This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between body mass index and the food habits of college students. For this purpose, 1030 students of Seoul National University were asked to fill out the questionnaires for the food habit and weight control. Actual weights were also measured, on the spot. The results obtained were as follows. 1. Average height and weight were 173.15 cm, 63.83 kg for male, and 160.52 cm, 52.73 kg for females. The prevalence of underweight, normal and overweight was 32.3, 61.7, 5.5%, respectively. 2. Food habit scores of obese females were lower than normal or underweight females. Male subjects did not show significantly different scores among three groups. 3. Female obese subjects have lower scores than the other groups on the balanced intake of five basic food groups and on the regular meal intakes. Male obese subjects have cholesterol-rich food and animal fat more frequently than normal and underweight males. Male underweight subjects have lower food habit scores on the balanced intake of five basic food groups. 4. Males want to gain weight slightly and females want to lose 4.65 kg weight. All females want to lose weights. Obese males and females want to lose 10 kg weights.
This study was conducted to find out the successive habitual practice of dietary life and all the educational tasks for the purpose of activating with female college students in Korea and Japan. The reesults are as follows. Housewives in both countries prepare 「the same menu」 for dinner about 65%. 「The rate of domestic manufacturing of preservated food 」 is superior in Korea. 「Goch'ujang」 is made by the 92% of Koreans, 「Doenjang」 89%, 「Ganjang」 48%, 「Oiji」 44% and 「Kimchi」 40%. 「Umeboshi」 is made by the 65% of Japanese, 「Rakkyo-Zuke」 37%, 「Kajitsu-syu」 40%, and 「Miso」 27%. Two countries' common seasonings are 「Ganjang」, 「Salt」, 「Chemical condiment」, 「Sugar」, 「Pepper」, 「Doenjang」 and 「Vinegar」. Koreans use the traditional seasonings, and in addition flavoring vegetables and oil which is Korea's own characteristic. Japanese use western seasonings frequently besides traditional seasonings. 「Mother's representative food」 as home dish are conscentrated on each count's native food. 「Kimch'i lyu」 is made by the 42% of Koreans, 「Doenjangchigae」 39%, 「Dakgangjong」 31%, and 「Saongsonmaeuntang」 19%. 「Misoshiru」 is made by the 83% of Japanese, 「Nishime」 76% and 「Nikujaga」 38%. Korea has more diverse kinds of food. People eat out 「when they have special home events」, 「when they would like to do」, and 「when they are going out」, It means that to eat out is one of the daily dinning styles. Therefore, for those who are engaged in eating house business it is necessary to form their righteous view of evaluation. Koreans learn more various items of table manner than Japan, which are the symbols of dietary culture. 「Carriage」 and 「Eating politely」 are common items. The extent to which 「people practice table manner」 and to which 「people think of it as being worth practicing」 are high in Japan than Korea.
In this study kinds of Lamb cooking and preservation and the ingredients of lamb cooking are surveyed through the references written from 1670 to 1943. The lamb cooking found in the literature totaled to more than 53. They can be classified into fourteen different groups according to their processing features which as follows: Salnum and Pyunyuk(boiled and slices of boiled), Kui(roasted), Chim(steamed), Whe(raw meat), Hounjae(smoking), Po(dried), Juk(gruel), Tang(soup), Sundae(stuffed small interstines), Jokpyun(jellied foot), Jungol(happiness pot), Sikhae(salt+meat+malt), Oumjang(salted meat), Kunjo(dried). Korean lamb cooking methods were primarily adopted from Mogolia in late Korea Dynasty but they had unique characteristics different from Mongolian ones. Furthermore, they were creatively applied to other meat cooking such as beef, pork and dog. About twenty one ingredients were mainly used in lamb cooking, including fresh meat, ribs, breast, heart, liver and the like. In particular, most popularly used ones were fresh meat and the heart in internal organs, which coincide with the main ingredients in beef cooking of today. The number of seasoning used in lamb cooking was twelve and especially salt, vineger, ginger and stone leek were most commonly used ones. Fourteen other addition were put into lamb cooking and the rice(Korean) wine was the most frequently used addition.
