This research was attempted to investigate the correlation between food habits as well as preferences and health conditions of middle-aged people. 380 people living in Dae-gu, kimchon and kumrung gun in the 40's or 50's were selected for this research as subjects from July 1 to August 15, 1990. The data analysis was made by way of frequency, percentage, χ2-test and Pearson correlation using SAS package. The summarized results are as follows. 1. Among the total subjects of this research, 200 people (52.6%) were male and 180 people (47.4%) were female. The regional distribution was like this; 115 people (30.3%) lived in large city, 154 people (40.5%) in small and medium city and 111 people (29.2%) in rural region. 2. The survey on food life attitude on the subjects showed that they had a relatively good attitude, and there were little significant differences (p〈.05) between men and women. But there were significant differences (p〈.001) between rural region and city. 3. On the preferences for taste, food and cooked food the subjects showed the lowest preferences for processed milk-fat food and the highest for soybean and processed soybean food. 4. The research on health condition 1) 30.8% of the subjects were obesity. And this research showed that the percentage of obesity was higher among men (33.5%) than women (27.8%), and higher in cities (40.4, 34.4%) than rural region (16.2%), (p〈.05, p〈.01). 2) 90.8% of the subjects showed negative according to Diabetes inspection. 3) 2.0% of the subjects were hypertensive, and the percentage was higher among women than men, and higher in rural region than cities. 4) 12.6% of the subjects were anemia, and the percentage was higher among women (17.8%) than men (8.0%), and higher in rural region (23.4%) than cities (7.0, 9.1%). 5) DMFT index and DMF rate of dental caries was higher among women (DMFT index; 10.6 DMF rate; 88.9) than men (DMFT index; 7.3 DMF rate; 81.5), and higher in rural region (DMFT index; 11.8 DMF rate; 90.1) than cities (DMFT index; 7.4, 7.9 DMF rate; 79.1, 85.7). 6) According to the survey on self-diagnosed health status of subjects, the percentages of articular·neuralgia (48.9%) was the highest. And that of stomach digestion troubles (31.1%), headache (22.4%), anxiety excitement (12.9%), spastic constipation (12.4%), insomnia (9.7%), melancholia (7.9%) and etc (1.6%) followed. 7) People had allergied food which contained animal protein such as pork, chicken, mackerel, siakworm pupa, clam and so on. 8) In female cases, 46.7% of women became already menopausal and 13.3% of them was under menopause. 5. This research showed that there were significant correlation between food life attitude and health condition in obesity, anemia and dental caries but not in blood pressure. 6. And this research also showed that there were significant correlations between food preference and health condition in obesity, anemia and dental caries but not in blood pressure.
A study of eating behavior was conducted among 274 children of Nan Hyang elementary school, located in low income area of Seoul, where a school lunch program is not operated. During weekdays, 19.6% of children ate breakfast and 18.4% ate supper alone or with their siblings. The school provided boxed lunches for 10.5% of the children with governmental funds, who were chosen by the school based on their household income. But the percentage of the children skipping breakfast was 14.6%, lunch 10.3% and supper 8.0%. The results of nutritional analysis of the children who had three meals a day and those of children skipped one of the regular meals were compared. The group who had three meals consumed more nutrients except vitamin C than the group skipped meal (p〈0.01). Most common meal pattern was consisted of cooked rice, Kimchi and side dishes. When the children didn't have afternoon classes, 10.0% of the children ate Ramen only at home without any side dishes. Among the protein sources, the beans and bean products were the most common items. When we studied the three different lunches such as A) the boxed lunches provided by school, B) the boxed lunches from home and C) the lunches ate at home, the A) lunches provided the most common items. When we studied the three different lunches such as A) the boxed lunches provided by school, B) the boxed lunches from home and C) the lunches ate at home, the A) lunches provided the milk products, fruits, ice cakes·setc. Their favorite foods were fruits, yoghurt, Chinese black noodle, and sweet potatoes whereas being not prefered foods, were aromatic vegetables. It seemed that the increasing rate of working mothers and the overflooding of instant foods have caused to neglect children's meal management. To solve these problems, nutrition education and extend of school lunch programs should be emphasized.
