The objective of this study was to examine alcohol consumption rates and the perception of drinking cultures among college students in the Wonju area. An examination of factors such as frequency of drinking, average quantity consumed, and frequency of heavy drinking suggested that the drinking rates were relatively high. Over 70% of subjects drank at least once a week, 66.2% typically drank more than 5 servings at a time, and 19.2% of males and 13.0% of females were heavy drinkers. It was revealed from an AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) assessment that 71.3% of the subjects tested had various levels of alcohol-related problems. These problems were more severe in subjects that were male, selfboarding, or overweight. Alcohol related knowledge was not high because the subjects didn't know or incorrectly recognized some contents such as blood alcohol concentration, the energy content of alcohol, and the empty caloric characteristics of alcohol. Generally male, self-boarding, and overweight persons were not critical of the undesirable characteristics associated with drinking culture. Two opinions that were generally considered to be permissible were: 'Men should be able to drink' and 'Drinking is essential for a smooth human relationship'.
Some biological activities such as an electron donating capacity, the contents of total polyphenol compounds and flavonoids, fibrinolytic activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity have been detected in hot water extracts of Ligularia fischeri and Angelica gigas Nakai. To increase the usefulness of the functional ingredients for prevention and improvement of some metabolic disorders, ethanol-treated hot water extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai were prepared. A hot water extract of Ligularia fischeri has 92% of electron donating capacity, 39.4 mg/g of total polyphenol compounds, 24.8 mg/g of flavonoids and 29.8% of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, but no fibrinolytic activity. A hot water extract of Angelica gigas Nakai has 94.7% of electron donating capacity, 5.8 mg/g of total polyphenol compounds, 2.6 mg/g of flavonoids, 0.48 plasmin units of fibrinolytic activity and no α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. However, with partial purification using cold ethanol treatment, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Angelica gigas Nakai was increased to 70.5%. Thus, we expected a more useful effect with the use of the addition of a cold ethanol-treated Angelica gigas Nakai extract. The L, b values of cold buckwheat noodles using a mixture of 0~3% of Ligularia fischeri powder and 0.5% of an ethanol-treated hot water extract of Angelica gigas Nakai were decreased with the addition of an increasing amount of Ligularia fischeri powder. Among the mechanical qualities, only adhesiveness was significantly higher in 3% Ligularia fischeri noodles. From sensory evaluation data, it was determined that these two functional ingredients did not ruin the color, texture, and overall acceptance of the cold buckwheat noodles. A higher amount of the extracts improved the quality of the product with little added cost.
We developed a kind of soy-based sauce for stews using three recipes and sensory evaluation processes, and examined the biological activities such as antioxidative, fibrinolytic and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of hot water extract of Cornus officinalis S. et Z in order to use as functional ingredient. The developed stew was composed of soy sauce 1½ Tbsp, sugar 114 Tbsp, garlic, small green onion, powdered sesame and sesame seed oil ½ tsp, respectively, ginger extract 14 tsp, black pepper 18 and water ⅔C per 300 g of main ingredients(pork rib, chicken and dried pollack). It was evaluated more highly acceptable than the original recipes by sensory test. Replacement of water in the recipe of the developed stew sauce with hot water extract of Cornus officinalis S. et Z did' nt affect the sensory quality. From the above results. we concluded that hot water extract of Cornus officinalis S. et Z might be a excellent source to provide health functionality.
This study was carried out to examine Korean housewives' preference in mushrooms, their nutritional knowledge of mushrooms as a source of Vitamin D, and five characteristics of four mushroom dishes. The data were collected from 713 subjects in various age ranges. The housewives ate mushrooms because of their healthfulness. Frequency of eating mushroom was related to preference of mushrooms. Frequency of eating mushroom was also influenced by intake of balanced diet, healthfulness of current diet, and application of nutritional knowledge. Mushroom dishes were considered nutritious (72.4%), easy to purchase (55.7%), easy to cook (63.7%) and expensive (36.3%). Mushroom was also considered superior to other vegetable in nutrition and taste but evaluated inferior to other vegetable in aspects of high price and limitation of variety. Intake of balanced diet, healthfulness of current diet and application of nutritional knowledge were influenced by the level of nutritional knowledge. Korean housewives liked mushroom but they didn't recognized the value of mushroom as a source of Vitamin D well. Introducing various cooking methods and nutritional informations are suggested to use mushroom diversely.
