'The Joobang' is a cooking book written purely in Korean which came from a Mr. Lee. It is unknown when and by whom this book was written, but it is inferred from red pepper mentioned in this book and from Korean-writting type that the book was written around in the mid-nineteenth century. The contents of 'the Joobang' consist of thirty seven items in all : sixteen items of rice alcoholics, five side dishes, eleven Tucks(rice cakes) and Guaja(cookies) and five processed materials. Cereals for making rice alcoholics were regular rice and sticky rice. In the first brew, rice alcoholics is made all from regular rice, and in the second brew, fifty six percent of regular rice and forty four percent of sticky rice was made use of. For five items of alcoholics forming 31.3% of alcoholics, flour was added, in which case the proportion of leaven to cereals was lower. There were four types of processing cereals in brewing rice alcoholics Jee-ae-bop(steamed rice, 60.9%), thick gruel with cereals ground and completely cooked(8.7%), thick gruel with cereals ground and half cooked (26.1%) and GooMung Tuck(doughnut-shaped rice cake, 4.3%). The comparison of the materials for brewing rice alcoholics and of the types of processing cereals presented in the seven cooking books purely in Korean(Umsik Deemeebang, JoobangMoon, Umsikbo, Sool-mandununbop, Kyuhap chongseo. The Kims' Joobangmoon and The Lee's Umsikbup) showed us the following facts ; Yihwajoo (rice alcoholics brewed around the blooming time of pear trees) and Kwahajoo(rice alcoholics which passed the summed time) were most often introduced and commonest, and the materials for brewing and the types of processing little changed over times. The materials for side dishes were all animal food, and vegetable food was little used for side dishes. Red pepper was used for seasoning. It is a problem of Korean traditional cooking that there were no units of measuring for side dishes. The main materials for Tuck(rice cakes) and Guaja(cookies) were sticky rice, regular rice and honey. There was a variety of terms for the process, from which we can see that the procedures of making Tuck(rice cakes) and Guaja(cookies) were very complicate. Processed materials were chiefly made of sticky rice and the material of firewood(oak trees) and the strength of fire(fire burning vigorously and fire turning to ashes) were described.
MSG의 맛 표현용어를 설문조사를 통하여 수집분석하고 관능검사를 통한 MSG의 감응역가를 다른 기본 맛의 역가와 비교하였으며, MSG가 다른 기본 맛 성분에 첨가되었을때 일어나는 맛의 강도변화를 관능적 방법으로 측정하였다. 96명의 설문 응답자로부터 수집분석한 자료에 의하면 MSG 자체의 맛은 느끼한 맛(58%)과 역겨운 맛(24%)으로 주로 표현되었으나 음식에 첨가됨으로써 기대 되는 맛은 감칠 맛(79%)으로 주로 표현(表現)되었다. 관능검사자들이 MSG 수용액을 직접 맛보고 표현한 용어로는 최소 감각농도 부근의 낮은 농도에서는 느끼한 맛, 쓴맛, 단맛 등이 감지되었으나 최소 감미농도 이상에서는 느끼한 맛과 짠맛이 주로 표시되었다. MSG 수용액의 최소 감각농도는 0.002mole 수준이었으며 최소 감미농도는 0.006mole 수준이었다. MSG와 기본 맛 성분(成分)과의 상호작용을 보면 MSG가 식염용액에 첨가되면 짠맛의 상승작용을 나타내었다. 그러나 MSG가 설탕용액에 첨가되면 첨가된 MSG 농도가 낮은 때(0.01M)에는 다소 단맛의 상승효과를 나타내었으나 MSG 농도가 높아지면 단맛의 억제효과를 나타내었다. MSG를 구연산용액에 첨가했을 때는 전반적으로 신맛의 억제효과가 나타났다.
새로운 기능성 식품소재로 그 용도가 확대되고 있는 당유도체 감미료 Fructo-oligo 당, Maltitol, Sorbitol 및 High maltose syrup의 수분 활성도 저하능력, 유산균 발효능력, 난우충성 및 상대감미도에 대하여 조사하였다. 수분활성도 저하능력은 Sorbitol이 다른 당보다 우수하였으며 Fructo-oligo 당, Maltitol은 설탕과 유사하였다. 여러 가지 유산균에 대한 발효능력은 glucose(Hydrol), Fructo-oligo 당, HMS 모두 우수하였으나 Maltitol은 Lactobacillus plantarum을 제외한 다른 유산균들의 생육을 억제하였다. Streptococcus mutans를 이용한 우충성 시험에서 Maltitol은 다른당에 비하여 뚜렷한 난우충성을 나타내었다. 당유도체들의 상대감미도는 당도수준이 높을수록 증가하는 경향을 나타내었으며 1% 설탕용액의 당도수준에서 mole 농도기준 상대감미도는 Neosugar 0.60, Sorbitol 0.21, Maltitol 0.50, HMS 0.27로 평가되었다.