The following study was done to investigate foodservice management practice. Total subjects were 18 foodservices in social welfare facilities in Seoul. Among studied facilities, nine were the welfare facilities for children, five were the welfare facilities for elderly, two were the welfare facilities for a mentally and physically disabled person and the remaining two were vagabond care facilities. Methods used were mainly questionaires. These questionaires were answered by manager and interviews were also done for a same person. Equipments were evaluated by investigators using the evaluation form. The results of the study were summarized as follows. Number of cooks and assistant cooks among employee in foodservice establishment were about 2-6 persons. One dietitian is stationed in 2 places among 18 places. Food purchasing and menu plannings were mainly practiced by manager, secretary and other personnels, in more than 50% of social welfare facilities. The type of the menu in most facilities was the set menu. The period of turn over for cycle menu was a week in 50% of facilities. Seventy seven point eight percentage of the welfare facilities were used the weekly or monthly cycle. For the food preparation, there was almost no place using standard recipes. Foodstuffs were purchased in local market. Moreover, the preference test of served foods were done for residence of each facilities. But it was not applicated effectively. Conditions of most equipments in the kitchen were defective specially in dishwashing and sterilization step.
여대생의 평일 및 일요일의 식생활에서의 식사구조의 기본패턴을 파악하기 위하여 섭취된 식물을 16식품군으로 분류하여 식품 및 영양소섭취량과 16식품의 인자분석을 행하여 얻는 결과를 다음과 같이 요약한다. 1. 식품섭취량에서 16식품군 중 두류, 육류, 음료를 제외한 13식품군의 섭취량은 평일의 식사에서보다 일요일의 식사에서 더 높았다. 2. 식품군간의 상관행렬에서 밥은 평일 및 일요일식사에서 여러 식품군과 정(正)의 상관을 가졌고, 특히 일요일의 경우는 평일보다 정(正)의 상관을 가지는 식품군이 더 많아 섭취된 식품이 다양함을 나타내었다. 또 빵 면류는 평일의 경우 과자 사탕류와, 일요일의 경우는 우유, 난류와 정(正)의 상관을 가지므로 평일은 간식형으로, 일요일에는 식사대용으로 이용된 것으로 볼 수 있다. 야채류, 김치류, 난류, 음료는 평일 및 일요일의 경우 거의 같은 종류의 식품군과 정(正)의 상관을 나타내었다. 평일은 어류, 육류, 유지류가, 일요일은 해조류, 과일류, 우유가 여러 식품군과 정(正)의 상관을 나타내었다. 3. 상관행렬을 인자분석하여 얻은 제1인자는 평일 및 일요일의 경우 한국형의 전통식사(밥식)인자로 해석되었고, 야채류, 감자류, 해조류, 김치, 난류 등의 식품군은 일상 섭취하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 평일의 경우 두류, 어류, 유지류가, 일요일에는 밥, 육류, 해조류가 식사패턴에 깊게 관련되는 인자로 나타났다. 제2인자는 평일에서는 조절소인자, 일요일에서는 한국형식사인자이었고, 제3인자는 평일에는 간식 대용식인자, 일요일에는 조절소인자로 나타났다. 제4인자에서 평일은 부식인자, 일요일은 열량원인자이었고, 제5인자에서 평일은 밥식인자, 일요일은 빵식인자로 나타났다. 4. 평일 및 일요일의 2차원공간도에서 제1주성분은 평일 및 일요일에서 한국전통식(밥식) : 서구식(영양이 고려되지 않은 대용빵식), 제2주성분은 평일에서는 조절소 : 주식(열량)공급원, 일요일은 식사형 : 간식형을 나타낸 것으로 풀이되었다. 5. 영양소섭취량에서 아침식사의 경우 평일은 열량과 구성소영양소의 섭취량이, 일요일은 조절소영양소의 섭취량이 높았다. 점심식사에서는 일요일의 경우가 평일보다 모든 영양소의 섭취량이 높았다. 간식에서 일요일의 경우 당질, 섬유소, 비타민 C를 제외한 영양소의 섭취가 많았으며, 특히 비타민 C, 동물성에너지, 지질, 칼슘, 당질은 1일 평균영양소섭취비로 볼 때 간식에서 높은 섭취비율을 나타내었다. 저녁식사는 평일은 일요일보다 열량, 지질, 당질, 철분 이외의 타 영양소 섭취가 많았고, 일요일의 1일 평균영양소섭취량은 비타민 B1 C, 동물성단백질을 제외한 영양소가 평일의 그것보다 높았다. 또 RDA와 비교한 영양소섭취비는 평일 및 일요일에서 열량(각각 77.4%, 82.3%), 철분(82.8%, 90.6%)이 RDA에 미달되었고, 그 외 영양소는 RDA를 상회하였다.