The purpose of this study was evaluate the perception on the relationship between feeding and atopic dermatitis of infants. The results are summarized as follows:. The feeding method of atopic dermatitis infant was composed of breast feeding 26.9%, bottle feeding 50.9%, and mixed feeding 22.2%. 95.3% of the subjects recognized mother's meal during breast feeding were transmitted to infant, but 30.8% of breast feeding restricted their foods. Weaning food was recognized as a nutritional supplement primarily. 61.5% of the subjects perceived the relation between food and atopic dermatitis and 58.8% of the subject perceived atopic dermatitis infants will be cured by growing. 39.9% of the subjects answered that special food developed and made worse atopic dermatitis in their infants. Egg, mackerel, milk, pork, chicken scored high as doubtful food related with atopic dermatitis. It is necessary to find out the food that develop atopic dermatitis symtoms and make guidelines for diet therapy for the infants with atopic dermatitis.
This study was performed in order to investigate to dietary behavior, perceived stress level and their correlations for University students. Dietry behavior of 72% subjects was poor and only 1.8% was good. The dietary behavior of subjects was correlated with their residence type. The overage stress point was 1.76±0.53 and female students was more stressed than male. Stress elevate the food uptakes and digestion disorder in female students. 12 Factors of stress was analyzed in University students, identification, study, friends and off-school activity related factors were more influenced in female students and health related factor was dominant in male. The subjects who more stressed in factor of religion and around people were preferred salty taste. Study, friends, health related stress factor effect to digestion and food uptake level. Religion, boy or girl friends and sex related stress factor effect to alcohol uptake
The purpose of this study was to investigate several aspects of eating out behaviors especially in relation to Chinese food. Self-administrated questionnairs were completed by 556 food-related major college students in Kangwon-do area. The results were as follows: 1. The frequencies of eating out were not significantly different by gender, type of residence, and the amount of spending money per month of the subjects. 2. Korean foods had a tendency to be selected as a first choice of eating out with both family and friends. The subjects preferred Korean foods, Western foods, Chinese foods and Japanese foods in order with their family but flour based foods, western foods and chinese foods in order with their friends. Japanese foods were not selected at all when they ate out with friends. 3. The 80.7% of male subjects and the 58% of female subjects liked Chinese foods. High calorie food was the feeling about Chinese foods for the male subjects and greasy food was for the female subjects. Taste was the most considered factor for choosing Chinese foods. 4. The 80% of subjects answered that Chinese food culture affected that of Korea. The 77% of subjects thought Chinese noodles were settled down to Korea. 5. Using MSG to Chinese foods was recognized as health-concerning factor for 67% of male subjects and 72% of female subjects.
This study was to investigate the effect of ultraviolet rays, soaking, boiling and baking to ergocalciferol (Vit.D2) and riboflavin(Vit.B2) contents of mushrooms, Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus. The results were as follow: 1. Mushrooms were exposed to ultraviolet rays Lentinus edodes : 10J/cm2, Pleurotus ostratus : 2J/cm2 and Agaricus bisporus : 2J/cm2. 2. Before exposing to ultraviolet rays, the ergocalciferol contents of mushrooms were all 0μg/g dry base, but after exposing to it , those of Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus were 222.50±5.30μg/g dry base, 150.90±6.60μg/g dry base and 23.98±1.20μg/g dry base, respectively 3. Before and after exposing to ultraviolet rays, the riboflavin contents of Lentinus edoes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus were 18.22±0.71μg/g dry base and 11.72±0.50μg/g dry base, 4.57±0.20μg/g dery base and 3.26±0.15μg/g dry base, and 37.42±1.20μg/g dry base and 27.33±2.10μg/g dry base, respectively. 4. The ergocalciferol contents of mushrooms according to boiling time were not significantly different but the riboflavin contents of them were decreased according to the increase of boiling time. 5. The ergocalciferol and riboflavin contents of mushrooms were decreased according to the increase of NaCl concentration and baking temperature. 6. The ergocalciferol content of Lentinus edodes after a short time soaking at 80℃ was higher than a long time soaking at 20℃, 40℃ and 60℃.
The purpose of this study was to survey several aspects of health and food related behavior of college students in Wonju area. Questionnaires were delivered personally to 430 students. The 37.9% of subjects were self-boarded and 27.4% lived in their home in Wonju area. They spend 230,000 won in average per month. Male students spent money more than female students and self-boarding students spent money more than other residental type students. The 90% of subjects thought they were healthy and the 25% of subjects exercised regularly. The subjects self-recognized their body as fat were more concerning about their weight control and had more weight control experience. SeIf-boarding students tended to skip their meals and had unbalanced diet. Students who lived in dormitory tended to skip meal less. Female students showed higher scores at balanced diet, snack intake, and left meal than male students. Self recognized their body as medium showed lower scores at overeating and eating irregularly. The amount of consumption of carbonated beverage was the highest among several instant foods. The frequencies of intake of those instant foods were different by gender, residental types, and eating behaviors.