국내에서 생산되는 재배버섯으로 일반느타리(Pleurotus ostreatus)와 고온성느타리(Pleurotus sajor-caju) 및 야생식용버섯으로 싸리버섯(Ramaria botrytis)과 젖버섯(Lactarius volemus)의 지질성분조성을 비교 검토한 결과 각 버섯의 지방함량은 0.32~0.39%이었으며, 그 조성은 인지질(19.4~47.4%), 중성지질(32.1~51.9%), 당지질(14.8~28.7%) 순으로 많았으나 고온성 느타리는 다른 버섯에 비하여 중성지질(51.9%)의 함량이 높았다. 중성지질에서는 triglyceride(21.2~38.2%), free sterol(21.0~21.9%), sterol ester(10.3~18.6%) 순으로 많았으나 고온성 느타리는 free fatty acid(34.1%)의 함량이 다른 버섯에 비하여 특이하게 높았다. 당지질은 steryl glycoside(15.6~29.4%), esterified steryl glycoside(13.4~23.9%), monogalactosyl diglyceride(15.6~24.6%) 순으로 많았으며, 인지질의 조성은 phosphatidyl choline(36.7~49.5%), phosphatidyl ethanolamine(20.9~29.7%), phosphatidyl inositol(18.4~26.1%) 순으로 많았다. 각 구성지질의 지방산조성은 4종의 버섯 공히 linoleic acid와 palmitic acid가 주요 지방산이었으나 싸리버섯은 중성지질에서 oleic acid의 함량이 높았다.
The object of this study was to investigate the characteristics of pectinesterase(PE), polygalacturonase(PG) and Peroxidase(POD) in Kimchi materials. The results were as follows : 1. The specific activities of PEs in Korean cabbage, Korean raddish, garlic and ginger were 200 unit/mg protein, 23.1 unit/mg protein, 0.8 unit/mg protein and 32 unit/mg protein, respectively. The optimum pHs of PEs in all materials were between 7 to 8. The concentrations of NaCl, CaCl2 which showed the highest activities of PEs were 0.2~0.3M NaCl, 50 mM CaCl2 in Korean cabbage and raddish, 0.05 M NaCl, 20 mM CaCl2 in garlic and 0.2 M NaCl, 20 mM CaCl2 in ginger. 2. The specific activities and the optimum pHs of PGs were 1.5 unit/mg protein and pH 4.5 in Korean cabbage, 1.6 unit/mg protein and pH 4.5~5.5M in Korean raddish, 0.06 unit/mg protein and pH 3.0~3.5M in garlic, and 0.06 unit/mg protein and CaCl2 in ginger. The concentrations of NaCl, CaCl2 which showed the highest activities of PGs were 0.1~0.2M NaCl and 0.15~0.2mM mM CaCl2 in all materials. 3. The specific activities and the optimum pHs of PODs in Korean cabbage, Korean raddish, garlic and ginger were 71.3 unit/mg protein ; pH 6.0. 769 unit/mg protein ; pH 5.5, 1.09 unit/mg protein ; pH 4.5 and 12.7 unit/mg protein ; pH 5.0~5.5M, respectively. POD activities were not decreased in Korean cabbage, but decreased in Korean raddish by the increase of NaCl, CaCl2 concentrations. In garlic and ginger, POD activities were a little slightly affected by the increase of NaCl, CaCl2 concentrations.
인삼 추출물인 saponin이 Bacillus cereus의 성장에 미치는 영향을 세포의 성장 및 영양물질의 세포내 유입 정도와 효소 활성도를 관찰함으로써 알아보았다. 인삼 saponin을 Bacillus cereus의 배양액에 첨가하였을 때, 영양물질의 세포내 유입이 증가하고 이들 물질의 대사와 관련된 효소의 활성도가 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한, saponin에 의해 Bacillus cereus 개체군의 전반적인 성장이 증가하였다. 성장의 증가 현상은 인삼 saponin이 세포막에 먼저 작용하여 세포의 영양물질 흡수 통로인 영양물질 결합 부위를 노출시켜 영양물질의 흡수를 증진시킨데 기인한 것으로 사료되는 바이다.