The purpose of this study is to investigate dietary pattern and health status related to food habit and degree of fatigue of evening college students. A sample of 476 evening college students in Chonbuk area were surveyed by questionaire examining their food habit, nutrient intakes, degree of fatigue and cornell Medical Index(CMI). In this study, the male and female students were classified into two groups, respectively, the first group is not having jobs and the second is having jobs. The results were summerized as follows: 1. Evaluation status of food habit score indicated that the subjects were included in Fair and Poor group generally. Food habit score of female was significantly higher than score of male. For female students, food habit score of job group was significantly higher than score of non-job group(p〈0.05). 2. Average intakes of calorie and protein were 1869.1 kcal and 68.3 g in male and 1612.4 kcal and 58.3 g in female. Other nutrients, such as vitamin B1(1.1 mg), vitamin B2(1.2 mg) and ascorbic acid(41.0 mg) in male, iron(13.5 mg), vitamin B2(1.1 mg) and ascorbic acid(46.5 mg) in female were lower than the korean RDA. 3. The means of degree of physical, mental, neurosensory and CMI scores were 3.1, 1.9, 1.5 and 4.7 in male and 4.0, 2.4, 2.4 and 7.1 in female, respectively. For female students, though significancy was found between job group and non-job group in physical, neurosensory fatigue and CMI score(p〈0.05, 0.01), but there were not significant differences in these score for male students. 4. There were significant positive correlation between three types of fatigue and CMI, whereas score of food habit was negative correlation for degree of physical, mental fatigue and CMI. The intakes of protein and vitamin B1 were significantly related to the mental, neurosensory fatigue and CMI.
본 연구는 염장과정 중 무의 예열처리 및 chitosan의 첨가가 무의 조직감에 미치는 효과를 알아보기 위하여 압착시험, 침투관통시험 및 절단시험에 의해 조직감의 변화를 측정하고 펙틴질의 변화를 측정하였다. 또한 관능검사를 실시하고 무의 조직감에 대한 관능적 평가와 기계적 측정치와의 관련성을 조사하였다. 그 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 비 열처리구에 있어서 chitosan 첨가군의 압착변형력은 대조군의 압착변형력에 비해 높은 것으로 나타났다. 열처리구에 있어서는 각 첨가군들의 압착변형력은 염장이 진행됨에 따라 감소하는 경향을 보였다. (p<0.05). 침투관통력은 대조군과 chitosan 첨가군에서 모두 감소하였으나 chitosan 첨가군이 보다 높은 침투관통력을 나타내었다(p<0.05). 절단력은 비 열처리구에서 염장이 시작되면서 증가하여 염장기간 내내 높은 절단력을 유지하였으며, 특히 chitosan 첨가군의 절단력은 염장과정 중 크게 증가하였다. 열처리구의 절단력은 대조군에서는 염장 초기에 급격히 증가한 추 염장4일째부터 크게 감소하였으나, chitosan 첨가군은 염장기간 내내 비슷한 수준을 유지하였다. 2. 대조군의 HWSP는 염장 2일째까지 감소하다가 증가하였으며 HXSP는 염장 2일째까지 증가하다가 이후 계속 감소하였으나 생무보다는 높은 함량을 나타내었다. HCISP는 염장과정 중 계속 감소하였다. 그러나 열처리에 의해서 HXSP는 감소하였다. 한편 chitosan 첨가군의 HWSP는 계속 감소하였으며 HXSP와 HCISP는 계속 증가하였는데 이때 HCISP의 증가가 더욱 뚜렷하였다. 또한 열처리구도 같은 경향을 나타내었다. (p<0.05). 3. 염장과정 중 비 열처리구의 단단한 정도와 아삭아삭한 정도는 감소하였으나 질긴 정도는 증가된 것으로 평가되었다. 그러나 열처리구의 질긴 정도는 감소하였으며 chitosan 첨가에 의하여 무의 단단한 정도는 증가하였다.(p<0.05). 한편, 압착변형력과 침투관통력은 무의 단단한 정도와 아삭아삭한 정도와 상관출계가 높았으며 절단력은 질긴 정도와 상관성이 다소 높게 나타났다(p<0.01). 이상의 결과로서 chitosan의 첨가는 비 열처리구와 열처리구에서 무의 조직감을 향상시킨 것으로 나타났다. 예열처리에 의한 효과는 담금 초기에 나타났으며 예열처리와 chitosan 첨가에 의한 병용 효과는 없는 것으로 나타났다.
Northern Kyungbuk around Andong is a mountainous and more or less dry region geomorphogically. Since this area located in the valley was less invaded by foreign countries, the folk traditions have been maintained for a long time. Also as the center of Confucian culture, this region respects ceremonies and so, the simple and noble ceremonial-foods such as Ddok, Hankwas, and Buchiki have been firmly preserved in many distinguished families. And besides Andong-Soju, many traditional liquors produced in different methods can be found in this region. As Gogi-Sikhae(a fermented beverage utilizing rice and fish) is still preserved in eastern coastal area, Sosikhae(Sikhae without fish) is maintained in this region and furthermore the unique Andong Sikhae developed by modifying Sosikhae is being consumed currently. Since it is difficult to get fish here geographically, the soybean foods were developed for protein intake, for example, various fermented soybean pastes, Andong-Songuksu(a hand-made noodle using raw soybean flour), and Siragiguk(a vegetable soup).