A survey was made, from May to June 1991, to reveal the current situation of the meal management of the homemakers in Jeonbuk area. The results obtained from 464 homemakers were summerized as follows. The meal expenses were planned and managed mostly by the homemakers (93.3%). The 31.1% homemakers expended 200,000-300,000 Won a month for meals and the average expenditure was 294,106 Won. Among the homemakers who responded, the 34.0% managed their account books for meal expenses. With decreasing age(p<0.05), increasing education level (p<0.001), and increasing the income(p<0.01), the number of those who managed the account book tended to be higher. Usually they bought their foods at the market place (52.1%) and they did every other days(33.2%). The 46.9% planned what to buy and chose the best ones among the foods they planned to buy at the market. The percentage of those who prepared their menus planned in advance was only 5.5%. The most homemakers cooked for themselves (96.8%). On cooking and buying foods, the 48.2% considered their husbands first and the 64.4% regarded the tastes and needs of their families as the most important thing. The majority (66.2%) regarded the dinner as the most important among those three times of meals. The 39.6% prepared Kimchi twice a month. The foods they prepared for each meal were usually 4-5 kinds (43.2%). Mostly they prepared meals three times a day (49.1%). The average times spent in preparing and cleaning the tables for lunch and breakfast were 41.6, 96.2 minutes respectively. The homemakers who had jobs tended to spend less time in preparing and clearing the tables than those who had not (p<0.01, p<0.001). The 58.0% had complaints in that the food prices were too high and their moneys for meal preparation were insufficient and the 16.6% had difficulty in satisfying the tastes of their families.
This study aims to evaluate the degree of malnutrition of children by three nutritional indicators-Weight for Age, Hight for Age, Weight for Height. The results are as follows; The average height and weight of children are much lower than Korea average height and weight. In terms of Weigh for Age, 20-40% of the samples belongs to below-2 standard deviation from the mean of reference group. 90% of the samples falls into the region below the mean. The standard deviation score indicates negative sign for eighty to ninety percent of the samples. The malnutrition of the samples is also confirmed in terms of Height for Age. In terms of Weight for Height, the mean of the samples is not significantly different from that of the reference group. Tests of the nutritional status under basis of three nutritional indicators show that approximately 50% of the samples had suffered from malnutrition and 17% of the samples have suffered from malnutrition.
