우리나라의 남부지방의 대부분 농가에서 대량 생산되고 있으나 농가소득에는 기여하지 못하고 있는 떫은 감의 손쉬운 가공에 의한 대량 소비를 촉진시키기 위하여 감장아찌의 화학적 품질 특성을 규명하고 감장아찌 제조 및 유통과정에서의 품질과 관련된 미생물을 순수분리하여 동정함으로써 감장아찌의 품질관리에 기여코자 하였다. 제조된 감장아찌 완제품의 수분함량은 80.04%, 당질함량은 13.72%로 원료감과 큰 차이가 없었으나 조회분함량은 염액에 침지한 감장아찌의 특성때문에 원료감보다 훨씬 높은 4.26%였다. 수용성 탄닌함량은 81.04mg%로 635.45mg%인 원료감보다 크게 감소되었고 총 비타민 C는 23.76mg%로 약간 감소되었으며 유리당은 포도당, 과당, 자당의 순으로 함유되었다. 유리아미노산은 총 17종이 함유된 것으로 분석되었고 그 함량은 glutamic acid(24.97mg%), aspartic acid(24.02mg%), leucine(22.33mg%)의 순으로 높았으며 methionine이 2.42mg로 가장 낮았다. 감장아찌 제조와 관련된 미생물로는 세균 4균주와 효모 3균주가 각각 동정되었는데 동정된 Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis였고 효모는 Candida glabrata, C. guilliermondi and Hansenula였으며 진공포장하여 상품화한 감장아찌 완제품의 유통과정에서 포장의 부풀림과 감장아찌 맛의 변화를 일으키는 원인균은 효모인 Candida glabrata인 것으로 확인되었다.
Seoktanbyung, a traditional rice cake, was named in old literature, since from old times its taste was so good that one was not able to eat it without much regret. To suggest its standard preparing method, we prepared it by 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of the moderate standard of ground pine nuts which had much influence on its own special soft texture. The result of the analysis was as follows: The water content of Seoktanbyung was 31.62~34.62%. The degree of colour was L value: 48.17~56.88, a value: 6.07~8.24, and b value: 12.67~15.25, and the higher the degree of the addition of ground pine nuts was, L value and a value were more or less decreased, but b value was increased. The measured result of texture was: as for hardness and gumminess, there was a significance (p〈0.05) between Seoktanbyung with and without ground pine nuts, and as for cohesiveness, there was a significance (p〈0.05) between Seoktanbyung added 20% of ground pine nuts and another material, but each material showed a similar value of measure. The result of sensory evaluation was: as for sweetness and flavor, there was no significance among material, so ground pine nuts had no influence on the sweetness and flavor of Seoktanbyung, and as for crumbness and chewiness, there was a significance between Seoktanbyung with and without ground pine nuts. The general degree of the taste was: Seoktanbyung added 20% of ground pine nuts was the highest among others.
This study was conducted for the purpose of practice of nutrition education and dietary intake for college students. This survey was carried out through a variety of questionnaires by the subjects which consist of 249 male and 208 female college students in Seoul area. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. 75% of the subjects lived in their own houses; the monthly personal expenses were 110~200 thousand wons. The appetite of the students who answered was normal in general. The pattern of dietary life shows that they take richer food at dinner than lunch and breakfast. 2. At school, 75% of students ate at the school cafeteria. Among several main dishes, rice was the most favorite food. Most of the subjects ate their lunch between 12 and 1 o'clock, and they spend approximately 11 to 15 minutes. Most of the students did not have lunch on time. The students ate lunch irregularly, because of the class schedule and poor appetite. 3. On weekends and vacations, 56% of the students ate lunch prepared by their mother at home. The two main reasons for skipping lunch during weekends and vacations were late breakfast and poor appetite. The frequency of eating out were 3~4 times per week, because of social life and convenience of meal. 4. The majority of college students asked for the improvement of meal quality and the choice of menu in school cafeteria.
