일까지 증가하여 76.4%였으나 그 후로는 감소하였다. 아미노태질소는 시간이 경과할수록 증가하였으며 2일째 38.5mg%였으며 이며 식혜의 맛이 가장 좋았다. 암모니아태질소와 수용성 및 염용성 단백질은 시간이 경과함에 따라 점차 감소하였다. 주요 유리아미노산은 proline 및 aspartic acid였으며 methionine은 시간이 경과함에 따라 점차 증가하였으나 lysine은 오히려 감소하였다. 수용성 및 염용해성 단백질의 아미노산 조성은 glutarmic acid 및 aspartic acid의 함량이 가장 많았다. 염용해성 단백질의 경우 arginine은 시간이 경과함에 따라 점차 증가하였다. 지방산의 조성은 linoleic acid 및 oleic acid가 주요지방산으로 총지방산의 90%이상을 차지하였으며 palmitic acid는 시간이 지남에 따라 점차 증가하였다. 효소의 활성은 acid protease와 liquefying amylase는 숙성 4일째, saccharogenic amylase 와 lipase는 숙성 2일째 가장 높았다.
In this report, we investigated meal patterns by area, age, profession from the data of the Korean National Nutrition Survey which had been carried out in 1989. The proportion of home prepared meal was about 90% at breakfast and dinner, and 46.3% at lunch. People had meals outside of home mainly at lunch(31.1%), and usually ate restaurant meal(17.7%). The proportion of meal skipped was 7.1% at breakfast, 3.9% at lunch, and 1.2% at dinner. At large city, 10.3% of people skipped breakfast, it was the highest proportion among three areas(large city, small city, and rural area). Also, the proportion of meal outside of homes was the highest among all areas. In rural area, home prepared meal was prevalent for all meals. Among all age groups, people between 20 and 49 ate out most frequently. For people between age 16 and 19, meal skipping was frequent for breakfast and dinner, especially, 20.5% of girl skipped breakfast. At lunch, the proportion of meal skipping was the highest in age higher than 50 groups. Among all professions, people in service job skipped lunch and dinner at the highest proportion. Manager and deskworker skipped breakfast by 12.9% and they ate out at lunch by 82.5%.
This study was designed to investigate and quantify components of the connotative meaning of foods, and to analyze the correlations between food concepts and food frequencies on elderly Korean. It involves adapting a communications research tools, the semantic differential and demonstrating its use with two population groups, urban and rural aged. The data were collected by interviewing 217 males and females of 70 years of age and older living in urban and rural areas. To assess how they feel and what they know about foods, the instrument which contains concepts of price, taste, goodness of health, interest, usuality, likes and dislikes, appetite, fattening, quality, and nutritive value about foods were developed. The result shows that there are significant correlations between food concepts and food frequencies. The more affirmative concepts the elderly have, the more food frequencies tend to be. positive concepts are appeared on the meat, fishes, vegetables & fruits, Kimchi and the rice, but negative connotations are appeared on the milk and sugar. There are significant differences between the urban and rural elderly on food concepts.