제조 조건을 달리한 4가지 chitin으로부터 제조된 chitosan의 물리화학적 특성인 점도와 탈아세틸화도를 측정하였으며, 4종류의 chitosan이 첨가된 깍두기를 제조하여 chitosan을 첨가하지 않은 깍두기를 대조군으로 하여 20℃에서 2일, 4일, 6일, 8일간 저장하면서 저장기간에 따른 pH, 적정산도, 깍두기 국물의 점도 및 미생물 수의 변화를 측정한 결과는 다음과 같다. Chitosan 용액의 정도는 313.1~98.8 cps로 나타났으며, chitin 추출시 염산의 농도가 낮은 것이 점도가 높았으며, 반응 온도가 낮을 때 더 높은 점도를 나타냈다. 그리고 chitosan 용액의 유동학적 특성은 의가소성 유체(pseudoplastic fluid)의 특성을 나타내었다. IR 분석 결과 chitosan의 탈아세틸화도는 92~96%로 높게 나타나, 점도와는 달리 chitosan의 원료가 되는 chitin의 제조조건에 의해서는 크게 영향받지 않았다. 모든 시료군에서 저장기간이 길어짐에 따라 pH는 감소하고 적정산도는 증가하는 경향을 나타냈으며, 대조군에 비해 chitosan 첨가군이 pH는 높고 적정산도는 낮은 값을 계속 유지하였다. 깍두기 국물의 점도는 저장기간이 길어짐에 따라 감소하는 경향을 나타냈고, 저장 8일째에는 대조군이 chitosan 첨가군에 비해 점도가 높게 나타났다. 총균수는 저장기간 전반에 걸쳐 chitosan 첨가군의 경우가 대조군에 비해 약간 많았고, Leuconostoc 속 미생물 수는 약간 적은 경향을 나타냈다. 또한 김치의 부패균으로 알려진 Lac. plantarum의 수에 있어서는 제조시 HCl의 농도가 낮고, 반응 온도가 높은 chitosan C를 첨가한 군이 대조군이나 다른 chitosan 첨가군에 비해 저장시 증가 속도가 약간 느렸다.
This study was conducted to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of traditional Korean whole cabbage Kimchi with salted shrimp. Sensory, physical and chemical characteristics of Kimchi with various salted shrimp level(1.8, 3.6%), fermentation time(12, 24, 36 hrs) and storage period(1, 4, 7 days) were measured. As the fermentation time and storage day were extended, pH of Kimchis decreased but titratable acidity of Kimchis increased. The more salted shrimp in Kimchi resulted in the higher titratable acidity. The longer fermentation time and the longer storage resulted in the more citric, malic and succinic acid, and the less lactic and acetic acid in Kimchi. The optimum conditions for the preparation of Korean whole cabbage Kimchi were 3.6% salted shrimp level, 12 hours fermentation time and 84 hours(3.5 days) storage period.
This study was conducted to present a method that determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of chinese whole cabbage kimchi. After Sensory and chemical characteristics of kimchi with various salt concentration in brine, brining time and storage period at equal saltiness were measured, the optimum conditions for the preparation of chinese whole cabbage kimchi were determined with the use of the response surface methodology. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The more salt concentration in brine, the longer brining time and storage period, resulted in the lower pH and the higher titratable acidity of kimchis. As the salt concentration in brine and brining time increased, kimchi reaches at optimum titratable acidity of it within a shorter time. 2. As the salt concentration in brine and brining time increased, content of succinic acid decreased but that of lactic, acetic, and propionic acid increased. Amount of citric, malic and succinic acid decreased but that of lactic, acetic acid increased, with storage day. 3. Sensory data showed that firmness and green cabbage flavor of kimchi decreased while toughness, carbonic mouthfeel, sourness and staled flavor increased with increased salt concentration in brine, brining time and storage day. As the storage period increased, crispness of kimchi decreased. 4. The optimum conditions for the preparation of chinese whole cabbage kimchi were as follows: Optimum salt concentration in brine, brining time, and storage period were 19.5%, 3 hours and 45 minutes, and 12 hours.
Hospitalized patients' perceptions of the quality of hospital food and their importance were surveyed through questionnaires by 820(men 435, women 385) hospitalized patients in Seoul. The results are as follows: Men rated the size of food portion as being smaller, compared with women. The mean rating for nutrition of food was 3.24, freshness 3.15, taste 2.88, temperature 2.82; Among the food characteristics, nutrition was considered important by largest percentage(75.5%) of respondents, the taste ranked second(74.4%), and freshness was 62.2%; Appetite, atmosphere of ward were positively correlated(p<0.001) with rating of the taste, nutrition, and freshness, but length of hospitalization was negatively correlated (p<0.001) with them; Multiple regression analysis showed that appetite made the greatest contribution and length of hospitalization made the second greatest contribution. The third was atmosphere of ward, and the forth mood condition.