The purpose of this study were to investigate relationships between the franchisors and franchisees in terms of management, satisfaction and cooperation, and to establish a model for improvement of the foodservice management structure of fast food franchise system. Data were collected from 4 hamburger and 7 noodle franchisors, and from 21 hamburger and 38 noodle franchisees. Surveyed chains were composed of 10 franchisor-owned units and 49 franchised units. The instrument used in this study was Liker type 5-scale guestionnarie. Hypotheses concerning relations between management practices by franchisor and satisfaction of franchisee, cooperation of franchisee were tested using path analysis. Unit management practices by franchisors were significantly different according to the operation style. Franchisor-owned hamburger chains rather than franchised noodle chains were better managed by franchisors in terms of QSC and management support. Management practices by franchisors in the whole showed a significant relationship with the satisfaction, cooperation, and the implementation of standardized recipes by franchisees. Franchisees' satisfaction had a significant positive relation with the cooperation and the implementation of standardized recipes. QSC management practices and management support by franchisors, had no direct relevance to the general cooperation of franchisees, and management practices in the whole had a little relevance to it, but franchisees' satisfaction in terms of QSC and the whole had a strong effect to their QSC Cooperation.
This research was carried out as a basic survey to provide more effective and improved food service for the soliders of the Armed Forces who are serving to defend the Republic of Korea subjects were selected randomly who were serving in the army for a short-term. Following is the result of a survey regarding the situation of their meals, dietary life, and their food preference of 190 kinds of foodstuffs. As a result of surveying the dietary life of the soldiers, they indicated that there was dissatisfaction in the current Food Service because it lacked tasted and the same kind of meals were being served too frequently with regard to this, many subjects expressed that they were eating out because of the quality of they get from the regular meal service the meals, that is they were eating in restaurants to resolve their dissatisfaction over the quality of the meals. It was also surveyed that in the current meals there is a need to diversify ways in preparing food, increase the number of dishes, and improve the tasts of the food by using improved cooking method. It seemed that the soldiers were satisfied in the quantitative level of the current food service but that there is a need to improve the meals in quality. Following is the result of a survey on the preference of foodstuffs. In case of rice as the stationary food, mixture of five-grain plain white cooked rice showed a higher propensity compared to plain whte boiled rice. This shows that soliders prefer various cereals in their rice. Soliders liked soup made from meat better than vegetable soup or soup made from fish. Especially there was a high performance for beef soup. Soliders liked One-dish meals such as fried rice or boiled rice with asserted mixtures, noodled, and dumplings on the whole-soliders generally liked vegetables and they liked uncooked vegetables better than cooked vegetables. Generally everyone liked beverages and there was a high preference for dessert. Among various rice cakes soliders liked songpyon(rice cake steamed on a layer of pine needles) and injolmi (cake made from glutinous rice). On the other hand, soliders did not like food prepared with fish, biscuits and candy very much. In the way of preparing food, soliders liked food that were fried in deep far rather than food cooked in water. Also they liked pot stem better than soup. As examined in the survey, those surveyed wanted improvement in the quality and diversity of the food rather than increase the number of food and quality. Therefore there is a need for diversified supply and demand of quality of meal service.
Three sensory evaluations were conducted to assess the effect of food color on flavor identification. Elementary students and women university students served as subjects for three evaluations of hard candies, in order to assess color preference, to examine the effect of atypical color on flavor identification and to examine the acceptability of harmony between the color and the perceived flavor. Results showed that inappropriate coloring of the three flavored hard candies induced flavor responses that are normally associated with that color and decreased the acceptability. In addition, the acceptability of colorless candies is lower than that of colored candies. It is suggested from it that when there is no color on the product, even atypical color, it`s harder to identify the flavor and to get a high grade in its preference.
This study is designed to forecast the characteristics in food consumption patterns under per capita GNP growth. Ordinary least square(OLS)method was employed as analyzing technique. Equation was Y=a0+a1X, in which X was per capita GNP and Y were Engel coefficient, food supply, energy supply, nutrient intake and ratio of self-supply of food. The result obtained indicates that the intake of nutrient such as protein and fat will be increased, and wheat, corn and legume are expected to be imported wholly due to lower ratio of self-supply, and rice will be over-supplied continually. Therefore, the relevant policy of government must be established in the field of supply and demand of food, and the research of sound national health should be done.