1. 본(本) 연구(硏究)의 목적(目的)은 한국인의 식생활(食生活)에서 각별한 위치를 차지하고 있는 곰탕류의 섭취와 그 배경(背景)이 되는 요인의 상호관계(相互關係)를 규명하여, 앞으로 차세대(次世代)에의 영양교육(營養敎育)을 하는 데에 있어서 하나의 단서를 얻기 위함에 있다. 그 첫 단계로 곰탕 전문점을 찾는 손님을 대상으로 식생태학적(食生態學的) 접근방법을 사용하여 조사(調査)하였다. 2. 대상자의 약 67%는 일주일에 1~2회이상(回以上), 15%는 3회이상(回以上) 곰탕류를 섭취하고 있었다. 섭취빈도에 있어서의 연령차(年齡差)는 보이지 않았다. 3. 섭취빈도가 높을수록 맛이나 냄새에 대한 「기호도(嗜好度)」가 높고(p〈0.001), 칼슘섭취에 유의하고 있었으며(p〈0.05), 소양(肝)도 넣어 먹도록 배려(配慮)하고 있었다(p〈0.01). 4. 곰탕전문점에 온 이유로서는 전체적으로 봐서 식기호면(食嗜好面)이 가장 높은 비율이었다. 섭취빈도가 높은 쪽에서는 식기호면(食嗜好面)이 강하게 나타난 데에 비해, 섭취빈도가 낮은 쪽에서는 식기호면(食嗜好面)외에 그 음식점의 유명도(有名度)나 친구의 소개 등의 정보면(情報面)이 강하게 나타났다. 5. 다른 한국요리(韓國料理)보다 곰탕류를 선택하는 이유로서는 섭취빈도가 높은 쪽에서는 식기호면(食嗜好面)이나 생리적상태(生理的狀態)에 관한 요인이 가장 강하게 작용하는 데에 비해, 섭취빈도가 낮은 쪽에서는 생리적상태(生理的狀態)에 관한 요인이 가장 강하게 작용하고 있었다. 6. 곰탕류 섭취 후 건강면(健康面)에서의 주관적(主觀的) 심리적평가(心理的評價)에 대해서는(복수회답(複數回答)) 80.5%가 긍정적(肯定的), 30.5%가 특별한 변화가 없고, 6.5%가 부정적(否定的)인 것으로 봐서, 대부분의 사람이 곰탕류는 건강(健康)에 좋다고 인식(認識)하고 있었으며, 그 인식(認識)에는 섭취빈도에 따른 차이(差異)는 보이지 않았다. 7. 연령이 높을수록 곰탕류의 맛이나 냄새에 대한 기호도(嗜好度)가 유의(有意)하게 높았으며, 건강(健康)과의 관련에서는 「식후 소화가 잘 된다」라는 이유로 곰탕류를 선택하였으며, 연령이 낮을수록 「식욕(食慾)이 없을 때」, 「숙취(宿醉)일때」에 선택하는 경향이 강한 것으로 봐서, 연령에 따른 섭취빈도의 차(差)는 없으나, 곰탕류를 선택할 때의 기호(嗜好) 의식(意識) 건강(健康)에의 관심 행동면(行動面)에는 약간의 차(差)가 나타났다. 8. 다변량해석(多變量解析)의 결과(結果), 고섭취빈도군(高攝取頻度群)은 주로 50대이상(代以上)이며 곰탕류에 대한 기호도(嗜好度)가 매우 높고 식의식면(食意識面)이나 식행동면(食行動面), 건강면(健康面)에서 긍정적(肯定的)이었다. 이에 반하여 중섭취빈도군(中攝取頻度群)은 주로 40대(代)였으며 곰탕류에 대한 기호도(嗜好度)가 높았으나 고섭취빈도군(高攝取頻度群)에 비해 식의식면(食意識面)이나 식행동면(食行動面)에서 덜 적극적(積極的)인 경향이었다. 저섭취빈도군(低攝取頻度群)은 주로 20대(代)와 30대(代)였으며 곰탕류에 대한 기호도(嗜好度)가 보통이었으며, 식기호면(食嗜好面)보다 「친구의 소개로」 등에 의해서 섭취하고 있었다.
To analyse reception dishes of Choson Dynasty the author studied historic book-Youngjeob Dogam Bansunsek Euigwae (1609, 1626, 1634 year) in which the daily reception dishes for Chinese envoy in Choson Dynasty were described. The results obtained from this study were as follows. 1. The daily food items for reception of Chinese envoy were refined rice wine, rice, large fish, fish, Zogi, Driedjogi, mullet, pork, beef, chicken, egg, salt, soysauce, sweet soy sauce, refined soy sauce, sesame oil, vinegar, bean curd, stone leek, parsley, ginger and gaslic etc. 2. The daily tablewares used for reception of Chinese envoy were ricebowl (bari), small bowl of porcelain (boa), water bowl (daejeop), soup bowl (tang gi), plate (jeopsi), small dish (jong gi), small earthen ware jar (dong hae), jar (hang), pottery (ong gi), wine glass (jan), water cup, chopsticks, kettle, cauldron, bottle, table, knife, napkin, dish towel, brazier, washbowl and meter etc.
To analyze reception dishes of Choson Dynasty, the author studied historic book-Youngjeob Dogam Mimiunsek Euigwae (1609, 1610 year) in which the reception dishes for Chinese envoy in Choson Dynasty were described. The rescelts obtained from this study were as follows. 1. Youngjeob Dogam Mimunsek collected food items and necessities for reception of Chinese envoy from each administrative machinery, and they included cerials, fruits, seasonings, teas, wines, tablewares, medicines, etc. 2. The guest roms for Chinese envoy were arranged with table, chest, jar, wine glass, tableware, chopstick, spoon, incenseburner, brazier, candlestick, lantern, cloth, etc.
Welcome reception for chinese envoy had been very important affairs for Chosun Dynasty. The procedure for the reception was described in Youngjeob Dogam. The events of each visit of Chinese envoy were also recorded in Youngjeob Dogam Euigwae. Among them, only the records of the year of 1609, 1610, 1626, 1634, 1637, 1643 are existing.