This study was carried out to survey dietary intakes of 739 elementary students, 4-6grades, in Won-Ju area, in 1998, to enhance the effect of school foodservice. The results were as follows : 1. Most investigated students had nuclear family with one brother or one sister. 2. The average height of boys and girls was 141.0±7.7cm and 141.4±8.0cm, and the average weight of them was 35.7±8.5kg and 36.1±8.5kg, respectively. There was no significant difference between boys and girls. 3. The rates of obesity were 12.2% in urban, 7.4% in rural and 0% in remote rural area by Rohrer index and 22.9% in urban 13.9% in rural and 0% in remote rural area by the rate based on standard weight. 4. All nutrients intake of investigated students were sufficient according to recommended dietary allowances. All nutrients intake of boys were higher than those of girls. Calcium intake of children with well educated mother was higher than that of children with poorly educated mother. Children in remote rural area had lower carbohydrate, calory and calcium intake than those in other areas. 5. Students without breakfast had lower protein and iron intake and higher calory from snack than those with breakfast. 6. Students who thought themselves to be obesity had low intake of carbohydrate, total calory and calory from snack and students with regular exercise had high intake of protein, iron, calcium and calory from snack. 7. Students with unbalanced diet, snack intake in large quantities and irregular meal had lower protein, fat, iron and calcium intake and higher calory from snack than other students. As a result, Students without breakfast often had lower all nutrients except calory from snack than other students, significantly. Problems of nutrients intake of elementary students in Won-Ju area were high rate of obesity, high intake of protein, unbalanced nutrients intake of students without meal or students with excessive eating and limited calcium intake of students with poorly educated mother. It is important to confirm desirable food habits for balanced nutrients intake in all areas and to increase calcium intake of students in remote rural area.
This study examined the relationship between mothers' consciousness of diet and their infant feeding methods and weaning practices. Consciousness of diet analyzed from 17 questions concerning the attitudes and opinions of diet was classified into 6 categories using the factor analysis. These categories were the faithfulness of diet, the health-directed dietary practices, the application of health information, the application of information about food and nutrition, the sincerity to meal preparation, and dietary habits. The 400 mothers selected randomly from Wonju area were surveyed. The results obtained from the study were summarized as follows. Weaning was implemented earlier by the group with better education career and with the exact knowledge of weaning. Factors associated with infant feeding methods included some sociodemographic characteristics such as birth order, mothers' employment state and income level and mothers' effort toward faithfulness of diet. The use of health-foods and nutrient supplements were prefered by the groups used bottle-feeding method. The health condition of the infants was influenced by mother's will to carry out the health information rather than infant feeding methods and weaning foods used. Mothers who perceived the importance of diet for health and consumed more milk had healthier babies, and their dietary habits were more favorable. The subjects who self-recognized the meaning of weaning and who believed that earlier weaning was good for baby or delayed weaning was the cause of anemia and poor appetite, took advantage of the information about food and nutrition as well as prefered the health-directed dietary practices. Mothers who retried to feed the weaning food rejected by baby before, applied the dietary information to the real meal management more actively and had a more desirable dietary habits. In those cases the baby had improved health condition. Those who were interested in the meaning of weaning and the nutritious effect of weaning foods, revealed significantly higher tendency on the performance of cooking information and the more confidence to the health information from advertisement.
In this survey, we investigated the way of thinking about meal management of housewives including the sincerity to meal preparation, the eating practices and cronic degenerative diseases related dietary behaviors, and studied the effects of above factors on the real food intakes. We also investigated the trends of health-foods and nutrient supplements usage. The results obtained from 506 housewives in Seoul were summarized as follows. Although our subjects prepared their meals habitually without special concern, they did not prefer the use of convenient foods. The food prefrence of housewivess who had more child and refered higher life status was similar with other family members. The dietary attitudes were good in large family, the higher income and the more child group. The highly educated group skipped breakfast more frequently. The mealmanagers with better education career and good living status considered for the restriction of salty foods, sweet foods, animal fats and pungent foods, and for the nutritionally balanced diet. The high income group showed great concerns about weight gain at meal times. The nutritional qualities expressed by the frequency of food group intakes were high in the better educated and living status groups, and their eating frequencies of animal protein foods and calcium sources were significantly high. Mealmanagers who had no job intaked vegetable oils through frying foods frequently. The use of health-foods and nutrient supplements was influenced by age, educational and economic level and self-estimated living status, but the trends in prevalence of both were not consistent. Health-foods were prefered by the groups of high educational career, affluent income and advanced living status, and low educational career, low income and low living status groups favored the nutrient supplements. The restrictive intake of animal fat and the use of health-food were positively correlated, which seemed that the subjects used health-foods as supplements in compensation for nutritional unbalance caused by the avoidance of animal protein foods.