Consumer awareness of current food labeling system and new nutrition labeling system which the government considers to adopt widely was assessed, from May to June in 1994, for 423 adults living in Seoul. Being highly conscious of food safety, they thought the current food label did not provide sufficient information. Dissatisfaction with the current system was shown higher in the female, young, or unmarried strata. The need for nutrition labeling system was widely recognized by 82% of total respondents regardless of sex, level of education, monthly income, and marital status. Although some expressed worries about proper management of the system, most of the respondents answered that the system would benefit them after all. In this connection, 59% of the respondents showed willingness to accept a price increase to be entailed by nutrition labeling. Nutrition informations that, they thought, should be covered were: calorie>minerals>cholesterol>protein>vitamins>fat>sodium. Additional labeling informations they called for were nutrient contents>RDA percentage>specific statement on reinforced or eliminated nutrients.
A hazard analysis which included watching operations, measuring temperatures of foods throughout preparation and display, and sampling and testing for microorganisms of total plate counts and coliform bacteria was conducted in various phases of product flow of Naeng-myeun (Cold noodles) and Pi-bim bab (mixed rice) prepared at Korean restaurants. Large numbers of total plate counts were counted from the cooked foods after handling and holding. Ingestion of these foods must be considered high risk. Critical control points identified were, pre-preparation, food handling after cooking, and holding on display in product flow of Nang-Meon and pre-preparation, preparation, and holding on display in product flow of Pi-bim bab. It need for effective quality control of Nang-Meon and Pi-bim bab that training program consist of surveillance, education of the staff, standard operation procedures, forbidding dangerous processes and control of critical points.
The awareness of the nutrition labeling of 82 food producers and 668 government officials was assessed and compared, from May to June in 1994, to that of consumers. Compared to 82.4% of cosumers, 48.1% of producers and 47.8% of officials answered that nutrition labeling is necessary. 48% of producers expected a modest food price rise, but 70% thought food sales would not be affected with nutrition labeling. While being worried about the regulatory difficulties and the increased work load given the inadequate implementation of the current food labeling system due to insufficient personnel, 50.2% of officials wanted the new nutrition labeling system to be introduced within 1~2 years. Contrary to the general dissatisfaction with the system and the lack of confidence in it on the part of consumers, producers thought that they currently provide sufficient food information for consumers, and that consumers had much confidence in it. Producers and officials were more found worried about consumers' inadequate understanding and inactive use of the system in contrast to the widespread and welcome support on the part of consumers. But it was fully agreed by all that education and awareness is crucial for the successful implementation of nutrition labeling system.
In this survey, we investigated the way of thinking about meal management of housewives including the sincerity to meal preparation, the eating practices and cronic degenerative diseases related dietary behaviors, and studied the effects of above factors on the real food intakes. We also investigated the trends of health-foods and nutrient supplements usage. The results obtained from 506 housewives in Seoul were summarized as follows. Although our subjects prepared their meals habitually without special concern, they did not prefer the use of convenient foods. The food prefrence of housewivess who had more child and refered higher life status was similar with other family members. The dietary attitudes were good in large family, the higher income and the more child group. The highly educated group skipped breakfast more frequently. The mealmanagers with better education career and good living status considered for the restriction of salty foods, sweet foods, animal fats and pungent foods, and for the nutritionally balanced diet. The high income group showed great concerns about weight gain at meal times. The nutritional qualities expressed by the frequency of food group intakes were high in the better educated and living status groups, and their eating frequencies of animal protein foods and calcium sources were significantly high. Mealmanagers who had no job intaked vegetable oils through frying foods frequently. The use of health-foods and nutrient supplements was influenced by age, educational and economic level and self-estimated living status, but the trends in prevalence of both were not consistent. Health-foods were prefered by the groups of high educational career, affluent income and advanced living status, and low educational career, low income and low living status groups favored the nutrient supplements. The restrictive intake of animal fat and the use of health-food were positively correlated, which seemed that the subjects used health-foods as supplements in compensation for nutritional unbalance caused by the avoidance of animal protein foods.