인삼 추출물인 saponin이 Bacillus cereus의 성장에 미치는 영향을 세포의 성장 및 영양물질의 세포내 유입 정도와 효소 활성도를 관찰함으로써 알아보았다. 인삼 saponin을 Bacillus cereus의 배양액에 첨가하였을 때, 영양물질의 세포내 유입이 증가하고 이들 물질의 대사와 관련된 효소의 활성도가 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한, saponin에 의해 Bacillus cereus 개체군의 전반적인 성장이 증가하였다. 성장의 증가 현상은 인삼 saponin이 세포막에 먼저 작용하여 세포의 영양물질 흡수 통로인 영양물질 결합 부위를 노출시켜 영양물질의 흡수를 증진시킨데 기인한 것으로 사료되는 바이다.
더덕의 휘발성 향기성분은 신선더덕의 경우 총 167 종이 확인되었는데 이는 타 연구결과에 비해 상당히 많은 편이었으며, 동일 더덕이라도 저장조건에 따라 종류 및 조성비율에서 매우 큰 차이를 보였다. 조성 비율이 큰 10개의 성분들이 차지하는 비율은 58%였다. 일반재배 더덕을 4가지 조건으로 15일 혹은 30일간 저장하면서 분석한 휘발성 향기성분들 중 1-hexadecene, 2,6-dimethyl-2-octanol, 2-methyl-2-dodecanol, α-cedrene, β-selinene, farnesane, isoledene등 7종이 모든 저장조건에서 확인되었다. 그러나 각 저장조건에서 나타나는 10개의 중요 향기 성분들을 비교한 결과 모든 저장조건 및 저장기일에서 공통적으로 나타난 성분은 없었으며, trans-2-hexen-1-ol이 19.8%~56.0%, 마대포장 후 실온저장 더덕을 제외한 1-hexanol이 51.9%~71.1%를 차지하는 주요 성분이었다. 마대포장 실온저장 더덕의 경우에는 cyclohexanol이 36.4%, trans-2-hexen-1-ol이 19.8%를 차지하였고, 2-hexenal이 12.7%로 높게 나타났다. 또한 모든 저장조건에서 확인되었던 1-hexadecene, 2,6-dimethyl-2-octanol, 2-methyl-2-dodecanol, β-selinene, farnesane, isoledene들은 조성비율이 매우 낮거나 순위에 포함되지 못하는 것들이 대부분이었다. 더덕 향기성분에 대한 관능평가로 더덕의 품질을 판단한다면 항균포장 냉장저장 더덕이 모든 향취가 높았으며, 그 다음이 마대포장 냉장저장, 항균포장 실온저장, 마대포장 실온저장 순으로 향취가 감소하였다. 이는 포장재의 차이보다는 저온보관 여부가 주요 변인으로 작용한다고 할 수 있다. 결론적으로 더덕 고유의 향취에 대한 관능평가를 통해 저장더덕의 상품가치를 판단할 수 있는 기준이 마련될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.
더덕의 장기 저장 조건을 최적화하기 위한 일련의 과정으로 포장재질과 저장온도를 달리하여 30일간 저장하면서 pH, 수분, 회분 함량, 일부 무기질 및 조사포닌과 codonoposide의 함량 변화를 알아보았다. 신선한 더덕 즙액의 pH는 5.3이었고, 저장조건에 따른 수분 및 회분 함량변화는 항균포장-냉장저장 조건에서는 유의적 차이가 없었으나 다른 조건에서는 저장온도보다는 포장재질의 영향을 더 많이 받았다. ICP로 측정한 무기질 함량은 건조중량 100g당 칼슘 427.3mg, 마그네슘 203.4mg, 나트륨 10.2mg, 칼륨 619mg였으며, 저장기일 경과에 따라 다양한 양상으로 변하였다. 신선 더덕 즙액은 명도 52.5, a값과 b값이 -0.3과 7.9 정도로서 매우 밝고 흰색에 가까운 색깔을 띠었으며, 저장함에 따라 즙액의 명도는 감소하였고 a값과 b값은 증가하여 색탁이 어두워지고 붉은 색과 황색이 진해짐을 알 수 있다. 채취 직후 조사포닌 함량은 Ig당 29.3mg이었고, 30일간 저장시에는 24.9~30.9mg으로 약간 차이가 있었다. 더덕 사포닌 성분 중 하나인 codonoposide는 378mg/건조중량 100g으로, 조사포닌의 약 10%정도였으며, 15일 저장 시 대체적으로 감소하였으나, 30일 저장 더덕에서는 신선더덕과 비슷하였다. 항균포장-냉장저장 시 더덕의 이화학적 성분의 변화가 적었으며, 관능적 품질요소 중 하나인 색도는 저장조건보다는 저장기간에 따라 달라졌고, 특수 성분인 조사포닌과 사포닌계 물질은 저장기간 동안 유의적 차이를 보이지 않았으므로 항균포장-냉장저장이 더덕의 이화학적 성분 변화를 줄이는 좋은 조건으로 여겨진다.